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New Series Vol. I (Vol. XX) 


Printed by Thb Mbndip Press, Limited. 

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THV. •■ , ■.•li': 

pub:.;: • ".•.••7 
4241 84 A 

AS BR, L...\^'X AND 

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j 4, 104,264 

Address to King Edward VII 3 

Alfred's Soliloquy (poem) 199 

At the Dawn (Downside 1814—1829) 119 

Barnewall, Brother Anselm : 'Mn Memoriam" 69 

Brownlow, Bishop : << In Memoriam" 197 

Canterbury, A day with the Abbot of St. Augustine's, in the 

XVI Century 4, 97 

Chapels Royal under the Stuarts, Catholic 158, 232 

Chapters in the History of the English Benedictine Missions 104 

Church Music, Legislation on 47 

Correspondence 313 

Early Worm, The 24 

Easter-Day of 1871 m Paris, The 278 

English Benedictine Missions, Chapters 

in the History of the 

English Benedictine Cardinals 60 

His Majesty 215 

Legend of Walsingham, A 257 

Legislation on Church Music 47 

Notices of Books 74, 173, 310 

Obituary 95,196,342 

Odds and Ends 79, 179,322 

\ 1. '* In Memoriam : '* Queen Victoria 1 

^'^/2. Alfred's SoUloquy 199 

Queen Victoria: ''In Memoriam" (Poem) 1 

Result of the SchDol Year 320 

Retrospect 306 

Roberts, The Venerable Martyr, Dom John, Two Letters of... 203 

Songs and their Singers 250 

St. Anselm, Rome, The College of 31 

St. Augustine's, Canterbury, in the XVI Century, A Day with 

the Abbot of. 4,97 

Stonyhurst College 166 

Stuarts, Catholic Chapels Royal under the 158, 232 

Walsingham, A Legend of 257 

West Country Jaunt, A, in the XVIIth Century 10, 146 

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Br. Anselm Bamewall 
Clare Inwood 
Francis Moore 
Ann Constantia Dolao 
F. F. Kilkelly 
Father Norbert Ward 
Mary Clara Measures 
Charles le Boulang^er 
Rev. Dom Bernard Bulbeck 


Arthur Stuckey Lean 
Pauline von HQgel 
Colonel O'Sullivan 

Agnes Mary Margaret Freame \ 
Sir John Talbot Power, Bart. \ 
Bernard Vaughan j 

. 95 




facing />ag^ 

Beccles Minster, West Front 325 

Do. theNave 326 

Brother Anselm Bamewall 69 

College of St. Anselm, Rome ('S blocks from line drawings) ... 31 

Downside, \%2Z ( from an old lithograph ) 119 

Hyde House, Winchester, West front of 113 

Punsholt, West Meon, Hants 103 

Portrait Group — The Downside Choir 197 

Savoy Chapel, The 238 

Somerset Palace, 1650 158 

Tombstones of old Somerset House 164 

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Downside Review. 

April 1901. 

3n nDemoriam : 
Aueen tDictoria* 

No more! O never more 

Shall men behold her face, 

Await her high behest ; 

Whose heart and brain and hand 

Grew weary of command, 

Of lordly toil and place 

Lonest, tho ' lordliest ; 

Wherefore God gave her rest 

From, these for evermore ! 
What wisdom ripe and old experience 

In State affairs^ 
Sure insight and shrewd common^sense 
And lordly will yet loyal love of England's 
laws, were hers ! 

What memories 

Of high^ historic pageantries 
Lie darkened in the mists that dim her 
unawakening eyes ! 

Duty and sympathy — these were 

The guides she chose to pilot her 
In all things ; till men came to own 
A love and reverence for the throne^ 
Since the last Tudor' s days, unknown ; 
And new ideas took form^ and grew 

By slow degrees, of what is due 




From King to people^ which had their rise 
In her austere interpreting of queenly dignities. 
Yet was the queen in her less dear — 
Tho* Alfred hail her as his peer — 
Than the true woman and wife who gave 

example from a throne^ 
Till highest and lowliest shaped their livesy 

unwitting^ by her own ; 
Whose heart throbbed with the nation 's ; in 
its joys 

Surer to sympathize 

Was none ; 
None with it in its woe more sisterly and one. 
Tho* to our mortal seeing there is night 
Around her and about her ^ yet the light 
And lustre of her royal life shine on and 
shall endure, 

A beacon to the centuries 

Of what is good and pure 
In womanhood^ in queenhood great and wise. 

Veaj tho' herself be gone, 

Her lustre still shines on ; 

As^ so men say^ the night 

With many a ray is bright^ 
Shot forth from stars since perished long ago. 
Then cea^e we to complain. 
Vain labour, and misspent^ 
For they who read the heavens aright 

See in the eternal firmament 

The radiance of her reign 
Gild the on-coming ages with its gloWy 
Lave their outskirts and purlieus in its light. 




Zo tbe ltind'0 flDoet £j:cellent flDajeati?. 

May it please Your Majesty, 

The Abbot-President, the Abbots and the 
Delegates of the English Benedictine Congregation in 
General Chapter assembled,, on their own behalf and 
as representing the four English Colleges of Downside, 
Ampleforth, Douai and Belmont, beg to offer sincere 
condolence on the death of Her Majesty their late 
beloved Queen. They further request Your Majesty 
to accept their assurance of the unfailing loyalty and 
devotion of the English Benedictines, and of their 
prayers for Your Majesty and for Her Majesty the 
Queen, and for the prolongation and prosperity of 
your reign. 

[These words of the Fathers of the Greneral Chapter 
assembled at Downside in February 1901 we here 
make choice of in order to express, on the part 
of all Gregorians, their sincere and warm loyalty 
to His Majesty Edward VII.] 

God Save the King. 

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^H^XACTLY a year ago the Downside Review printed 
>*W the beginning of an account of the last Abbot 
and last Prior of St. Augustine's, Canterbury, on 
the eve of the dissolution of their monastery. Cir- 
cumstances have for many months prevented the 
continuation of the story which, as I explained, was 
to be found in a volume printed by the antiquary 
Twyne, and recording his personal recollections of 
the monks of this abbey founded by King Ethelbert 
at the very dawn of Christianity in Britain. After 
the delay of twelve months it is necessary for me 
to recall to the reader the names of the chief actors 
in the story. The scene is laid at the Abbot's 
country house, and his name is John Yokes, or, as, 
until lately he was usually known, John Essex. 
The others are — John Digon, at that time a youth- 
ful monk of Canterbury, who afterwards became 
Prior — the last Prior — of his monastery ; Doctor 
Nicholas Wotton, who subsequently became first 
secular Dean of Christ Church, Canterbury ; and as 
a spectator, John Twyne, the narrator of the 

The account opens with the arrival at the Abbot's 
country home of Digon and Wotton from across 
the sea, where they had been attending the lectures 
of the celebrated Ludovico Vives at Louvain. Abbot 
Yokes received them with manifest pleasure, and 
asked the two youths what had been the nature of 



A Day with the Abbot of St. Augustine's. 5 

their crossing the ** silver streak." Wotton (who, it 
would almost seem, had experienced the unpleasant 
effects of the crossing) replied that in his opinion 
the ancient inhabitants of the land must have been 
somewhat happier in the days when, **as you Father 
Abbot have often told us," our island was joined to 
the continent ** than now when, to those passing to 
and fro, the wind and sea are apt to show them- 
selves un propitious." 

**What you say, my dear Wotton," replied the 
Abbot, ** is indeed true, but the fact (that our island 
was ever part of the mainland) requires more proof 
than the usual assertion." He then goes on to 
criticise at some length the account given by GeofFry 
of Monmouth, whom he calls **our English Homer 
and Father of lies." Still, on the request of the 
three youths who were his guests that he ** would 
tell them something of what he had noted on this 
point in all his long and diligent researches among 
the writers of history," he, saying that he has devoted 
much time to these studies ^^even to his old age," 
declares that he is himself convinced that England 
has not always been an island. 

This leads up to a long discussion, in which 
passages are freely cited on the question from the 
ancient writers, and the monks, John Digon and 
Doctor Wotton, also take their part in the controversy, 
and are represented by Twyne as fully able to deal 
with the classical authors and to cap the abbot's 
learned quotations by others of equal value. At 
length, when Digon had quoted some verses of a 
poem by Valerius Flaccus, Abbot Yokes could scarce- 
ly contain his admiration of them, and turning to 
Wotton said *^ But what do you think? Do not 
these lines please you as much as they do me?" 

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6 A Day with the Abbot of St, Augustine^s. 

** First of all/* replied Wotton/* without impertinence 
I may perhaps express my delight that our friend 
Dtgon has not turned his attention only to sacred 
studies, which people chiefly look for in men of his 
cloth. He is also proficient in profane literature, as 
is quite evident to me and also to our friend Twyne, 
as well as to you, Reverend Father Abbot." 

**And upon this," says Twyne, ** Digon through 
modesty trying to waive off this high commendation 
of his friend Wotton, the abbot intervened say- 
ing, *^ whilst I fully recognise and praise the usual 
diligence of my brother Digon, let us, by your leave, 
pass again to our subject." Then, when Wotton 
had quoted many authors who had noted the en- 
croaching of the sea upon the land, Abbot Yokes 
smilingly said, *^ It is useful to remember also that 
of the poet, non omnia possumus omnes. For Pliny 
noted many changes, Seneca before him not a few ; 
Strabo also some, and Ovid some. But before all 
others, Plato and his disciple, Aristotle, have done 
this, though there is no distinct mention of our land 
at all." Later on, the Abbot spoke in high praise 
of the work of ** that prince of interpreters and 
grammarians, Honoratus Servus," and, as he paused, 
Digon interjected, * I have his book and look on it, 
as I ought to do, as well^ nigh sacro-sanct.* To 
which, with a smile, the Abbot replied ; ' Then read 
it and consider his words about Britain having been 
divided from the continent of Europe.' 

^^ Both this passage and that of the poet Claudian, 
which you Father Abbot have quoted and explained 
to us," said Wotton, **are always in the hands of 
the many, and I know not who has not read them ; 
but I confess that never before this have I seen 
their full force, and I fancy I may say the same for 

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A Day with the Abbot of St. August/he's. 7 

Digfon." Then, passing on to speak of changes in 
the configuration of the earth which were known to 
history, Wotton names ** this our Kent — not to look 
for examples elsewhere. Thanet/' he reminds them, 
** was once an island, though men can now get to 
it dry-shod and without a boat/' whilst, on the 
other hand, territory which was once the property 
of Earl Godwin, is now but shifting sands covered 
by the sea ; and since," he continues, ** I have op- 
portunely named Kent, our beloved county and the 
most delightful spot in all England (as I hope it 
will not be too dreadful an admission to make, even 
for our friend Twyne here, though he was born in 
Hampshire), tell us something about this. Father 
Abbot, for you do not know how anxious we are to 
listen to you." 

•* Then,' said he, *I will with pleasure tell you 
what I know ; for what you ask about is not very 
much further back than my memory carries me. 
For even in my time Thanet, from an island, has 
been made a peninsula or Chersonesus. I know 
eight trustworthy men still living, who say that they 
have seen, not merely small skiffs, but big ships 
laden with merchandise frequently pass and repass 
between the island and our continent." On this and 
much more to the same effect, John Digon quoted 
some lines of Virgil, which, he declared, had often 
come into mind as he looked out and saw the waves 
breaking on the Godwin sands. 

This led the conversation to the old inhabitants 
of England, and Abbot Yokes thought that the best 
account of the Phoenicians was to be found in a 
note, written on the 9th chapter of the eighth book 
of St. Augustine's De CivttcUe Dei by Ludovico Vives. 
You, he says, will appreciate this the more because he 

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8 A Day with thb Abbot of St. augustwsTs, 

is to you both **not merely a learned and, above all, an 
impartial writer, but, of all your teachers, he is the 
one with whom you have been on most familiar 
terms, and certainly the one you have loved best. 
Here is the book," he adds, **and as the passage 
is long, I will read it to you." Then follows the 
note in question, and on the conclusion of the read- 
ing, Wotton declares that not only does he remember 
it perfectly well, but **that he himself was with 
Vives when he was writing it, and, as far as his 
powers allowed, helped his master in looking up his 
authorities." *• This,' replied the Abbot, *of course 
we know. He bears witness himself to the help he 
received from you, Wotton, and makes very honour- 
able mention of it in his notes." 

The young monk Digon, in passing to speak of 
the origin of the name Britain, said, ** there is, 
Reverend Father, in our library (at Saint Augustines 
Abbey) a very old manuscript, without any name of 
the author, in which I remember to have read a full 
account of the supposed origin ; no doubt you. Father, 
have often read it." Before the Abbot could reply, 
however, Wotton exclaimed ** my dear Digon, it is 
not much use quoting a book the author of which 
does not appear, and the value of which cannot be 
known." The Abbot did not altogether approve of 
such grounds for rejecting this ancient manuscript 
authority, but he agreed that, in this particular in- 
stance, the book, which he knew well, had little 

So the conversation went on ; sometimes the 
Abbot taking the lead, sometimes Wotton or the 
young monk Digon. Authorities, classical and other, 
are quoted in a way which shows a complete mastery 
of the particular subject and a wide general reading, 

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A Day with thb Abbot of St. Augustine's. 9 

which, would make us think that in *^ those dark 
days of learning/' such a morning meeting at the 
Abbot's country house was a pure fiction, were we 
not assured by the writer Twyne that he had often 
heard conversations of a similar kind between these 
same men. In the midst of the conversation the 
Abbot became conscious that while they were talk- 
ing the time had slipped away so fast, that it was 
the hour for the midday meal. •* I see,** he says 
suddenly, **that in our talking we have forgotten 
ourselves, and our servant reminds us that it is the 
time appointed to refresh our bodies. If there is 
still any point on which you wish to satisfy your- 
selves, do this after food." 

**And when he had said this," writes Twyne, 
'* the reverend old man rose from his seat and 
lovingly invited us to partake of his meal. We 
followed him into the dining chamber.'* 

(to be cantinueiL) 

F. A. Gasquet. 

A note on the celebrated Ludovico Vives will help the reader to appre- 
ciate the distinction achieved by Nicholas Wotton in being: " most familiar 
with him." Dr. Harald Hoifding^ in his History of Modem Philosophy (Vol. I, 
Chapter V) gives a very hig^h appreciation of Vives. Bom at Valencia in 
1492, he died at Bruges in 1540 ; he had been tutor to Henry VHIth's 
daugfhter, till the royal divorce estranged him from his master. Vives was 
an earnest Catholic, but by no means narrow or intolerant. He had original 
and excellent ideas on education, which were afterwards adopted by the 
Jesuits, whose founder was said to have been a personal friend of Vives. 
His chief distinction lies in the domain of psychology. He started the modem 
empirical school of that science ; leaving aside speculative questions as to 
the nature of the soul for a study of its phenomena. Descartes owes much to 
him. For a more detailed account of his theories v. op. cit. pp. 36-7. 

A long and most interesting sketch of Wotton's career may be found in the 
National Dictionary of Biography. He seems to have been a typical result 
of Renaissance culture ; a keen mind, an amiable nature, a somewhat too 
pliant disposition ; in other words, an ideal diplomat.— EDITOR. 

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HMONGST the thousands of manuscripts which lie 
almost unknown in that wonderful treasury, 
the British Museum, is one which relates the holiday 
jaunt of three friends who hail from Norwich, and 
who in the course of their peregrinations covered 
much of the ground with which every Gregorian, 
old or otherwise, is familiar. A comparison between 
then and now may perhaps afFord some indication 
of the changes which have come over our country 
and its inhabitants during the lapse of two centuries 
and a half. It is a subject of regret that we cannot 
be introduced to these old-world travellers, but the 
narrator shrouds himself and his compagnons de 
voyage in anonymity : the only indication of their 
personality being the statement that they were res- 
pectively a Captain, a Lieutenant, and an Ancient 
of the Military Company of Norwich. A further 
detail is vouchsafed, in the information that their 
sight seeing was ** observed in a seven weeks' jour- 
ney begun at the City of Norwich, and from thence 
into the North, on Monday August ii, 1634, and 
ending at the same place.** The actual recorder of 
this holiday excursion took a supplementary tour on 
his own account the succeeding year, and after des- 
cribing all he had seen, summed up as follows : — 
**And now to give you a cast-up account of this my 
said travelling journey; take it in brief thus : — In seven 
weeks* time I marched through but seven shires or 
counties (besides those we touched upon last sum- 
mer), travelled 700 odd miles, viewed seven cities 

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and in them seven cathedrals, seven ports, seven 
islands, with the two ancient tattered barren Towns, 
seven Earls' Habitations, seven times seven Corpora- 
tions, and just so many ancient Castles, strong forts 
and defensible bulwarks ; which proved (as I really 
found it) a journey of jubilees." 

Our excursionist was not far wrong in thus des- 
cribing his tour as a ** journey of jubilees," for, to 
judge from the style in which he writes, everything 
that came in his way pleased and delighted him. 
A certain quaintness pervades the narrative, due to 
the fact that the writer, in order to keep up the 
military character of himself and his fellow travellers, 
breaks out occasionally into military terms. His 
vocabulary, as regards descriptive adjectives, strikes 
the reader as strictly limited ; but this very defect 
seems to lend a certain piquancy to this charming 
old-world picture ; and under these circumstances 
reiteration may be easily condoned. 

That the writer was a lover of his country and 
an ardent admirer of its institutions and kingly 
government, the following passage will show: — **To 
know all well, who can want that commendable 
ambition to know their own country aright ? And 
such as do . . . are able a little to delineate and 
set forth the sweet and excellent situation of this 
our native flourishing kingdom, the Sea's High 
Admiral ; with her gentle affable courteous and civil 
Inhabitants ; her deep-trenched naturally fortified en- 
circled wall against all hostile invasions ; . . • besides 
the glory of our Island — our shipping : especially 
that part which lords it on the Main, as Sovereign 
Lady thereof, the well-equipped Fleet, and Navy 
Royal, surely engirting her . . . her sweet de- 
lightful well-compacted peaceable civil and gallant 




cities and pleasant towns ; her stately and magnifi- 
cent structures, rich and beautiful edifices, both in 
City and Country ; her lofty, fair and goodly sancti- 
fied Churches ; her delightful streams and most 
excellent rivers that waters, quarters, and glides 
through her bowels." 

Thus much, as regards nature and art. But he 
had also evidently prayed for that ^'guid conceit o* 
oorsel's *' which the Scotchman desiderated ; and his 
prayer was as evidently granted, for he then proceeds 
to praise the *'rare unparalleled government** they 
enjoyed under •* so good, so just, so wise, so prudent, 
so virtuous, and so piously religious a Prince " as 
Charles I of martyred memory. And he sums up 
all by exclaiming that ** we live, breathe, and have 
our being in a second Paradise, a delightful Garden 
and a plentifully furnished magazine and storehouse 
of all terrestrial felicity and sublunary happiness." 

After this sample of dithyrambics, we may feel 
ourselves sufficiently in touch with the style of our 
cicerone, and are now free to accompany the seven- 
teenth century sightseers on their wanderings. As 
the original account fills 138 closely-written quarto 
pages, and would, if printed in its entirety, make 
nearer two than one of the volumes of the Downside 
Review, it will suffice if here and now, only those 
passages be selected which describe what was seen 
and observed in our West Country. 

Our martial travellers first worked their way north- 
wards from Norwich, passing through Peterborough 
to York, Durham, Carlisle, Chester and Lichfield, 
and so to Leicester and Coventry ; whence they 
struck westwards to Worcester, then to Hereford, 
where the party put up **at a proper and portly 
alderman's house, an host both of quality and 

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A XVIITH Century West Country Javnt. 13 

reckoning : for the former, his breeding showed it ; for 
the latter, our purses had reason to remember it." 
Their route then lay through Gloucestershire to 
Bristol, **and so we early ended our fifth week's 
travel with the finit of that shire (Glo'ster) at the 
noble city of Bristow, and at Gilliard's Inn there 
we took our fifth week's Sabbath day's rest, with 
Hobson, a grave proper honest and discreet host, 
lately a bounteous gentle free and liberal Mayor of 
that sweet and rich City ; indeed, a man more fit 
for such a place than such a house : there were we 
well and happily billetted and no way molested, but 
by one of his hungry domestic servants who no 
sooner saw us every meal, but scared us into an 
eating fever. This City stands sweetly in a pleasant 
cockpit valley, yet with an ascent to the heart 
thereof, where stands a fair Cross in the midst 
between both bridges, lately and richly beautified, 
and not much inferior to that of Coventry. To it 
comes four large and fair streets from the four chief 
quarters of the City, viz. : — High Street, which is 
the fairest, from the great bridge in Somersetshire ; 
Broad Street, from the Quay Bridge in Gloucester- 
shire ; Wind Street, from the Castle ; and Corn 
Street, from the Marsh." 

**The Marish in BrIestow. — This parcel of ground, 
the Marsh, is a very pleasant and delightful place, and 
with as much art added thereto as can conveniently 
be, both for walks, a bowling ground, and other 
recreations for the rich merchants and gentle citizens, 
adorned with many fair trees ; wherein constantly 
the City Captains drill and muster and exercise the 
City forces ; near three parts thereof is surrounded 
by the river, which divides itself from the main 
stream, at the very point of the marsh ; which 

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causeth a sweet and pleasant echo of their martial 
music, Drums, fifes, and volleys of shot ; the one 
arm whereof (Frome, which ebbs 40 foot) runneth 
down betwixt that and the Minster next Glo'stershire, 
which is the principal quay and wharf, where all 
their fair and rich shipping lie even to that bridge. 
The other stream (Avon) runs through the City 
next Somersetshire, down to Bath ; over which is 
built a fair stone arched bridge, with handsome neat 
houses, and ships on either side thereof like a street, 
which may for its length, compare with London. 
The City is very sweet and clean in respect of the 
quotidian tides that wash and cleanse the lower 
parts, and the vaults and sewers that are under all, 
or most of the channels of her upper parts. In her 
we found (besides that fair and strong fabric of the 
Cathedral, which was newly finished) fifteen churches, 
which all are fairly beautified, richly adorned, and 
sweetly kept, and in the major part of them, are 
neat, rich and melodious Organs, that are constantly 
played on. Their pulpits are most curious ; all 
which the Citizens have spared no cost, nor forward- 
ness to beautify and adorn (a pious and religious 
example for all our kingdom), for they daily strive 
in every parish who shall exceed the other in their 
generous and religious bounty, most to deck and 
enrich those sanctified places and heavenly mansions 
here on earth, to God's glory, and good example of 

•'Although this City cannot challange Antiquity as 
others may do, yet for her sweet situation, rich mer- 
chandizing, fair buildings, and gentle provident govern- 
ment, she comes not far short of any in this kingdom ; 
for her situation is in a pleasant wholesome sweet and 
rich valley, having two arms from the main haven 




gliding through her bowels, which cleanse and wash 
her every 12 hours from all noisome filth and scent : 
for her merchants, they are rich and numerous, using 
traffic to most parts of Christendom ; they have a 
commodious Custom House, and a kind of Exchange, 
where they constantly meet every day ; they have 
much enriched themselves and their City of late by 
Letters of Mart [ ? Marque] : for her buildings, 
especially the Churches, they are most strong and 
sumptuous ; and for her government, it is regulated 
every way answerable to the rest, by a prudent grave 
and wise Mayor, with his commanding Sword of 
Justice, a Cap of Maintenance, 8 Maces, 12 Aldermen, 
2 Sheriffs, and an able tried and learned Recorder (Mr. 
Glanvile), who to order and settle the affairs of the 
City, meet constantly at a fair spacious Council 
Chamber, close by the Exchange, and at a great fair 
Hall, where they keep their Quarterly Sessions and 
annual Feasts. And to make her still more suitable 
to the Metropolis of our Nation, London, she hath 
for every Company a several Hall. 

**To grace and add to her beauty, she maintains 3 
Foot Companies, besides a voluntary Company of 
gentle proper martial disciplined men, who have their 
arms lodged in a very handsome Artillery House, 
newly built up in the Castle Yard, where once in a 
year, they invite and entertain both Earls and Lords 
and a great many Knights and Gentlemen of rank 
and quality at their Military Feast ; and this Yard 
affords them a spacious and large place to drill and 
exercise in. 

** The Castle is of a great extent and hath 
formerly been a most fair and strong hold, but now 
it is almost quite demolished. 

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^^ Bristol Cathedral. Not far from the Quay 
and the Marish, next Glo'stershire, in a neat and 
pleasant ascent, is seated the Cathedral Church 
which is unfinished ; and so much as it is, was 
begun and intended only for the Choir and High 
Altar, and may (as much as is of it) compare for 
strength and beauty with any other : near it is a 
fair and large College Yard, beautified with many 
shady trees and most delightful walks ; about which 
stands many stately buildings (besides the Bishop's 
Palace, the Dean's, the Chancellor's, and the Pre- 
bends' houses) wherein many gentlemen and gentle- 
women of note and rank do live. In her are rich 
Organs, lately beautified, and indifferent good **quiris- 
ters." \In the Margin.] (Bishop Cooke ; Dr. 
Chetwin, Dean ; Dr. Greene, Subdean ; and 5 
Prebends more ; Dr. Jones, Chancellor ; 10 Singing 
men ; whereof 4 in Orders, and 6 boys.) 

^^ Many fair Monuments, among the rest, are 
these : — On the South side of the Church, in 
Newton's Chapel, is the monument of Sir Henry 
Newton in alablaster in armour, with his Lady 
and two sons and four daughters. This Knight 
took the King of Morocco and brought him captive 
into England, who kneeleth in his Mauritanian Royal 
habit with his Crown off his head, holding the 
pome of his sword, and offering it up as a trophy 
to his Conqueror. 

**On the other side of the Church is Berkeley's 
Chapel, where the L. Berkeley and his Lady lieth 
plain under freestone. 

^^ On the south side of the Choir is another plain 
monument of freestone of the L. Berkeley's in his 
Coat of mail. Armour and Target. 

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A XVIITH Century west Country Jaunt. 17 

**Also the several monuments of Sir Charles 
Vaughan and Sir Robert Young, in armour with 
their helmets and gauntlets. 

^Mn the Chancel is the monument of a naked 
Bishop in alabaster ; and 3 Abbots that were good 
benefactors to the Church. And for the rest we 
refer you to our Table Books. 

*'In the **Cloysture" is a fair Conduit of freestone 
and leads, with many spouts, which continually runs, 
and waters the College with that sweet rock water. 

** Ratcliffe Chapel [j.^., St. Mary's Redcliffe]. 
Opposite to this Cathedral, on the other side of the 
rivers Marish and City, in Somersetshire side, on 
the like ascent, standeth another strong and curious 
building, Ratcliffe Chapel ; the which, indeed, more 
properly might be called the Cathedral : for it is a 
fair and a large piece of Architecture with an arti- 
ficial embowed arched roof, all built of freestone, at 
the only charge and great cost of a rich Citizen 
(Mr. Cannings) who had been 5 times Mayor of 
this City ; after that, to prevent the King's Injunc- 
tion, he took upon him the Order of Priesthood, for 
which he was enforced to pay a great sum of money 
for to purchase his peace. He died Dean of 
Westbury, and built there a College for Canons : 
He maintained many ships at sea, and was an 
exceeding rich merchant, as the story graven on his 
monument, with his Alderman's and Sacerdotal 
habits, in that high fair structure sets forth at large. 

** Another monument there is in this Chapel of 
one Captain Langton, whose corpse were enwrapped 
in one of those 5 colours he took at Calis, and 
here interred. 

**When we had taken a full and contentive view 
of this sweet City, and of her compass, fenced in 



18 A XVllTH Century West Country Jaunt, 

with a strong wall and gates, we then desired to 
know what was near unto her remarkable within a 
mile and a half of her. By the Havem's Channel 
we found a strange hot well (St. Vincent's Well, 
exceeding hot), which came gushing and pouring 
out of a mighty stony rock into the stream, so 
nigh thereto that every tide it overflows it. To it 
we descended by a rocky and steep winding and 
craggy way, near 200 slippery steps, which place, 
when the tide is gone, never wants good store of 
Company, to wash in this well and drink of that 
warm medicinable water ; and for its rarity, divers 
carry some of it away with them. 

** Right over against this Well, on the other side 
of the river, and out of as high a rock as the 
other, there falls at that height into the same stream, 
another spring as cold, which is a strange contrariety 
in so small a distance ; for one single ship in that 
narrow passage, at a full and high water, may 
safely sail into the harbour, which is between those 
two high and rocky, perilous hills, with a skillful 
and expert Pilot. 

**When we had felt and tasted the rare excellence 
of these waters, we mounted up again, and for the 
space of an hour or two, laid aside our commanding 
postures, and turned Pioneers, to dig and delve for 
some glittering bastard diamond stones, which that 
hill (St. Vincent's Rock) plentifully afforded. 

**At our return into the City again, in the mid 
way, we tasted of a clear spring water, which is 
kept sweet and clean, to refresh travellers. 

**And now it was time for us to speed away for 
another City, and so with a cup of Bristow milk, we 
parted with our honest and grave host, and bade this 
sweet City adieu, yet with such happiness, as half our 




way, over huge stones and dangerous lead mines, 
we did troop away with a troop of these gentle 
Artillery Citizens, for whose good company and 
friendly conduct in those dangers, we had just cause 
to thank the Captain and his bride/' 

Thence these gentlemen of Norwich travelled 
through the mine districts of Somersetshire ; but 
there is nothing of such a nature in what fell under 
their notice as is worth here recording ; so we may 
leave them to pursue their way towards Wells 
unaccompanied, and overtake them as they near 
that Cathedral town. They were evidently not 
favourably impressed with the appearance of the 
miners nor with the humidity, so characteristic of 
Somersetshire, and, as the opening of the next 
passage indicates, were glad to reach the next 
stopping place on their journey. 

*'At last (after we had satisfied our sight with 
the sallying postures of the besmutted sow-blowers 
and smelters in those mines), though wet yet well, 
we came to Wells, which is another cockpit City. 
For near about a mile before we came at her, we 
plainly did discover her whole situation, all along in 
a plain and deep valley, about a mile long, and near 
half as broad. 

"This city though ancient is poor, and is much 
curbed by the Bishop and Churchmen, for in that 
famous fountain building of King Ina's his founding, 
doth the entire glory of the town exist ; and now I 
am entered into this place, the Cathedral, give me 
leave to tell you, that her entrance is fair and 
graceful, through a spacious green yard. Upon her 
large and lofty frontispiece are two stately fair 
towers, about which are ten arches and two in the 
midst of the entrance ; on every arch are three sets, 




one above another, of four statues apiece, in height 
and proportion of a reasonable man, curiously carved 
and artificially cut in freestone, of the Patriarchs, 
Prophets, Apostles, Fathers, and other blessed Saints 
of the Church from the Creation, in their admired 
postures and unparalleled antique workmanship, a 
singular goodly piece. \In the Margin.\ (Wells 
Cathedral — Bishop Pierce ; Dr. Warburton, Dean ; 
Dr. Abbots, Chantor ; Dr. Ducke, Chancellor ; 5 
Prebends ; 8 Canons ; 14 Singing men, whereof 6 
in Orders: 6 boys.) 

^^ After we had passed with admiration this 
admired entrance, the neat and stately fabric within 
was answerable to her outward view ; beautified and 
adorned with ancient, fair and curious monuments, 
rich Organs, a strange and unusual Clock and Dial ; 
a neat Chapter House, a stately long Vicars' 
College, large Cloister, Library, and a free School ; 
with the Bishop's, Dean's, Chancellor's and other 
stately Church buildings adjoining and belonging to 
her, as being within herself a little sweet City. 

*' Excuse me, I pray, for I cannot pass her over 
so in general, but must insist somewhat particularly 
upon her, and first for her monuments. On the 
north side of the Choir is 5 old Bishops in freestone. 

** In the midst of the Lady Chapel is Bishop 
Button his tomb, of blue marble, supposed to be 
the founder thereof. Also a marble tomb of an 
ancient Bishop, by that Chapel. 

** In the Lady Catherine's Chapel, Bishop Drokens- 
ford's tomb and effigies curiously cut in freestone. 
Anno 1329. 

** Bishop Beckington's fair monument in alabaster, 
with his anatomie under. Anno 1460. 

*' Bishop Button and 3 old Bishops in freestone. 

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A XVIITH Century west Country Jaunt. 21 

** Over against them on the right hand side, lieth 
Bishop Harewell in alabaster, with two hares at his 
feet. And right over against him is Dean Hussey. 

'* In the midst of the Choir is the monument of 
Bishop Josceline in marble, and Dean Meredith who 
gave the rich organs there, and died before they 
were finished. 

"On the one side of the High Altar is Bishop 
Bartley ; and on the other side Bishop Hill in 

** But though placed last here, yet not the least 
Benefactor to this sacred place, is the monument of 
that famous Bishop Ralph of Shrewsbury, in 
alabaster, 1363; who was the founder and builder 
of that rare College for the Vicars, their neat 
Chapel, fair Hall, Buttery, and other Offices. These 
curious compacted buildings of 160 paces in length 
are contrived and handsomely ordered into two 
large uniform files, every entrance guarded with a 
pleasant little Court and gate, most delightful to the 
spectator. At the one end of this long straight 
College they perform their devotions ; at the other 
end they receive their sustenance, so as they that 
are nearest to the Chapel for their Souls' food are 
furthest to the Hall for their Bodies' food : for 
both which this pious and zealous Bishop provided. 

** In the south aisle near the Font, lieth sleeping 
an old Bishop, with this inscription : — Hie jacet 
Gulielmus de Marchia hujus quondam Ecclesiae 
Episcopus, et Angliae sub Edwardo F Rege, 
Thesaur. Obiit Anno 1302. 

** Next we took a view of the neat Chapter 
House of eight squares, and many fair windows 
curiously painted with the history of the Bible ; the 
large and spacious Cloister with fair great windows 



22 A xviiTH Century west Country Jaunt. 

of freestone, which stands between the Minster and 
the Palace, and strong and richly arched : over which 
on one side is their fair and rich library, and over 
the other side, the spacious free School. 

**We found the Bishop's Palace a most stately 
place, and is a strong -built Castle, part double 
moated and strongly walled round about, with a 
fair Court within, a Bowling ground, gardens, &c. ; 
there we received from some of his gentlemen a 
curious entertainment, and had a full view of his 
Lordship's neat and rich Chapel and Organ, his 
great Chambers and rooms furnished with rich 
Furniture: his Cloister, and in his Lordship's 
eight - square buttery, arched overhead, we tasted 
exceeding good wine and strong beer. 

** From hence we hastened to the noble Dean's fair 
Mansion, which was built for K, Henry Vllth ; from 
whose gentlemen, by his own generous command, we 
were freely entertained and had a ready and full sight 
of his pretty little neat Chapel and Organ ; his fair, 
rich, and large rooms, not much inferior to the 
Bishop's ; and had also a hearty and free entertainment 
in his Buttery. He is a worthy gentleman and a 
brave scholar, and of a good and fair Church revenue, 
being a parsonage in the Isle of Wight, worth ;^300 
per annum, which he worthily deserves. 

** I must not forget my sole entertainment which I 
received from the hands of a courteous gentlewoman at 
the Chancellor's (but that the galloping-armed clock 
called away) from her free and generous disposition, 
had deserved a larger and more ample commendation 
in this description. 

In the Camery, between the Bishop's Palace 
and the Choir, are those strange wells and springs 
which water and supply the whole City, running 

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from thence in a pretty channel to Mayor [ Weston-- 
super 'Mare\ and so unto the sea, which is some 8 
or ID miles from here. The most remarkable of 
these wells is St. Andrew's, to the memory of 
which Saint that stately Cathedral was dedicated. 
It may well be called Fontanensis E celesta^ for the 
rare wells and springs that within her large Camery 
aforesaid break forth. 

** Two of our senses were much satisfied in 
hearing and seeing a whole mess of so fair, rich, 
neat and sweet Organs as the compass of this fair 
fabric afforded. 

There need not many other Churches in so poor 
a City where so rich and spacious a Cathedral 
stands ; one more there is, called St. Cuthbert's, 
and it is at the other end of the town ; and close 
unto this Church a fair Hospital stands, built by 
a pious Prelate (Bishop Bubwith), and a settled 
maintenance thereunto belonging, for 24 poor aged 


H. N. BiRT. 

(To be continued.) 

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^f^HE health, wealth and wisdom assigned to early 
VU rising are as illusory as other fairy promises 
of childhood. The prospects are too vague, the con 
ditions too heroic for the wear and tear of life. 
Wealth and wisdom rarely come whether to early or 
late rising, and doctors cannot decide which conduces 
most to health. The minor enticement of a prompt 
breakfast for the early bird is marred by the sad 
fate of the early worm. That abject creature had 
elevating aspirations in casting off sluggishness in 
quest of health, wealth and wisdom at the dawn of 
day. Betimes its left its lair in the recesses of the 
soil, it resolutely pushed its concentric rings through 
the dry mould, it wriggled its coils free from the 
stuffy darkness, and gradually spread its length on 
the surface in the delicious freshness of a new- 
bom day. The moisture of the dew, the luscious 
coolness of the clammy earth, the exhilaration of the 
keen air fanning its nerve tips, brought delight and 
recompense for the effort of the early start. It revel- 
led in its Spartan virtue, it abjured the grovelling 
pleasures of the sluggard, it complacently pitied other 
poor worms, when it was entranced by the eye of a 
thrush peeping greedily from under a hawthorn. 
Worms do not weep, nor do they swear, they are not 
built that way, but a poet in search of a theme for intense 
passion could earn laurels by the pathos with which 




he could voice that worm's appeal. The lofty aspira- 
tions» the effort and the success, the victory over 
sloth, the mens sibi amscia ruti^ the lamb-like helpless- 
ness, the first step to health, wealth and wisdom, 
could be pleaded but vainly, to avert the tragedy of 
abruptly becoming a breakfast for that villainous 
thrush. Such is the parable set before youth to 
stimulate early rising. 

That worm is but the type of other contests with 
the seductions of the pillow. A resolve to rise be- 
times is openly proclaimed overnight in the home 
circle, and wth that fixed determination the bedclothes 
are snugly adjusted round the shoulders. A brief 
span of bliss is ruthlessly cut short by a confused 
impression of catastrophe and burglars, and the 
ultimate recognition of John with the hot water. 
Consciousness brings revulsion and the remembrance 
of that fearful resolution of the night before. The 
langour of unsatisfied nature, the genial warmth, the 
pleading of inert muscles, the dulness of sense soothe 
rising qualms of sincerity. ** Be a man/* murmurs 
the better self, recalling the sternness of purpose over- 
night. •* Don't be silly," the other self replies, and 
suggests the uselessness of the wrench, the demands 
of common sense, and the folly of the whole business. 
*• They will laugh at you,'* whispers self-respect, and 
this settles it, a sudden convulsion kicks off the 
coverlet, a supreme effort brings the body upright, 
and on the edge of the bed sits a half-dazed creature 
staring stupidly before him, uncertain whether he is 
a hero or a fooL The die is cast, the enterprise must 
proceed, but all is awry in the toilet : rebellious 
buttons, blunt razor, refractory collar, articles mislaid, 
keep the temper at irritation point. Downstairs anar- 
chy reigns : upturned chairs fraternize with fireirons. 

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demure tables have cast off their raiment, ornaments 
enjoy escapades in unwonted places, while the house- 
maid, the ringleader of the commotion, triumphantly 
wields her broom and amid a haze of dust suspiciously 
peers at the intruder. To escape the chaos a rush 
is made for the sanctum, now alas cheerless and 
stuffy, and without the familiar air of welcome. 
Writing is impracticable, books are distasteful, their 
pages insipid and the print unsteady. An easy chair 
invites reflection on the situation, and ends in inevit- 
able drowsiness. To sleep would be too ridiculous, and 
action is imperative. A circuit of the rooms, still in 
confusion, becomes a wearisome pilgrimage through 
the ruins of comfort : a trip to the bedroom discloses 
its disorder and recalls the momentous struggle. A 
stroll in the streets means an inspection of policemen 
and milk carts, of drawn blinds and closed shutters, 
and surely early rising was never invented for that. 
Meanwhile the gnawings of hunger develop apace, 
and create a craving without prospect of relief, for 
the ham and eggs seem to be miles off. Irritation, 
ennui and hunger make life unbearable, neither one 
thing nor the other, neither the prompt breakfast of 
the thrush nor the speedy despatch of the worm. 

If early rising in the town is not a success, in the 
country at least it will justify its reputation. The 
ruddy cheek of the British farmer, his plumpness of 
purse and plumpness of person, are attributable by 
tradition to home-brewed ale and early rising. To 
the beer you promise a hearty welcome, to the other 
a fair trial. The sweetness and calm of the house, 
the clematis peeping through the lattice, the solidity 
of the walls, the restfulness of the surroundings invite 
early retirement to bed, but not to sleep. The un- 
usual hour banishes drowsiness, the stillness inspires 

Digitized by 


The Early worm. 27 

awe, and the ear is on the alert for the least sound : 
thoughts chase each other through the brain, you 
strive the utmost to think of nothing, count sheep 
into a fold, fall down a precipice, recall last Sunday's 
sarmon, yet cannot woo sleep. While wondering 
what beguiled you into the folly, a blankness some- 
how supervenes, ending with a start at the sun peering 
through the clematis on to the bed. How long 
you slept you know not, and without dalliance you 
spring out of bed with decisive effort, open the case 
ment, and the delicious air freshens your weary eyelids. 
It is exhilarating, you dress hurriedly, and on des- 
cending are subdued by ominous silence: no one is 
astir, you alone are awake. You creep stealthily 
downstairs with a burglar's caution, guiltily draw the 
bolts of the hall door, and step out on to the terrace. 
What a glorious prospect ! A thin layer of mist is 
slowly moving from off the lawn, flowers and shrubs 
are glistening in their early ablutions, the leaves on 
the trees are quivering with new life, the sky has 
donned its morning mantle of pale blue, the sunlight 
plays along the surface on mist and water and dew- 
drop, on waving com and glittering grass, the air 
comes crisp and fresh against the cheek, your eyes 
sparkle and your face lights up with a sympathetic 
smile. Five minutes pass and you wonder what is 
to happen next You loiter amongst the flowers in 
the garden and see no one, all is solitude, you seem 
to be the only man in the world like Adam in Eden, 
but with nothing to do. A walk ! the very thing. 
You tramp on and on through lanes without meeting 
a soul, and to speak a word with someone would be 
a stimulus. Oh for an Eve ! A solitary rustic 
at length appears, trudging along to his work, stolid 
and gruff, and vacantly stares at your salutation. 



28 THE Early worm. 

You saunter on and slacken the pace, conscious 
of an internal void : the beauty of the scene and 
the freshness of the morning fade away as thoughts 
converge on breakfast. An empty stomach quickly 
dissipates the charm of the most fairylike prospect. 
You retrace your steps, and the blinds of the house 
proclaim the sad truth that it is yet an hour before 
breakfast time. A garden seat is inviting and — tell 
it not in Gath — you fall asleep. The limited rest, 
the unwonted exercise, and the inner void, have 
brought you to this. At breakfast the party envy 
your appetite, you dilate on the morning* s adventure — 
omitting the garden seat — are loud on the benefits 
of early rising, but the experiment is not repeated. 

A night in a berth of a steamer almost compels 
early rising. The throbbing of the engine, the close- 
ness of the cabin, the cramping posture, the refractory 
bed-clothes, perhaps the hard breathing of a seasoned 
salt close by, induce an irritation and feverishness 
that render sleep precarious. Towards morning, when 
weary nature has succumbed, a sudden fright arouses 
into alertness: thuds and thumps resound overhead, 
with the swishing and running of water. It is not ship- 
wreck, it is the swabbing of the deck, and after 
attempts at endurance an escape to the deck seems 
imperative. After the closeness of the berth how 
delicious is the first breath of morning sea air, 
invigorating, sustaining, inspiriting, imparting energy 
and elasticity. What a sense of freedom there is in 
the vast expanse of water glittering in the morning 
sun. But the whole ship is reeking with wet : the 
bulwarks are wet, the seats are wet, the deck is wet, 
and the ubiquitous mops of the sailors compel retreat 
from one dry oasis to another. This feeling of being 
hunted irritates and dispels enthusiasm for the glories 



The Early worm. 29 

around, and turns attention to a deep-seated yearning 
for something to eat. A sea appetite will not be 
denied, and it is yet two hours before breakfast. 
Time drags on heavily, the damp deck is paced 
restlessly: an occasional look at the wash of the 
waves, at the creaming way in the wake, at the glint 
of gulls whirling round expectantly, only disposes of 
a few moments, and the pacing is resumed and the 
hunger increases. What can be done? Too early 
to read, too early to smoke, too early for games, the 
pacing to and fro and the appetite continue. Other 
early birds appear one by one and pass through the 
stages, invigoration, delight, sufficiency, recoil, tedium, 
appetite, and the inevitable pacing to and fro. When 
hunger occupies thought, conversation is sparse. 
Watches are consulted incessantly, quarters of an 
hour are interminable, time never dragged on so 
slowly. Oh for the steward's bell ! Oh for an early 
worm ! 

Writers may descant on the happiness of that 
thrush bursting forth in extatic song after the ex- 
quisite delight of the deliciously juicy worm gliding 
down its throat, the first tribute of the early mom 
after the fasting of the night. But suppose that no 
worm appears, the situation is then changed, the early 
start begets ravening craving, and in prolonged delay 
the extatic notes subside into a melancholy tootle 
from a parched windpipe and an empty crop. The 
fate of the worm may not be devoid of consolation 
if imagination stretches beyond its mortal coil : in 
its state of sublimation, if there be one, at the place 
where all good worms go, and in the end it was a 
good worm, it will tingle with gratification at the 
heroic acts that preceded its passing away, and may 
even be reconciled to the grinding up of its cast-off 



30 THR Early Worm. 

carcase in the gizzard of the thrush. Again, the 
proverb is confined to one thrush and one worm : 
extend it to many thrushes and many worms and the 
range of possibilities widens. There may be also 
more thrushes and less worms, or more worms and 
less thrushes, to complicate matters, and to throw us 
back on the well-worn principle of the greatest 
happiness of the greatest number — but the greatest 
number of which, thrushes or worms ? The question 
leaves ample room for debate ; meanwhile late sleepers 
will sleep on as they ever slept, and early risers will 
rise up as they ever rose. T.B.S. 

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HMONG the acts of the 
Pontificate of Leo 
XI IL the consecration of 
the Church of St. Anselm, 
on the Aventine, will al- 
waysstand out with marked 
prominence, proclaiming 
the successful issue of a 

___^^__^__^^^ determined eflFort on the 

part of His Holiness once 
more to call into play the spirit and energy be- 
queathed to his children by our Holy Father, St. 
Benedict. An event of such importance well de- 
serves a record in our pages ; but before proceeding 
to describe the solemn function of the Dedication, a 
few words concerning the origin of the College of 
St. Anselm may be of interest. 

' We are indebted, for the use of the interesting- illustrations which 
accompany this article, to the courtesy of the Editor of the AmpUfortk 
Journal, Don) Cuthbert Almond, O.S.B., to whom we here offer our very 
sincere thanks. The drawing^s are from the clever pencil of Dom 
Laurence Janssens, the Rector of St. Anselm's. 

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32 THE College of St, anselm, Rome. 

Several attempts have been made to found a 
College for Benedictines in Rome ; the first, to us 
one of deep interest, was due to the zeal of the 
Sicilian Cassinese Abbot, D. Constantine Cajetan, 
who, in the year 162 1, founded the ^^ Collegium 
Gregorianutn de Urbe^ Some fifty years later, this 
College passed into the hands of the English Bene- 
dictines ; and although there is little evidence to 
show that the Institution ever flourished as an 
educational establishment, some, at least, of our 
Procurators in Curia resided in the College, and 
are styled, as we read on their gravestones, ** Abbots- 
President of the Collegium Gregorianum de Urbe." 
At the present day the English Fathers are the 
recognised proprietors of the land in the Trastevere, 
near St. Benedetto in Piscinula, where the Abbot- 
founder is buried, and duly receive the rent thereof. In 
this connection it may be well to remark that when, 
in 1884, in accordance with the express wish of the 
Holy See, some English Fathers were sent to Rome 
to commence a House of Studies — first in the Scotch 
College and subsequently in the Via Angelo Custode 
and Via Gregoriana — this venture was recognised by 
the Roman authorities, not as a restoration of the 
College of Si. Anselm^ but of the English Gregorian 
College. This is evident from the entry in the 
** Gerarchia Cattolica " (Catholic Directory), where 
the Superior is described as the Rector of the 
^^Collegio Gregoriano dei Monaci Anglo-Benedettini.*' 
But the story of this foundation must be left for 
some future occasion. 

The College of St. Anselm was founded by Pope 
Innocent XI. motu proprioy in the year 1687, in 
the Monastery of St. Paul Outside the Walls, or, 
perhaps more accurately, in S. Callisto, the town 



THE College of St. Anselm, Rome. 33 

house of the St. Paul's Community. According to 
the terms of the Bull ** Inscrutabile " this College 
was, in the first instance, intended for monks of the 
Cassinese Congregation ; the professors were to be 
chosen from the deans of the Congregation, and 
were to instruct their scholars in scholastic theology 
according to the teaching of St. Anselm, Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, under pain of deposition and 
privation of their office should they do otherwise. 
The students should never be less than ten — three 
from St. Paul's and one from each of the seven 
provinces of the Cassinese Congregation. No pro- 
fessor should exercise his office for more than six 
years, and no student should remain in the College 
for more than three years. With the consent of the 
President of the Cassinese Congregation, the Abbot 
of St. Paul's, and the Procurator General, other 
black monks of the order were allowed to send their 
subjects to the College ; but in spite of this con- 
cession the Cassinese alone seemed to have availed 
themselves of the institution. This foundation of 
Innocent XI. flourished for about two hundred 
years, and sent forth many learned and pious men to 
fill positions of distinction and trust in the Church. 
During the first hundred years some four hundred 
students passed through the College ; among whom 
the most distinguished was D. Gregorio Barnaba 
Chiaramonti, who was sent to St. Anselm's from his 
monastery at Cesena in the year 1763. In 1772 he 
was appointed Lector of Sacred Theology, and con- 
tinued in office for at least six years. In 1800 
D. Gregorio ascended the throne of St. Peter as 
Pius VII. During the first half of the last century 
the life of the College was gradually on the wane till 
about the year 1848, when it practically ceased to exist. 

^ Digitized by LiOOgle 


But it was destined to rise again ; in the year 1867, 
the newly-elected Abbot of St. Paul's, D. Francesco 
Leopoldo Zelli-Jacobuzzi, presented a petition to 
Pius IX. requesting His Holiness to approve of 
certain modifications of the constitution of Innocent 
XL, and that the College of St. Anselm might be 
re-opened upon this basis. These modifications were 



contained in a series of statutes signed by Abbot 
Zelli and D. Bernard Smith, ** Rector Collegii S. 
Anselmi.'' By these statutes the students of the 
College are to be subject to the Rector of the 
College as to their studies, and to the Abbot of 
St. Paul's as to discipline. Moreover the College 
was now to be open to all Black Monks of the 
Order; this new SLvraingement {" nuova disposiszone/ ' 
as Abbot Zelli calls it) seems clearly to imply that 
the similar clause in Innocent's Constitution had 

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never been acted upon. A fiill course of Theological 
Studies was provided for, to be completed in four 
years, during which successful candidates were to 
be admitted to various academical degrees. The 
choice of Professors was no longer restricted to the 
deans of the Cassinese congregation, but the Abbot 
and the Rector might select any persons whom 
they considered suitable for the office, even though 
they were not members of the Order. But the 
troubles of those days told upon the fortunes of 
the College of St. Anselm, and even Abbot 
Zelli's zeal and energy failed to produce the hoped-for 

To His present Holiness, Leo XI H., will ever 
remain the glory of having restored the College of 
St. Anselm on a scale of munificence far exceeding 
that of his predecessors. Already in the year 1886 
His Holiness had made known his intentions to the 
Fathers of the Cassinese Congregation ; and calling 
together a Chapter of their Abbots under the presi- 
dency of Mgr. Dusmet, O.S.B., Archbishop of 
Catania, he requested them to give the matter 
their serious consideration, and to draw up a state- 
ment of their deliberations which should serve as a 
basis for the proposed restoration. This ** relatio " 
was handed to His Holiness on 4th December, 1886, 
signed by Archbishop Dusmet and eleven Abbots 
of the Cassinese Congregation. The intentions of 
His Holiness may be gathered from the follow- 
ing passages which the Chapter quotes as the 
decree of the Pope, in which they reverently 
acquiesce : — 

'^ Collegium Sancti Anselmi restituendum esse 
'* pro Alumnis Congregation is Casinensis et 
*^ adfiliatarum ; pariterque in mente sua esse, ut 

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36 thr College of St. anselm, Rome. 

^^ Alumni quoque ceterarum Congregationum 
** nigri colons Ordinis Sancti Benedict! hue 
** mittantur et recipiantur ; quoad vero alumnos 
'* aliarum Congregation um sub Regula Sancti 
** Benedicti, aut etiam presbyteros seculares, 
** putat admittendos tantum ut ad scholas con- 
** veniant." 

*^ Directionem Collegii committendum esse 
^* Patribus Congregationis Casinensis et adfilia- 
'* tarum, et Sanctisimum Dominum sibi re- 
** servare delectum Abbatis Directoris, Prions et 
*^ Magistri alumniorum collegialium/' 

Moreover the Chapter request His Holiness to 
appoint an EconomuSy and to order that all the 
Professors should be chosen from among the black 
monks, O.S.B. Then follow seventeen paragraphs 
containing suggestions for the regulation of the 
studies and general discipline. The students are to 
be allowed eight hours' sleep, •*juxta Regulam 
Sancti Benedicti " ; four hours are prescribed for 
schools ; only Prime and Compline are to be recited 
in Choir, except on Sundays and feast days, when 
the whole office is to be said ; after the yearly 
Retreat the Professors are to make their profession 
of faith ; the course of philosophy is to last two 
years, of Theology four years. His Holiness is 
requested to grant to the College the privileges of 
a University, with the power of conferring degrees 
in Philosophy, Theology, and Canon Law. On 
4th January, 1887, the Pope addressed a letter to 
Mgr. Dusmet, expressing his entire approval of the 
Chapter deliberations and his determination to re-open 
the College as soon as possible. This letter is most 
interesting, revealing as it does the Pontiffs earnest 

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THE College of St. Anselm, Rome. 37 

hopes of uniting the various congregations of Bene- 
dictines,' and also of His desire to make use of the 
Order for the special benefit of the Eastern Churches.^ 

' " . . . E poich^ nell'unione sta la forza, pi& fondata sarebbe la speranza 
** di un migliore avvenire, se le diverse loro membra, sparse nelle varie parti 
** del mondo, formassero un solo corpo per runitii di reg'ola e di direzione." 
....*' e desideriamo, il pi6 vivamente che per Noi si possa, che anche tutte 
" le altre Congregazioni benedettine di abito nero vi mandino i loro alunni, 
" afinch^ per lo spirifo della stessa regolar disciplina e per la conformitii degli 
*' studi si venga come natural mente preparando quella congiunzione delle 
'' varie membra in un medesimo corpo, di cui abbiamo sopra mostrato il 
" desiderio." 

3 .... " Voi sapete, Venerabile Fratello, quanto Ci sia a cuore questa cosa, 
" la quale si coUega pure con altri Nostri intendimenti, a beneficio specialmente 
'' della Chiesa di Oriente 

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Active preparations were now commenced with a 
view of opening the College on the occasion of the 
sacerdotal jubilee of His Holiness at the commence- 
ment of the following year. During the months of 
February and March, 1887, by special request of the 
Pope, the President of the English Congregation, 
Abbot O' Gorman, undertook a long and tedious 
journey among the monasteries of Europe in order 
to lay before the Abbots the designs of His Holiness 
and to solicit their co-operation in the great work. 
All were earnestly invited to contribute professors, 
students and funds ; and, in spite of many difficulties, 
the hearty response to His Holiness' appeal was 
clear proof of the sterling devotion and loyalty to 
the Holy See which animates the sons of St. 
Benedict. In the meantime the Paleusso dei Convert 
tendiy in the Piazza Scossacavalli ('Wicino alia 
Nostra pontificia dimora e all' ombra del Principe 
degli Apostoli") was being restored and furnished to 
serve as a temporary residence until such times as a 
more worthy habitation should be provided. To the 
great joy of Mgr. Dusmet, who had spared no pains 
to insure the success of the work entrusted to him, 
the College was at length formally opened on the 
4th January, 1888 ; and a solemn Te Deum was 
sung in the little church of St. Philip attached to 
the Palazzo by the new Community, in the presence 
of Cardinals, Bishops, Abbots and other dignitaries 
of the Order. The Community consisted of sixteen 
students, five lay brothers and the following officials : 
Dom Cajetan Bernardi, Abbot and Professor of 

Italian Literature. (Monte Cassino). 
Dom Adalbert Miller, Prior, Prefect of Studies, 
Professor of Moral Theology, Physics and 
Hebrew. (St. Vincent's, America.) 

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THE College of St. anselm, Rome. 39 

Dom Wilfrid Wallace, Professor of S. Scripture, 
History and Greek. (Maredsous.) 

Dom Chrysostom Stelzer, Professor of Dog- 
matic Theology and Canon Law. (Beuron.) 

Dom Robert Munroe, Professor of Philosophy 
and Mathematics. (St. Vincent's, America.) 

Dom Gerard Van Caloen, Master of Students 
and Professor of Liturgy. (Maredsous.) 

Dom Wilfrid Corney, Cellarer and Professor of 
Plain Song. (Downside). 
The Palazzo dei Convertendi is not without his- 
torical interest. Some months before the opening 
of St. Anselm's, several letters appeared in some of 
the Roman papers, in which the writers claimed to 
prove that the House once belonged to the celebrated 
artist, Raffaello, and even that he died there. Some 
time in the first half of last century the rooms were 
occupied by the English students of the ** Collegio 
Pio," an institution founded for converts and others, 
whose circumstances prevented their following the 
usual regulations of the English College. Later on 
the Jesuit staflF of the **Civiltk Cattolica " lived here 
and edited their periodical. It was evident from the 
very first that the accommodation afforded by the 
Convertendi would soon prove altogether inadequate 
for the future development contemplated by Leo XI IL 
A permanent abode must be sought for at once ; 
many of the available palaces and churches were 
inspected, negociations were opened with the pro- 
prietors, and plans more or less matured for trans- 
forming the buildings into a suitable residence ; at 
one moment His Holiness thought of purchasing 
the English ** Collegio Gregoriano"; and the present 
writer remembers seeing in the Vatican Exhibition 
an elevation plan of the building proposed to be 

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40 THE College of St. anselm, Rome. 

erected upon the site. But His Holiness, never 
fully satisfied with the result of Abbot Bemardi's 
indefatigable researches, at length abandoned the 
idea of finding what he desired among existing 
buildings, and determined to purchase land and 
erect an Abbey-College worthy of the best traditions 
of the Order and of his own exalted designs. After 
mature deliberation, a site of about nine acres was 
selected on Mount Aventine adjoining the **villegia- 
tura " of the Knights of Malta, and the Churches of 
S. Alessio and S. Sabina; and plans on a magnifi- 
cent scale were drawn out by Dom Hildebrand de 
Hemptinne, Abbot of Maredsous, the execution of 
the work being entrusted to Count Francesco 
Vespignani, Architect of the S. Apostolic Palaces. 
The excavations for the foundations were well ad- 
vanced in the springtide of 1893, when the Holy 
Father summoned to Rome a meeting of all the 
Abbots of the Order, for the purpose of laying 
before them his long cherished scheme for uniting 
the various Congregations of Benedictines under the 
presidency of a common Superior, with the title of 
Abbot-Primate of the whole Order ; and at the same 
time the fathers were invited to assist at the solemn 
function of laying the foundation stone of the new 
College, which accordingly took place on Tuesday, 
1 8th April. In the unavoidable absence of the Cardinal 
Secretary of State, the ceremony was performed by 
the Archbishop of Catania, now Cardinal Dusmet, 
raised to the Sacred College in February, 1889. 

The meeting of the Abbots during the spring 
resulted in the retirement of Abbot Bernardi to 
Monte Cassino, where shortly afterwards he was 
elected President of the Cassinese Congregation ; and 
Abbot de Hemptinne was appointed Primate and 

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Abbot of St. Anselm's by the Holy Father, and 
came to preside over the College in the month of 
November, 1893. As the Palazzo dei Convertendi 

Vk ,^ 

was now too small to lodge the ever - increasing 
number of students, the Community migrated to a 
hotel in the Via Bocca di Leone, and remained 
there till the November of 1896, when the new 

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42 THE College of St. Anselm, Rome. 

College on the Aventine was ready to receive them* 
Since the opening of the College in 1888 several 
changes had taken place in the staff; the most im- 
portant of these was the recent appointment of a 
Rector^ in the person of D. Laurence Janssens 
(Maredsous) to rule the College in the absence of 
the Abbot Primate. 

And now we may pass on to the crowning act of 
this noble undertaking of Leo XI I L On nth 
November, 1900, His Eminence Cardinal Rampolla 
del Tindaro^ Secretary of State of His Holiness and 
acting as Legate a latere^ solemnly consecrated the 
Basilica attached to the Abbey- College. Romans 
themselves were heard to express their opinion that 
seldom had they witnessed so solemn a function ; the 
Dedication of a Church is a rare event in Rome, and 
on this occasion it was attended with all the pomp 
of the Papal Court. 

On the previous evening the Cardinal was received 
by the Primate and Prelates of the Order, and at 
once proceeded to the Chapter House for the recog- 
nition of the relics to be placed in the altars on 
the following day. The body of the martyr, St. 
Alexander, presented by the Benedictine nuns of S. 
Maria in Campo Marzio and destined for the High 
Altar, was enclosed and sealed in a shrine of cedar- 
wood, and the relics for the side altars in silver 
boxes. The chapel was adorned with coloured hang- 
ings and brilliantly illuminated with wax tapers and 
electric light; during the night, choir by choir, the 
monks succeeded each other in the recitation of 
matins and lauds of Holy Martyrs. 

On Sunday morning, nth November, the function 
commenced at 8 o'clock, and ended at two in the after- 
noon. With regard to the ceremonial, we need only 



THE College of St, anselm, Rome. 43 

state that the ritual instructions were fiilly carried 
out under the direction of the Pontifical Masters of 
Ceremony, Monsignori Riggi, Ciocci and Marzolini. 
His Eminence the Cardinal Celebrant consecrated 
the High Altar dedicated to St. Anselm ; and Mgr. 
Dominic Serafini, O.S.B., Archbishop of Spoleto, 
and Abbot General of the Subiaco Congregation, 
and Mgr. Rudesind Salvado, O.S.B., Bishop of 
Adriani and Abbot of New Nursia, W. Australia* 
consecrated the side altars in the Upper Church, 
dedicated one to Our Lady, the other to St. Joseph. 
The sixteen altars in the Lower Church were conse- 
crated, by special faculty of the H. Father, by the 
following Abbots: — 

Dom Hildebrand de Hemptinne, Primate and 

Abbot of St. Anselm's. 
Dom Hippolitus Feher, Archabbot of St. Martins- 
berg, Hungary. 
Dom Boniface Oslaender, Abbot of St. Paul's. 
Dom Benedict Bonazzi, Abbot of La Cava. 
Dom Victor Corvaia, Abbot of Monte Vergine. 
Dom Leander Schnerr, Archabbot of St. Vincent's, 

Dom Aidan Gasquet, Abbot of Reading, Presi- 
dent of the English Congregation. 
Dom Placid Wolter, Archabbot of Beuron, and 

of the Beuron Congregation. 
Dom Paul Delatte, Abbot of Solesmes, Superior 

Gen. of the French Congregation. 
Dom Colomban Brugger, Abbot of Einsiedeln, 

President of the Swiss Congregation. 
Dom Eugene Gebele, Abbot of Augsberg, Presi- 
dent of the Bavarian Congregation. 
E>om Frowin Conrad, Abbot of New Engelberg, 
Abbot General of the Swiss-American Cong. 

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44 THE College of St, anselm, Rome. 

Dom Adalbert Dungel, Abbot of Gdttweig, Presi- 
dent of the Austrian Cong, of the Imm. Con- 

Dom Leo Treuinfels, Abbot of Marienberg, 
President of the Austrian Cong, of St. Joseph. 

Dom Ildephonsus Schober, Abbot of Seckau, 
Superior Gen. of the Missionary Cong, of St 
Ottilia, Africa. 

Dom Leo Linse, Abbot of Fort Augustus. 
After the Ceremony of Consecration the Cardinal 
and Prelates retired to the Sacristy to vest for the 
solemn high Mass. As soon as the Sampietrini 
had erected a throne, vested the altar and prepared 
everything necessary for the Holy Sacrifice, an im- 
posing procession of mitred Prelates entered the 
Church and took their places in the choir; there 
were sixty Abbots, and Bishops and Archbishops, 
and here and there a crowned Eastern Prelate in 
gorgeous vestments. In the tribune overlooking the 
sanctuary, a comu evangelii sat twelve members of the 
Sacred College*; whilst in the opposite tribune, a comu 
epistol(B, were the Ambassadors of Austria, France and 
Spain, most of the Ministers accredited to the H. See 
and many of the Roman aristocracy. His Eminence 
was assisted by the Fathers and students of the College 
of St. Anselm*s, and by the students of the Greek 
College of St. Athanasius, which the H. Father has 
lately confided to the care of the Abbot Primate. By 
special concession, the Epistle and Gospel were sung 
both in Latin and Greek by the Sub-Deacon and 
Deacon of the respective rites ; the plain song, 
according to the text of the ancient MSS., was 

4 Cardinals Aloisi-Masella, Casali del Dragro, Cretoni, Feirata, Macchi, 
Mathieu, Respighi, Segna, Steinhuber, Vannutelli Serafino, Vannuielli 
Viiicenxo, and Vives y Tuto. 

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The College of St. ansblm, Rome. 45 

sung^ throughout by the monks, several portions of 
the Mass (Sanctus, Agnus etc.) being repeated in 
Greek by the Choir of St. Athanasius. 

The following week was celebrated an octave of 
festivities at which the Fathers were invited to 
assist. On Monday, the Abbots and their com- 
panions were granted the privilege of audience with 
the H. Father, and thus were afforded the oppor- 
tunity of thanking H. Holiness for this signal mark 
of his affection for the Order, in establishing, at such 
cost and labour, the College of St. Anselm. On 
Tuesday, the Feast of All Saints O.S.B., the Abbot- 
Primate pontificated in the newly consecrated Church, 
and the Rector, D. Laurence Janssens, delivered a 
homily. On Wednesday, Abbot Larkin of Douai, 
as junior Abbot, sang a Requiem Mass in the lower 
church for the repose of the souls of our departed 
Brethren ; and on Thursday the Fathers were enter- 
tained by the students of the Greek College, after 
high Mass in the Greek rite pontificated by Mgr. 
Schir6, Archbishop of Neocesarea. On Friday, to 
their great surprise and gratification, the new Abbots 
of the English Congregation were the recipients of a 
wholly unsought for honour. Of His own accord 
His Holiness invited them to the Vatican, and 
discoursed with them at some length, expressing His 
interest in the recent changes which have taken 
place amongst us, and His desire for the speedy 
conversion of England. The celebrations of this 
eventful week were brought to a happy conclusion 
on the Octave Sunday, i8th November, in St. 
Paul's Outside the Walls, being the Feast of the 
Dedication of that Basilica. The Abbot of Ensiedeln 
sang the Pontifical Mass, and afterwards carried the 
B. Sacrament in procession to the Chapel of St. 

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Laurence to be exposed for the Forty Hours 

Soon after the re-opening of St. Anselm*s Leo XI I L 
received the new Community in audience, and in a 
marked manner reminded them of the three-fold object 
he had in view when restoring the College : firstly, 
the revival of the ancient glories of the Order ; 
secondly, our co-operation in the social reform of 
the world ; and thirdly, our assistance in the reunion 
of the Eastern Churches. May the children of St. 
Benedict never fail to answer these noble expectations 
of so munificent a benefactor ; and may the College 
of St. Anselm be the means of uniting ever more 
and more closely in the bonds of fraternal charity 
the various Congregations of the Order throughout 
the world. 

Ad multos annosi 


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H NOTEWORTHY book has been published recently 
by Herder, at Freiburg, on the reform of 
liturgical music' 

As its title shews, it is a plea for moderation ; a 
very necessary quality in all controversy, and one 
conspicuously absent in the spokesmen of the different 
classes of church music It gives us an interesting 
glimpse of the condition of church music in Germany, 
one moreover which is not without its consolation for 
us, who are apt to put ourselves down as lamentably 
in the rear of the ** Fatherland '' in things musical. 

The book, in addition to its treatment of the special 
question of the church music of the day, contains the 
actual text of all modern decisions of ecclesiastical 
authorities as regards church music. This forms a 
valuable and interesting collection, as besides giving 
the principles of liturgical music and their applica- 
tion to individual cases, it illustrates in a suggestive 
manner the condition of church music in various 
parts of the world. 

We propose to give here an abstract of this collec- 
tion, which cannot have the value of the complete 
textual original, but which will omit nothing im- 
portant, and in any case will render reference easy 
to the original. 

I. Decrees of Councils and of Popes. 

The Council of Trent, Sess. 22. The Bishops shall forbid 
all sensuous music in the churches, whether vocal or instrumental. 
" Ubi sive organo sive cantu lascivum aut impurum aliquid 

■ Mass und Milde in Kirchsnmusikalisch^n Ding9H, von P. Ambrosius Kienle, 
O.S.B., aus der Beuroner Konpr^^Uon. Herder : FreibiuY in Breisgmu* 1901. 




Sess. 24. The provincial synod shall determine what is fitting* 
to sing or play. In the meantime, the bishop, with not less than 
two canons, one appointed by the bishop, the other by the chapter, 
shall r^^late matters. 
ALEXANDER VII., 23 April, 1657. 

Rome is to set an example in religious decorum. Therefore all 
ecclesiastical authorities are forbidden, under strict penalties, 
to permit anything to be sung during the celebration of Divine 
Office or while the B. Sacrament is exposed,*' except those words 
which are prescribed in the Breviary or Roman Missal, in the 
Proper or Common Office for the feast or commemoration of the 
Saint of each day ; or which at least are taken from S. Scripture 
or the writings of the holy Fathers, but which must first be specially 
approved by the Congregation of Cardinals presiding over sacred 
rites, such music being excluded as suggests dance or profiuie 
rather than ecclesiastical melody. All musical directors are to be 
required to take an oath to observe this. 

INNOCENT XII., 20 August, 1692. 

The previous decree has been neglected; its meaning con- 
troverted. To prevent any misunderstanding, His Holiness 
absolutely forbids, in any church or basilica, the singing of any 
motet or composition whatever save the Introit, Gradual and 
Offertory at Mass, and at Vespers the Antiphons before and 
after the Psalms ; without alteration of words ; the musicians to 
accompany strictly the choir (li musici si uniformino totalmente 
al choro). To promote devotion, however, a motet may be sung 
during the elevation at Mass and the Exposition of the B. Sacra- 
ment, to be taken from the Hymns of St. Thomas of Aquin or the 
Missal and Breviary for the Feast of Corpus Christi, without any 
alteration of the words. 

BENEDICT XIV., in the Bull Annus Qui, 19 Feb., 1749. 

In singing psalms not to be too quick, and to observe the pause 
between the verses. The chant to be in unison and the chorus to 
be carried out by persons practised in plain-chant. This is the 
chant upon which St. Gregory laboured ; it is devotional, and 
when properly sung, is preferred to harmonised chant Singing, 
when accompanied by instruments, must have nothing profane, 
worldly or theatrical about it. 

Then follows an exposition of the Constitution of Alexander VII, 
given above, its confirmation by Innocent XI, and its amplification 
by Innocent XII. Treating of the latter, Benedict XIV says — at 
High Mass he only allows beside the Gloria and Credo, the singing 




of the Introit, Gradual and Oflfertory ; he also amplifies a somewhat 
obscure phrase of the preceding decree, *'the professional singers 
(cantores musid) shall follow entirely the law of the choir, and shall 
conform completely to it, and as the choir cannot add anything to 
the Office and Mass, so the musicians may not do so. '* Motets from 
St. Thomas* hymns or from the Antiphons of the Office of Corpus 
Christi may be sung " while the Sacred Host is elevated or publicly 
venerated or exposed for worship." 

He complains that what is lawfully {permitted to be sung is treated 
theatrically and noisily (theatricali more et scenico strepiiuj. It 
is a primary object of church music that the words should be per- 
fectly and plainly understood. The following musical instruments 
are alone permitted — violoncello and double bass (barbiton tetrad 
chordon majus^ tetrachardon minus)^ bassoon (monaulan pneu- 
mattcufn), viola and violins (fidtculas^ lyras Utrachordes)^ all of 
which support and strengthen the voice parts. Are to be forbidden — 
drums, hunting horns, trumpets ^/tfArz^^, oboes (tihiasdecumanas), 
flutes and piccolos (fistulas^ fistulas parvas)^ piano (psalteria 
sympkontaca)^ mandolins (chelas), and such like, which form 
theatrical music (qua mustcam theatralem efficiunt). Instru- 
ments are allowed only to strengthen the voice parts, so as to 
lead the mind more to the contemplation of divine things and 
the love of God. If they are always playing and rarely silent 
and drown the words, they are useless and to be forbidden. 
Instrumental music without voice parts is not to be forbidden 
during high Mass and between the psalms, because such music 
*'is not part of the Office, and tends to the reverence and solemnity 
of the Office and to elevate the minds of the faithful." 

II. From the Roman missal. 

Under this heading are given directions from the general rubrics 
as to the saying of the Introit, Gloria &c. We fail to see the 
necessity for their introduction here. 

III. From the Cceremoniale Episcoporum. 

L.I, c. 28, n. 1. The organ and singing permitted on all 
Sundays and festivals on which the people abstain from servile work. 

2. Except the Sundays of Advent and Lent. They are per- 
mitted, however, on Gaudete and Loetare Sundays), but in Mass 
alone : also on the feasts and ferias in Advent and Lent which 
are celebrated solemnly by the church ; also on Maundy Thursday 
and Holy Saturday at the Gloria ; and whenever there is grave 
reason for joyful solemnity. 

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3. The organ to be played at Mass on feast days at the bishop's 
entrance and departure. 

4. So also on the entrance of Legates &c. , till the beginning of 
Mass and at the time of their departure. 

5. In solemn Matins on great feasts, as at Vespers, the organ 
may be played from the beginning. 

6. In Vespers, Matins or Mass, the first verse of canticle and 
hymns, the verses during which we kneel, are to be sung in choir 
audibly and not supplied by the organ ; so too with the Gloria 
Pairiy and last verse of hymns. Whenever the organ supplies for 
the voice, that portion is to be recited audibly by some one in 
choir : it is commendable that a cantor should sing it to the organ 

7. The custom, where it exists, of singing other canonical hours 
with organ accompaniment may be retained. 

8. In solemn Vespers the custom of playing the organ at the 
end of each psalm, and alternately in the verses of the hymn and 
of the Magnificat, may be retained subject to the above regulations. 

9. In solemn Mass, the organ may play alternately at the Kyrie^ 
Gloria, at the end of the Epistle, at the Offertory, alternately at 
the Sanctus, afterwards till the Pater, but more solemnly and 
sweetly at the Elevation ; immediately after the Elevation an 
appropriate motet may be sung; alternately at the Agnus and 
afterwards till the Post-communion and at the end of Mass. 

10. The Creed to be sung in entirety, and not alternated with 
the organ. 

11. The organ playing is not to be sensuous in character nor 
unbecoming, or with words not belonging to the Office, or profane, 
or ludicrous; no other instruments to be added without the Bishop's 

12. So, too, the singers shall avoid levity or sensuousness, or 
what may distract the hearers, but shall be devout, distinct and 

13. In the offices of the dead the organ shall be silent ; if, how- 
ever, harmony be introduced into the Mass, the organ shall be 
silent when the voices are ; the same in Lent, Advent and ferial 

Chapter 8 deals with solemn Episcopal Mass, as follows : — 

30. The Bishop makes the Confession ; the organ is to cease 
and the choir begin the Introit. 
37. When the choir has sung the last verse of the Kyrie &c. 
42. When the last verse of the Gradual is sung &c. 



Legislation on Church Music. 51 

55. When the Choir has sungXht Creed, &c. 
5& After the Offertory has been sung, the organ may be 

70. The Choir shall sing the Sancius as far as the Benedictus, 
&c. At the Elevation the Choir is silent and adores with the 
rest ; the organ, if there be one, is to be played (fiu/sandum 
est) with all melodiousness and gravity. 

71. The Benedictus is sung after the Elevation. 

78. The Choir sing the Communion after the Bishop's Com- 
Chapter 20. 4. The singers from Passion Sunday till the 
Gloria of Holy Saturday, with the exception of the Angelic 
hymn on Maundy Thursday, shall use Gregorian or figured 
polyphonous chant {Jigurato polyphano). 

Book II. Chapter 1. 4. At Solemn Vespers the organ is to be 
played while the Bishop vests ; directions for the pre-intonation 
of antiphons by the sub-deacon and Bishop. 

8. The psalms to be sung by the Canons and other members 
of the Chapter in the Gregorian tone and chant, gravely and 
decorously and intelligibly ; the Gloria, however, may be sung 
more ornately (solemniori vocis modulatiane) ; at the end of the 
psalm the organ may play the antiphon, but it must be repeated 
clearly by some of the assistants ; and if anyone wishes to sing 
with the organ he must sing the antiphon only. 

9. The other four antiphons should be pre-in toned by the same 

11. The hymn to be taken up by the Choir, either in unison or 
harmony, {in canlu piano vel musicali) as it pleases ; the verses 
may be alternated with the Organ, in which case they must be 
recited or sung with the organ. 

Chapter 5, n. 3. At Episcopal matins, the psalms to be sung 
to the Gregorian chant with due observance of pauses. 

Decrees of the Sacred Congregation of rites. 

3096. (Barcelona.) The daily conventual Mass to be sung in 
the choir by the cathedral Chapter. March 24, 1860. 

571. (Orte.) On account of the fewness of the Canons, when 

on any feast a vigil &c. occurs, one Mass only need be sung, but 

all the Canons must be present at the second Mass. July 5, 1631. 

2782. (Sti Marci et Bisinianen.) The practice is condemned of 

reciting sext and none in the retro-choir while Mass is being sung. 




3292. (Guadalajara.) 

1. A ctistom exists of singing a traditional chant, neither 
the Roman nor Spanish, but like both, but not the chant 
printed in the missal— Is it to be continued as a legitmate 
custom, or to be abolished ? 

R. To the first question, no : to the second, yes. 

2. What chant is to be used : the Roman Gregorian chant 
in approved Pontificals and uniform in the Mechlin Missals, 
or that of the Spanish Missals ? 

R. The Roman Gregorian ; and editions are to be used 
approved by the S.R.C., or copies authenticated by the 
ordinary. April 21, 1873. 

3124. (Nicaragua.) The custom of singing hymns in the language 
of the country during Exposition or Benediction may be tolerated. 
September 27, 1864. 

3113. (Valence.) The custom of singing an Aria in the national 
language during high Mass is an abuse and to be eliminated. 
March 22, 1862. 

3230. (St. Hyacinthe, Canada.) The Bishop is directed to do 
away with the custom of singing hymns in the vernacular during 
high Mass, but gradually and without causing scandal. December 
10, 1870. 

3496. (Madagascar.) Hymns in the vernacular during solemn 
liturgical functions and offices are not to be tolerated ; outside 
liturgical functions whatever is customary is to be followed. June 
21, 1879. 

3537. (Leavenworth, N. America.) Can the priest before or 
after Mass, when the B. Sacrament is exposed, recite prayers or 
hymns in the vernacular ? 

R. Yes, as regards prayers only. Generally speaking, hymns in 
the vernacular may be sung at Exposition ; except the Te Deufn 
and other liturgical prayers, which are only to be used in the Latin. 
February 27, 1882. 

3827. General Decree concerning high Mass. 

1. Hymns in the vernacular are forbidden in all high or 
sung Masses : nothing is to be added to or mingled with the 
liturgical chants prescribed by the rubrics. 

2. Those parts which are alternated with the organ are 
to be sung or recited in integrity. The Creed to be sung 

3. No singing during the Elevation. Between the Bene" 
dictus and Pater^ something may be sung; provided that 
all the prescribed portions of the liturgy are sung, that the 

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celebrant be not kept waitings, and that what is sung refers 
to the B. Sacrament May 22, 1894. 
3880. (Bisarchio, Sardinia.) Again the question as to whether 
hjmns in the vernacular, in honour of the feast or mystery of the 
day, are to be permitted during Mass. In low Mass, yes, with 
permission of the Bishop. In the high or sung Mass, no. 
January 31, 1896. 

2791. (Bobbio, N. Italy.) Concerning hymns in the vernacular 
before and after Benediction. 

R. They are permitted after Benediction. August 3, 1839. 
3964. Trujillo, Peru.) Are women and girls to be allowed to 
sing inside or outside of the choir in any church during high Mass? 
R. An abuse to be prudently and speedily done away with. 
September 17, 1897. 

3697. (The Friars Capuchin). The practice of singing Mass to 
psalm tones and simple chants {tnodo psalmodico sen semitonatd) 
may be retained. December 7, 1888. 

1821. (Seville.) May the boy acolytes, called 'Mos seises,** 
carrying sceptres and singing in processions, wear a cope, blessed 
or unblessed ; R. As to the cope, no. January 21, 1690. 

2065. (Novara, N. Italy.) With regard to standing while singing 
in choir, the rubrics of the Missal are to be observed. Sep- 
tember 11, 1900. 

823. The following abuses call for remedy. 

1. In many churches the text of S. Scripture is distorted, 
the words being moved about or changed, so that S. Scripture 
is made subservient to the music. 2. Musical pieces are 
introduced into high Mass which are not connected with the 
service, which keep the priest waiting a long time and invert 
the order of the ceremonies, so that the Mass is made sub- 
servient to the music February 21, 1633. 
2424. (Coimbra, Portugal.) The Gloria^ Credo, entire Gradual, 
Offertory, Preface and Paternoster are to be sung in conventual 
Mass. April 14, 1753. 

2959. (Turin.) The Introit, Offertory, Communion and Sequence, 
when occurring, are to be sung at Mass. Also the Sequence and 
Absolution are to be sung in entirety in black Masses. Sep- 
tember 11, 1847. 

2994. (Montepulciano.) The Offertory and Communion may be 
recited quietly in sung Masses, while the organ is playing, but 
should not be omitted. January 10, 1852. 

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3365. (Chioggia). To omit singing the Gradual, Tract, Sequence, 
Offertory, Benedicius and Communion in sung Masses is against 
the rubrics and decrees of the S.C.R. August 7, 1875. 

3624. (Lu^on, France.) In week-day sung Masses, as there is 
only one cantor and it would keep the people from their work, the 
Gloria, Gradual, Tract, Sequence and Credo are not sung. R. An 
abuse to be removed. December 29, 1884. 

3786. (Diano, Italy.) The canons at conventual and episcopal 
Mass, leave the Kyrie^ Gloria^ Credo^ Sanctus and Agnus to the 
lay organist. R. They must follow the Ceremoniale Episcoporum 
in everything. July 22, 1892. 

3994 (Plock, Poland.) Hymns in the vernacular during Mass 
are forbidden. The singers must sing all that is in the Roman 
Gradual. June 25. 1898. 

2424. (Coimbra.) The introit is not to be begun before the 
priest reaches the Altar. April 14, 1753. 

970. (Siguenza, Spain.) The custom of reciting the Gloria 
throughout with the organ, and not singing it in alternate choirs 
(itUegre sub organo moduleiur ei humanis vocibuSy nee oltemaHm 
cancimUur)^ is an abuse to be removed. September 19, 1654. 

1711. (Albenga, Piedmont.) On great feasts a custom obtains, 
as in France, Bologna, Florence and elsewhere, of employing at 
high Mass some priests in copes, who join the ministers in the 
Confession, and the senior of whom pre-intones the Gloria, R. The 
rubrics of the Missal and Ceremonial are to be followed. July 24,1683. 

2114. (Cortona.) The chapter and canons ask authorisation of 
the customs of conducting processions through the city square 
and principal streets and of the pre-intonation of the Gloria and 
Credo. R. Neither is permitted. June 23, 1703. 

3069. (St. Brieuc.) In churches where there is one priest, when 
April 25th falls on a Sunday, the sung Rogation Mass will satisfy 
as the parochial Mass ; the Gloria and Credo are to be omitted, 
and the Mass sung in the ferial tone. August 14, 1858. 

3421. (Ratisbon.) The publisher Pustet asks whether the Gloria 
and Ite missa est are to be sung in the tone of the B.V.M. during 
the octaves of Christmas and Corpus Christ!, on feasts occurring 
during these octaves, and whenever the Preface of the Nativity is 
sung. R. Yes. May 25, 1877. 

3891. (Rome.) The Missal must be followed in the intonation of 
the Gloria and Credo^ and in all the parts sung by the priest, with the 
corresponding responses by the choir, and any custom to the 
contrary is to be abolished. March 14, 1896. 

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3106. (San Marco.) In conventual Mass the Tract is to be sung 
in entirety by the singers when the organ is not played. Sep- 
tember?, 1861. 

1588. (Seville.) The following customs are strongly denounced 
as abuses : The singing of the Passion in Holy Week not only by 
sub-deacons, but by laymen, oftentimes by married men ; also of 
singing the Passion in private Mass, or even without Mass ; a 
priest going vested to the altar while it is being sung. January 
16, 1677. 

3110. Laymen cannot take the parts of Chrontsta and Synagoga 
in the Passion. June 13, 1899. 

4044. (Buenos Ayres.) The deacon who represents the Synagoga 
may sing the sentences of single individuals, and the part of the 
turba may be taken by a lay choir. July 7, 1899. 

2169. (Terlizzi.) Nuns may not sing the part of the iurba^ under 
pain of suspension. June 17, 1706. 

1023. (Siguenza.) The Credo may not be sung alternately with 
the oi^an, but must be sung entirely and audibly. March 16, 1657. 

3104. (Santiago.) The celebrant may not continue the Mass 
immediately after the IncanuUtis; nor omit the singing of the 
Preface and Paler. March 14, 1861. 

3108. (San Marco.) The Credo to be sung in entirety. Sep- 
tember 7, 1861. 

3110. (San Marco). The organ may accompany the plain-chant 
Credo. March 22, 1862. 

1936. (Genoa). The celebrant may not go on with the Mass 
during the singing of the Credo. Dec. 17, 1695. 

2682. (Marsi.) The Benedicius to be sung after the Elevation of 
the chalice. Nov. 12, 1831. 

2424. (Coimbra). During the Elevation the Tanium Ergo or 
other appropriate antiphon of the B. Sacrament may be sung 
April 14, 1773. 

2951. (Flascala.) The organ may accompany the Ite mtssaesi. 
September 11, 1847. 

3122. (Santiago.) The pause is to be observed at the asterisk in 
reciting the little Hours. July 8, 1864. 

1180. (Genoa). The verses of the Beftedicius and Magnificat 
alternated with the organ are to be recited audibly. November 20, 

3054. (Avignon.) The great 0*s to be sung standing, slowly, 
gravely and solemnly, as is the custom ; and the Magnificat 
following to be sung to the solemn and not ferial tone. May 9, 1857. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

56 Legislation on Church Music. 

2343. (Montepulciano). In ferial vesptrs in Advent, &c., the 
prayers said kneeling are sung* with a fiaH of a third, yb-re, at each 
versicle ; the Pater is recited with the same fall at the end ; the 
Miserere is not sung, hut recited in the same tone as the rest of 
the versicles. R. The custom to he abrogated and a monotone 
used (utendum Umo ac voce unifi^rmi per simplicem fa). May 9, 

3110. (San Marco). Repeats the preceding regulation. March 

22, 1862. 

3804. (Genoa.) The Lamentations, Responsories, Miserere and 
other portions of the liturgy on the three last days of Holy Week 
may not be sung to organ or instrumental accompaniment. An 
ancient custom of singing motets with organ or instrumental 
accompaniment before the B. Sacrament from Vespers of Maundy 
Thursday to Good Friday morning may be tolerated. June 16, 

3642. (Reims.) The words Aleph &c. in the Lamentations are 
to be sung, and not supplied by an organ symphony. September 

23, 1885. 

1347. On doubles during the octave of the Immaculate Con- 
ception, the Benedicamus Dno of Our Lady is to be sung. 
January 16, 1667. 

1350. (Siena.) The same decree. March 5, 1667. 

2464. (Capaccio.) Nothing is to be sung during the blessing at 
Benediction. Feb. 3, 1762. 

2725. (The Swiss Capuchins.) At Benediction the blessing is not 
to be given during the words Sit et benediction but at the end of the 
hymn and prayer. May 23, 1825. 

3058. (Utrecht.) At Exposition, during Lauds and Mass, the 
blessing is to be given once only, at the end of the prayer, and in 
silence. July 11, 1857. 

3110. (San Marco.) At the act of Exposition singing may be 
permitted at the option of the Bishop. March 22, 1862. 

3638. (Montreal.) Prayers during Exposition, not of the Mass or 
canonical Hours, are to be sung with a single inflexion at the end 
of each. July 18, 1885. 

3050. (Port Louis.) The expression precatio suffragiim tht reply 
given to Turin, September 11, 1847, includes the Dies irm. The 
Offertory must be sung in Masses of the Dead. May 9, 1857. 

3767. (Calahorra.) In the more solemn ferias of Lent, the ferial 
Mass is recited with deacon and sub*deacon, while the choir is 
singing Sext and None. In Masses of the Dead the Dies mwis 



Legislation on Church music. 57 

not sung*. Both customs must be prudently abrogated as abuses. 
February 13, 1892. 

39S6. (St. Brieuc.) The Dies ircB to be said whenever a Mass 
for the Dead is sung, and on the privileged days, i.e. the day of 
death he. yivy 21, 1897. 

3108. (San Marco.) The Libera is not to be begun till the priest 
and sub-deacon are in position by the bier. September?, 1861. 

3110. (San Marco.) Repeats the previous decision and adds that 
the cantors are to wait a signal from the Master of Ceremonies. 

4009. (Dubtum.) May the organ accompany the Preface and 
Pmier. R. The Cerenumiale Epixoporum is opposed to it (1. I. c. 28, 
§ 9) and is to be followed. Jan. 27, 1899. 

1490. (Cordova.) The organ permitted at Mass and Vespers on 

the IV Sunday of Lent and III of Advent. September 16, 1673. 

2245. (Benevento.) The organ may be used only for Mass 

and Vespers on those Sundays ; not for any other Canonical 

Hours. April 2, 17ia 

2424. (Coimbra.) In Lent and Advent and on vigils, the custom 
oi playing the organ at the votive Mass of Our Lady on Saturdays, 
and at her Litany after Vespers, may be retained. April 14, 1753. 

2059. (Turin.) At high Mass and Vespers on Sundays of Lent 
and Advent with regard to the organ the Ceremonial is to be 
observed strictly, notwithstanding any custom to the contrary. 
Sept. 11, 1847. 

2965. (Florence.) The same. July 22, 1848. 

3183. (The Belgian Franciscans.) The Provincial asks permis- 
sion to use the organ in Masses and Office of the Dead and in Lent 
and Advent, because their numbers are few and they employ no 
external help. 

R. The Rubrics are to be observed. Sept. 26, 1868. 

3333. (Turin.) By immemorial custom Vespers are not sung 
before solemn feasts in the Metropolitan Church, and the organ 
b played in Advent and Lent, except on Palm Sunday. R. The 
custom is not to be retained. June 22, 1874. 

2365. (Aix in France.) To the question whether the organ is 
forbidden on Septuagesima &c. Sundajrs, the answer is that it is 
permitted when the ministers use dalmatic and tunic, even purple. 
Sept, 2, 1741. 

3515. (Vigevano.) May the organ accompany the singing of the 
Gieria at Mass on Maundy Thursday? R. Servetur consueimda, 
June 11, 188a 

Digitized by 


58 Legislation on Church Music, 

3535. (Urgel.) An immemorial custom of using the organ 
during the whole Mass on Maundy Thursday is to be elimi- 
nated. Dec. 30, 1881. 

4044. (Buenos Ayres. ) May the pianoforte (cymbalum seu Putno^ 
forte) be used at Tenebrae and ferial Masses when the organ is 
forbidden ? 

R. Negative in omnibus. July 7th» 1899. 

1283. (Milan.) Certain musical professors of Milan use musical 
instruments contrary to authoritative decrees, on the ground that 
the latter only affect churches under the Ambrosian rite, and do 
not extend to exempt churches or to lay folk. R. The constitutions 
apply to all churches and persons, exempt and lay. Jan. 26, 1664. 

Here follow three decrees of particular interest, and which, per- 
haps, are more widely known. 

3830. An Apostolic Brief to the publisher Pustet of Ratisbon 
congratulates him on having completed his edition of the Roman 
Gradual, reproducing {ad instar) the Medicean edition and following 
the rules prescribed to him by the S.R.C. '* Therefore we especi- 
ally commend this edition of the so-called Roman Gradual to the 
Reverend the Ordinaries and to all interested in sacred music," 
the more so because we earnestly desire in every place and diocese 
uniformity in chant with the Roman Church. May 30, 1873. 

The next is a decree of the S.R.C. also addressed to Pustet and 
confirming the significance of the above Brief, in which Pustet's 
edition, carefully revised, approved and declared authentic by a 
special commission of experts in sacred music deputed by the 
S.R.C., is earnestly commended to the Ordinaries. 

The last is the most recent and most important decree in 
the matter. Quod Sanctus AugusHnus, July 7, 1894. It speaks 
first of the interest shown by the Holy See in the reform of church 
music after the Council of Trent, in the persons of Pius V, Gregory 
Xni and Paul V, and refers to the Medicean edition prepared by 
Palestrina and his pupils at the papal command. These partial 
and preliminary proceedings were terminated in our time, when 
Pius IX had that Gradual completed by a commission of musicians, 
authenticated it and commended it to the Bishops for universal 
acceptance. Leo XIII has confirmed this. The Brief of May 30th, 
1873, *' warmly approves this addition and declares it authentic." 
Pope Leo XIII, by letters Apostolic, dated November 15th, 1878, 
gave the new edition of the first part of the Antiphonary, con- 
taining the day Hours, his special commendation, addressing to 



Legislation on Church Music. 59 

the Bishops and lovers of sacred music his earnest commendation 
of the edition. 

Much opposition was raised to this, especially in the Congress 
of Arezzo in 1882; wherefore the S.C.R. again took up their 
championship. The request of the Congress to the Holy See 
that the Gregorian liturgical chant should be brought back to its 
ancient form cannot be accepted as it stands. Research into the 
ancient forms and phases for erudition's sake is, and will always 
be, free and commendable ; but there is only one form of Gregorian 
chant to be held as authentic and legitimate at the present day, 
which according to the Tridentine decrees has been ratified and 
confirmed by Paul V, Pius IX, Leo XIII and by the S.R.C., as 
in the edition lately prepared, as alone containing the method 
of chant which the Roman Church uses. As concerns the liberty 
of retaining in individual churches a chant lawfully introduced 
and hitherto in use, the same S. Congregation strongly exhorts all 
Ordinaries and others interested in ecclesiastical chant to adopt 
this edition for the sake of uniformity, although it does not exact 
it of individual churches quamvis iUiam . . . singulis ecclesiis 
rum imponaL 

This comprises the body of general legislation concerning church 
music up to the year 1899. We reserve for a future occasion any 
comment on the remainder of the book, which is concerned with 
the bearing and application of these decrees. 

Digitized by 



HMiD the long and illustrious roll of Saints and 
great ecclesiastics which the venerable English 
Congregation of the Benedictine Order has contributed 
to the countless galaxy of Holy Church's heroes, are 
three Cardinals — it must be confessed a very inade- 
quate number for a period of thirteen centuries. 

The first of these was Dom Boso Breakspear^ who 
was bom early in the 12th century. He became a 
monk of the splendid Abbey of St. Alban*s, the 
titular dignity of which is now vested in Downside, 
its spiritual heir and recognised continuation : but 
when his famous uncle. Cardinal Nicholas Breakspear — 
our only English Pope — ^ascended the Papal Throne, 
he not unnaturally proceeded to Rome and entered 
the service of the Curia. 

Apparently he was a man of no small merit in 
several ways, and altogether one is little surprised to 
find that Pope Adrian IV., about the year 1155, 
honoured this favourite nephew with the Roman 
Purple by creating him Cardinal Deacon of S.S. 
Cosmas and Damian. He was entrusted with some 
important papal mission to Portugal and also placed 
in charge of the Castle of San Angelo. 

Upon the death of his uncle, both Alexander III. 
and Lucius III., his successors in the Chair of Blessed 
Peter, are said to have owed their electibn chiefly 
to Cardinal Boso, who must therefore have exercised 
considerable influence in Rome. 

Digitized by 


Our Engush brnedictine Cardinals. 61 

Pope Alexander created him Cardinal Priest of 
San Pudenziana — centuries afterwards the titular 
church of the first Archbishop of Westminster — and 
he is supposed to have accompanied that Pontiff on 
his celebrated journey to Venice in a.d. 1177. The 
Cardinal's signature is attached to many papal bulls 
and other documents of this period, but little is 
known of his career. He won some fame as a poet, 
and is also stated to have written several erudite 
theological treatises. Cardinal Boso died in Rome 
probably in the autumn of the year 1181. 

The next English Benedictine Cardinal was by far 
the most illustrious of the trio, and, indeed, in some 
ways, one of England's greatest sons. This was Dom 
Simon Langkam^ who became in the same year, a.d. 
1349, first Prior and then Abbot of Royal Westminster 
— in consequence of which he also became a Peer of the 
Realm. This was the disastrous period of a Francophil 
Papacy; and the Benedictine Pope Clement VI. was 
reigning from Avignon, whither the Lord Abbot elect 
of Westminster journeyed to obtain papal confirmation 
of his election to this important and "exempt*' position. 

Evidently Abbot Langham, during the next decade, 
displayed both virtue and ability to no ordinary extent, 
for his subsequent promotions were many and rapid. 
His skill in ruling Westminster Abbey led to his 
appointment as Lord Treasurer of England in a.d. 
1360, while two years later a Papal Bull appointed 
him to the vacant See of Benedictine Ely. 

Almost directly after his consecration and enthrone- 
ment the new prelate was offered the Bishopric of 
London, but he refused to accept it. In the follow- 
ing year, a.d. 1363, the Benedictine Bishop of Ely 
was created Lord Chancellor of England, and in this 
connection it is noticeable that he opened Parliament 




by delivering the speech from the woolsack, for the 
first time» in English. 

In the year 1366 the Primatial Throne of St. 
Augustine became vacant, and Benedictine Canter- 
bury now very appropriately received as her Pontiff 
this illustrious son of St. Benedict He forthwith 
resigned the Great Seal and was "confirmed** Arch- 
bishop in St. Nicholas' Chapel in his Abbey Minster. 
On November the 4th his Grace was invested with 
the pallium, "taken from the Body of Blessed Peter** 
and granted to him by the Apostle's successor, Bl. 
Urban V., in St. Stephen's Chapel at the King's 
Palace of Westminster. Upon Lady Day in a.d. 1367 
the new Archbishop of Canterbury was enthroned in 
his splendid Cathedral amid all the customary magni- 
ficence of the Sarum Ritual and surrounded by the 
clergy and faithful laity of his diocese. 

As Primate Dom Langham vigorously opposed the 
prevalent abuse of pluralities as well as the heresies 
and ** socialism'* of Wiclif — in fact the Warden 
of the new Canterbury (now St. Mary's) Hall at 
Oxford, removed by this zealous Primate on account 
of his unorthodoxy, was no doubt the Lollard chief 
himself Archbishop Langham commenced making a 
Provincial Visitation and, upon the reappearance of 
the dreaded plague, ordered public prayers and sup- 
plications: he granted an Indulgence of 40 days to 
those who attended — ** trusting in the Mercy of 
Almighty God and the merits and prayers of the 
Blessed Virgin Mary His Mother, of the holy 
Thomas, the glorious Martyr, and of all the Saints." 
[Wilkins' Concilia^ iii, 74.] 

However, his Grace had not held the See of 
Canterbury for two years when a still higher honour 
was conferred upon him ; for on September the 



Our English Benedictine Cardinals. 63 

27th, 1368, Bl. Urban V. (himself a Benedictine) 
created the distinguished Archbishop of Canterbury 
Cardinal Priest of the Holy Roman Church by 
the title of St Sixtus. It is said that the Holy 
Father took this step without having previously ob- 
tained the consent of King Edward III., who was in 
consequence much offended, despite a prompt visit of 
the meek Primate to Westminster Palace. The new 
Cardinal forthwith, indeed of necessity, resigned the 
Primacy of All England with its rich temporalities, 
and obtained, not without difficulty, the Royal sanction 
to leave his native land for Avignon, still the seat of 
the Papal Court. Nothing perhaps shows more clearly 
the true relations between Canterbury and Rome during 
these centuries than the eager acceptance of that greater 
dignity, the Roman Purple, by our Dominican Primate, 
Friar Kilwardby (who crowned our first King Edward 
and his beloved Queen-Consort Eleanor) in a.d. 1278, 
and by this Benedictine Primate nearly a hundred 
years afterwards — notwithstanding the fact that it was 
then necessary for Cardinals to reside in curia^ and 
consequently for these two Archbishops to resign the 
semi -patriarchal See of Canterbury. 

In 1369 the Cardinal reached Avignon, and soon 
recovered the King of England's favour: it is 
stated that he even still drew the revenues of several 
English preferments by Royal permission — in itself a 
violation of the Statute of Provisors^ which had been 
renewed during Chancellor Langham*s tenure of the 
Great Seal I 

Later on a new Pope (Gregory XL) appointed **the 
Cardinal of Canterbury,'* as he was called at Avignon, 
and the Cardinal of Beauvais as his peace Envoys to 
the Courts of England and France, in the hope of 
ending the disastrous war between these two nations. 



64 Our Engush Benedictine Cardinals. 

Accordingly Cardinal Langfaam paid a State visit to 
his native country, with little success, on behalf of the 
desired pacification. Evidently he continued to win 
golden opinions in his new sphere of life, for the 
Holy Father now conferred a signal honour upon this 
English Prince of the Church : in July, 1373, he was 
raised to the exalted rank of Cardinal Bishop of 
Praeneste (Palestrina), one of the six suburban Sees 
apud Sanctum Petrum, 

Meanwhile in the following year St. Augustine's 
Chair at Canterbury became vacant once more through 
the death of Archbishop Whittlesey : the Benedictine 
Chapter thereupon actually again elected Cardinal 
Langham to the Primacy. But the King's nominee 
was Dr. Simon Sudbury and the Pope refused to 
confirm the capitular election, as he said he could 
not spare the Cardinal's services at Avignon. 

His Grace continued to take deep interest in the wel- 
fare of his native land ; for instance, upon hearing of 
another outbreak of the plague there, he obtained 
two Bulls from the Holy Father granting a Plenary 
Indulgence to all those who died penitent but 
without the last Sacraments, as well as founding 
Chantries for the Holy Souls at Westminster and 
Kilbum. However, two years later the Papal Court 
was enabled to return to the Eternal City, and the 
Sovereign Pontiff to his kingdom. Cardinal Langham 
then obtained pen^ission from his Holiness hence- 
forth to reside in England. He wrote to the Abbot 
of Westminster for lodgings in the Abbey precincts, 
so as to be able to supervise the restoration of its 
Church, and meanwhile he conferred with French 
architects and engaged skilled artizans. 

Unfortunately death quite unexpectedly put an end 
to his patriotic designs, and his Grace expired while 



Our English brnedtctine Cardinals. 65 

making preparations for his return in a«d. 1376. The 
alleged pathetic dying request of this Benedictine 
Cardinal for burial in his beloved Abbey of West- 
minster — ^his home indeed, according to the beautiful 
Benedictine tradition— shows where his heart was fixed. 
Three years later his body was conveyed from Avignon 
to the Chapel of St. Benet in our historic national 
Valhalla, where his monument still remains, the oldest 
and most remarkable of all the ecclesiastical tombs 
within its hallowed walls. 

Cardinal Langham was plainly a man of holy 
character and marked ability, especially in the ad- 
ministrative line. For instance, it may well be re- 
called that he was the first to establish technical 
schools in England, including within their objects the 
study of architecture and painting, and the cultivation 
of gardens, orchards, or even of fishponds. He founded 
one of these useful schools at Canterbury itself, which 
is now temporarily in Catholic hands once more. But 
among his many titles, perhaps, he is chiefly known to 
fame by that of " the second founder of Westminster 
Abbey,** where as humble choir monk, then Prior, and 
finally as Lord Abbot, he had spent so much of his 
career, and where his remains now rest in pace. 

During his lifetime Cardinal Langham had been a 
most munificent benefactor towards the completion of 
this glorious building — even in its present state one 
of the most beautiful churches in the world : above all, 
the nave, in which his father lay buried, was mainly 
finished through his private donations and at his own 

By his will the pious Cardinal bequeathed the whole 
of his residuary estate, worth about ;^200,ooo, towards 
the Abbey completion fund. Out of this vast sum 
the community were enabled to erect anew or to 

Digitized by 


66 Our Bngush bbnedictinb Cardinals. 

complete the conventual buildings of the Abbey, in- 
cluding the Abbot's House, a large portion of the 
exquisite cloisters, and other fabrics since perished. 
The Abbot's residence is now the Anglican Deanery, 
and above the entrance door may still be seen a 
carved head, which represents none other than this 
great and good Benedictine monk. Cardinal Langham. 

Somewhat strangely the third and last English 
Benedictine Cardinal was created within a few years 
of the death of the second. Dom Adam Eastan was 
bom of humble parentage, and after the usual novitiate 
received the Black Habit of St Benedict at the Cathedral 
Priory of Norwich. He proceeded to the Benedictine 
Hall at Oxford University and acquired great repu- 
tation as a Greek and Hebrew scholar: finally he in- 
cepted there as Doctor of Divinity* Afterwards Dom 
Easton left England for Avignon, probably in the 
train of Cardinal Archbishop Langham when the 
latter was invested with the Hat. Here he re- 
mained and apparently received some appointment in 
the curia : for instance, his name appears as a witness 
against Wiclifs appeal. He went to Rome with the 
Papal Court, and, after various promotions, was at 
length raised to the Purple itself by Pope Urban VI., 
probably in the year 1381, as Cardinal Priest of St. 
Cecilia — the titular church assigned to Cardinals 
Wolsey and Howard in the i6th and the 17th 
centuries. Soon afterwards the new Prince of the 
Church was nominated by papal provision Dean of 
York: as an example of Uie grave abuses in this 
direction, it may here be mentioned that he was the 
third non-resident Cardinal in succession to hold this 

Meanwhile the terrible and disastrous Papal schism 
had begun, and in a.d. 1384 Urban VI., the real 



Our English bbnrdictine Cardinals. 67 

Pope, transferred the seat of the Curia to Nocera in 
Umbria, Then occurred the famous revolt of certain 
Cardinals, which literally only resulted in their own 
destruction: but the English Benedictine escaped the 
hapless fate of the others through the timely inter- 
vention of King Richard II, at the instance of his 
fellow monks. In addition to the imprisonment. Cardinal 
Easton had already suffered deprivation of his Deanery : 
he was now degraded from the Purple itself and 
dismissed in poverty from his temporary prison, 
which is still pointed out to tourists, in •* Genoa the 

However, upon his ensuing death and the election of 
Boniface IX in a.d. 1389, one of the new Pope's first 
acts was to restore the English Cardinal to his honours. 
Moreover, his Holiness kindly wrote a letter of 
recommendation to England's Parliament on Cardinal 
Easton's behalf. Apparently the latter now, by papal 
disposition, retumeii to his native country, where he 
seems to have held a prebend of Salisbury Cathedral, 
which he exchanged later on for a Norfolk living — 
perhaps so as to be near the world-renowned and 
national Shrine of our Blessed Lady at Walsingham. 

Anyhow ** my Lord Cardinal's Grace" eventually 
returned to Rome, attracted by its immortal spell, 
where he died in the year 1397 and was buried in 
his titular Church. Here his tomb still remains, and, 
placed on the right of the principal entrance, forms 
an object of much interest to English visitors or 
pilgrims to the Shrine of St. Cecilia. 

Cardinal Easton wrote several learned theological 
treatises, which have unfortunately all perished : he is 
said to have made a Latin translation of the Hebrew 
Bible, and also to have been the author of the 
Church's Office for the Visitation of the Blessed 



68 Our Engush bbnedictinb Cardinals. 

Virgin Mary, in addition to several Scriptural com- 
mentaries. He eagerly championed the canonization 
cause of St. Brigid, the sweet Patroness of Ireland 
and faithful image of our Lady. 

Another Crimson, merely symbolised by the former, 
has since adorned the brow of many an English Bene- 
dictine — ay ! their life - blood freely shed for Holy 
Church, and rewarded by the glorious Crown of 
Martyrdom itself. 

Dudley Baxter. 

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^^^ROTHER Anselm Barnewall died peacefully at 
%^^ Downside on the evening of the 7th of Feb- 
ruary, in the 80th year of his age. His last illness 
was mercifully brief, and his suffering at no time 
extreme or of long duration. For the past year or 
so it was noticeable how his strength was failing, 
and how he dragged his feet in walking. The latter 
sjrmptom might have been partially due to his fail- 
ing eyesight ; indeed, the gradual decay of his 
powers prepared us for a protracted period of help- 
lessness. We could not think that so robust a 
constitution would give way so rapidly. On the 
nth of January of this year, as he was going from 
the church to his room shortly before supper, he fell 
in the cloister, at the foot of the staircase leading 
to the big dormitory, and required to be helped to 
his room. There is little doubt but that this accident 
was of the nature of a stroke. He was never able 
to walk again, and scarcely able to stand. At the 
beginning his mind was perfectly clear ; but after 
the second day he became liable to illusions, which 
continued to the end with varying frequency and 
force. At no time of his succeeding illness was he 
incapable of recognising his visitors, or of following 
their conversation. Still there was the danger that 
his mind might give way completely ; so on the 

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70 Brother Anselm Barnewall. 

15th January the last sacraments were administered 
to him. Though his mind had been very wandering 
during the moming, yet the habits of a lifetime 
came to his service, and those who were present 
will not forget the almost rapturous devotion with 
which he received the sacramental rites. 

From that time there was little hope of his 
recovery, though there was the possibility of a pro- 
longed illness. His mind was for the most part 
clear, and he was never incapable of following 
conversation. His memory of the past, at all times 
more than ordinary, was vivid to the end. During 
the last days of his illness the chapter fathers 
assembled at Downside, and he was able to appreci- 
ate the visit of old friends, and to realise the interest 
of the occasion. On the day of his death there was 
no sign of any crisis in his illness. It is notable 
that more than once during the day he remarked 
that ** everything ought to be done for him." When 
told that he had received all the last sacraments he 
was quite contented. Between eight and nine in the 
evening he told one of the community who went to 
see him that he had been suffering intense pain, but 
that he was then perfectly at ease. Shortly after- 
wards the matron came into the room and saw that 
he was dying. She telephoned at once for the 
infirmarian. Father Philip, but before the latter could 
go from the Infirmary to the Old House, Brother 
Anselm had died. The immediate cause was weak- 
ness of the heart. He was buried on the Saturday 
following, February 9th, and was followed to his 
grave by the President-General and the fathers of 
the Chapter, and the whole household of St. Gregory's. 

Robert Mary Anselm Bar ne wall was bom in the 
year 1821, and came to Downside in the year 1829. 

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Brother anseim barnmwall. 71 

From the testimony of his school companions we know 
that he was a quiet, cheerful boy, successful in studies 
and fond of reading. He was a treble in the choir, 
and was acolyte at the altar. In 1837 he left College 
with the intention of taking his position in London 
Catholic society. A diary which he kept at that time 
shews that he maintained his interest in literary 
matters, and that he was a serious-minded youth. 
The late Bishop Brown of Newport and Menevia is 
credited with having been an influence in moving him 
to the choice of a religious life. A letter extant shews 
him to have been a counsellor in this matter, though 
there was nothing in it to shew that he was respon- 
sible for that choice. During his stay in London 
he took an active part in Catholic lay enterprise, 
being one of the original members of the Society 
of St. Vincent de Paul, and secretary to the Society 
of St. David of Wales, to which latter post he may 
have been incited by Bishop Brown, who was by 
that time Vicar Apostolie. He was proud of re- 
cording how he was present at the banquet given 
to Daniel O'Connell, who shook hands with him, 
and at the Shrewsbury and O'Connell reconciliation 
in Coven t Garden Theatre. In 1845 he took the 
habit, at Downside, and was professed in due course 
of time. He was alone in the noviciate, and this 
solitariness is believed to have assisted the de- 
velopment of the infirmity which later so sensibly 
affected his life. He was able to do but little 
teaching, though he used to allude to persons who 
had been his pupils. In 1849 his malady increased, 
and he was obliged to go abroad for treatment at 
Bruges. For a considerable period he did not re- 
main at any one place for any length of time. The 
following list of dates and names is from a note in 

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72 Brother Anselm Barnewall. 

his own hand found among his papers. ** May 
fSsii to Courtral, Douai and Li^ge; 1852, to 
Douai, St. Edmund's ; 1854, to Tournai ; 1855, to 
Douai ; 1856, Coventry ; 1859, Downside ; i860, Strat- 
ford ; 1861, Coventry ; 1862, Aberavon ; 1863, Coven- 
try; 1864, Aberavon; 1866, Downside, Sodbury, 
Coedangred; 1867 — 1870, Downside; 1870, Aberga- 
venny; 1871 — 2, Downside." Here the list ends, 
and it is a relief to know that the remainder of his 
years were spent almost entirely at Downside. 

Brother Anselm had natural gifts which would 
have rendered to St. Gregory's brilliant service, save 
for the unfortunate limitation which, at the very 
start of his career, made those faculties useless. 
Our own loss, manifest as it was, passes into insig- 
nificance beside the calamity it brought into his life. 
He had the humiliation of seeing himself unoccupied 
while others around him were working for the 
common interest. The highest aspiration of his life 
was thwarted by his incapacity to receive sacred 
Orders ; finally, however thoroughly his deep re- 
ligious principles might bend him to submission to 
the Divine Will, nothing could prevent his feeling 
that he was outstripped in his life's career by those 
who were not born when he had reached man's 
estate. His life's story is one before which we 
stand in a sympathy which reaches to awe ; while 
his noble acceptance of his position, which the 
natural desire of deliverance does nothing to mar, 
claims a higher reverence and admiration than the 
fullest achievement of human success. No utterance 
could convey more pathos than his remark, during 
his last illness, to one who reminded him of his 
claims upon God's mercy and benevolence; **Yes: 
I have had exceptional advantages all my life." 



Brother Anselm Barnewall. 73 

A very marked trait in Brother Anselm was his 
innate sense of courtesy and his loyal respect towards 
those in authority. His conversation was phrased 
with an accuracy quite in keeping with the dignified 
politeness of his bearing. The same qualities gave a 
marked charm to his correspondence. He has taken 
with him our last model of old-time courtesy. No 
figure will be more missed. Chapel and cloister, 
the libraries and college walks have lost their most 
Camiliar presence, and the venerable features, with 
that pathetic look of expectancy which his increasing 
blindness gave him, will haunt the ways of Down- 
side for every Gregorian for many years to come. 
May we never forget the lesson he taught us of 
reverence and submission and kindly courtesy ; and 
may his prayers help us where he is receiving the 
reward of his long meritorious life. — R.I. P. 

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Geschichte Rams und der Pdpste im Mittelalter 
von Hartmann Grisar S. J. (Freiburg im Breisgau : 
Herder, 1901). 

The first volume of Fr. Grisar's great ** History 
of Rome and the Popes in the Middle Ages" is 
now complete. The work is planned so as to fill 
six volumes in large octavo, the first whereof has close 
on 900 pages. It is natural to compare Grisar with 
Gregorovius. The first volumes of the two histories 
cover about the same period, but Grisar's contains 
fully four times as much matter as Gregorovius'. 
The latter work is written as a continuous narrative 
and with considerable literary skill, so that the 
reader is carried on from chapter to chapter with a 
never flagging interest, such archaeological matters 
as are introduced being ordinarily relegated to foot- 
notes. And it is our belief that anyone who wants 
to read medieval Roman history through, or any 
great episode in it, will still go to Gregorovius 
rather than to Grisar, whose work is planned on 
different lines. It is almost like an encyclopedia 
divided into articles, in chronological instead of 
alphabetical order, on all the chief points relat- 
ing to the Christian antiquities of Rome and her 
history in the fourth and fifth centuries. From the 
point of view of mere history the method has its 



Notices of Books. 75 

inconveniences ; for the narrative is so broken up that 
it seldom reveals any sufficient sweep of the course of 
events to satisfy the needs of either a philosophical 
or a dramatic presentation of the story. But for 
the study of the archaeology and early art of Christian 
Rome the book is invaluable ; and the title page 
proclaims that this was the object the author had 
especially in view. In long articles the most recent 
and authentic information is given on the catacombs, 
the basilicas, the inscriptions, the mosaics, the 
frescoes and early liturgical practices ; and the 
volume is enriched with more than two hundred 
well-chosen and well-executed engravings, which 
admirably illustrate the whole artistic side of the 
work. Anyone who is going to Rome and wishes 
really to enjoy it to the full, must carefully prepare 
himself beforehand, especially concerning the Chris- 
tian antiquities and art of the city; and for an 
intelligent study of these subjects on a moderate 
scale, nothing can be better than Grisar's first 
volume, which is indeed a full and scientific hand- 
book to Early Christian Rome. 

What has been said will convey a sufficient idea 
of the general character of the book ; it would be 
obviously impossible to attempt here to describe the 
contents in any detail. But one section may fitly 
be dwelt on for a moment — that dealing with early 
Roman monachism and with St. Benedict and his 
work. The author brings together the facts that 
are recoverable concerning the beginnings of mona- 
chism in Rome, and sketches the condition of 
Italian monachism at the time St. Benedict arose. 
He has correctly seen certain great facts in the 
Rule ; e.g. that it did not of set purpose create 
anything new, that its spirit is only the old spirit 

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of the Gospel, and that St. Benedict's chief refor- 
mation consisted in a mitigation of the austerities 
that had hitherto been regarded as an integral part 
of the idea of the monastic life. Fr. Grisar, in 
passing, expresses an opinion on various points that 
have at one time or another been in controversy : 
he rejects St. Maur's mission to Gaul ; but accepts 
without hesitation the Benedictinism of St Gregory 
the Great and St Augustine of Canterbury. This 
latter question has been gone into more than once 
in these pages. The present reviewer believes that 
it is correct to say that, when an historically true 
definition has been given of what is to be under- 
stood by calling a monk a Benedictine in the sixth 
and seventh centuries, nearly all historical critics of 
standing who have dealt with the matter within the 
past few years have pronounced the same verdict 
as Grisar on SS. Gregory and Augustine. Grisar 
stands with Lanciani and Duchesne in the front 
rank of the archaeologists of Christian Rome. As 
an historian he is animated by the same spirit and 
traditions as the Bollandists. When completed his 
work will be a magnificent monument of Catholic 
scholarship, critical, scientific aiid loyal. It will 
close just where Pastor begins. The two together 
will cover the whole history of the Popes from 
Constantine to the Reformation. Grisar's work is 
being translated into Italian ; is it too much to 
hope that the author's English brethren may turn it 
into English, as has been done for Pastor? It 
argues no lack of respect or appreciation for 
Gregorovius to say that there ought to be, in 
English, a complete history from Catholic pens of 
Christian Rome. A translation of Grisar would go 
far to supply this want. E. C. B. 

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NOTICES OF Books. 77 

Short Lives of the Dominican Saints. Kegan 
Paul, French, Trtibner & Co., London. 7/6. 

It was a happy thought that led one of the com- 
munity of Stone to compile these Lives. The 
greater number of the subjects of the biographies 
have only reached the stage of beatification ; so that 
with some notable exceptions such as B. Albertus 
Magnus, the names and episodes are unfamiliar to us. 
There is much edification to be had, both from the super- 
natural and the natural element, and also practically 
a compendious history of the Great Dominican 
Order. The book is admirably printed, and comfort- 
able to hold. We wish it the success it deserves. 

Magister adest^ or Who is like unto God ? Kegan 
Paul & Co., London. Price 5/- net. 

This is a book of meditations on the various 
phases of our Lord's life, on the Blessed Sacrament, 
on Our Lady and St. Joseph, and on God's good- 
ness. The meditations consist of passages from the 
S. Scripture, some directly bearing on the individual 
subject, others suggestive or illustrative of it. The 
book abounds in pictorial illustrations which are to 
serve for what is known as the ** composition " of the 
incidents. There must be many for whom this device 
will be a saving of time and an aid to devotion. 
The scriptural texts are underlined in parts. All 
these qualifications, most especially the selection of 
passages from S. Scripture, are a strong recommen- 
dation of the book for those who are in the practice 
of meditation. The book itself is a marvel of 
cheapness, and when we see that its 388 pages 
come from the famous Chiswick Press and compute 
the vast labour which its compilation shows, we are 
filled with admiration for the zeal and devotion 
which offers such a work to the piety of the faithful. 

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The Dominican Tertiary 's Daily Manual^ by the 
Very Rev. John Proctor, O.P. (same publishers), 
price i/6 net. 

This little book is a model of what such a book 
should be. The duties and privileges of the tertiary 
are clearly set forth ; a sketch of the history of the 
Third Order is given ; and the Ordinary of the 
Mass according to the Dominican rite is added. 

The Rosary Guide for Priests and People^ by the 
Very Rev. Father Proctor, O.P. (same publishers), 
1901, 1/6 net. 

In view of the fact that Pope Leo XIII. since 
1883 has written an Annual Encyclical letter to 
the entire Church on the subject of the Rosary, it 
is well that a book of this kind should have been 
brought out. The three parts of the book contain 
respectively an account of each mystery ; all the 
legislation of the church in connection with the 
devotion ; and thirdly, various formulas for blessing 
Rosaries and Scapulars, six methods of saying the 
Rosary — Rosary Hymns, &c. In fact the book will 
be found a most useful help to Priests and People : 
and the full scripture quotations and plain state- 
ment of facts about the Rosary, make it a mine of 
information to those who may have to preach on 
the subject. 

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'^'HE change in the appearance of the REVIEW is in deference 
^t^ to a resolution passed at the last Gregorian meeting. It 
was thought that something should be done to mark the coming- 
of-age of our magazine — though literally that august event is only 
reached in the July number. It was decided that neither type 
nor paper were entirely satisfactory, being trying to the eyes and 
heavy to handle. Furthermore, out of motives of economy, it was 
suggested that the issue should be reduced in size. The present 
number is an experiment We have secured a larger type and 
have selected an unglazed paper. The change in size of type 
reduces the capacity of the page and also its cost in almost pro- 
portionate quantity. So that we could give our readers very 
nearly the same amount of matter for the same cost. 

Twenty-one years ago there were various conjectures as to the 
probable duration of the new venture's existence. Some promised 
us a short decade of life. There have certainly been one or two 
critical periods in the REVIEW'S existence, but we think we may 
claim to have established our right to live. Also to have fulfilled 
the principal function of our existence by putting on permanent 
record the memorabilia of the history of Downside. This was the 
main object always kept in view, and it still continues to be our 
principal endeavour to secure any information about ourselves in 
the past. 

We believe that the history of Downside in preparation by 
Father Norbert Birt, was ready for publication before he left 
England for the Cape. It would surprise us, knowing his in- 
dustry and punctiliousness, if it were not so ; but we are unable to 
give any date of its appearance. 

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80 Odds and Ends. 

Father Norbert supplies us with an interesting paper in our 
present number. Apart from the quaintness which gives such a 
personal flavour to the whole, its principal interest is that it is 
concerned with places in our neighbourhood. The second portion, 
which we reserve for our next issue, deals with objects nearer home. 

In addition to Father Norbert, Fathers Denis Firth (Ampleforth) 
and Anselm Scannell (Douai) have also left for the front. The 
want of chaplains is keenly felt. Though the information reached 
us after our last issue, we believe that every Gregorian knows by 
this that Father Francis Sweetman has passed through a critical 
attack of enteric. Yet the War Office authorities were very 
reluctant to allow him to return to England—- though they paid us 
a very high compliment in their communication — on account of 
the scarcity of chaplains. The last news we had from Father 
Stephen Rawlinson was that he was kept very much on the move, 
serving both Elandsfontein and Kroonstadt, on account of the 
illness of some of the chaplains. Of one catholic officer, who has 
been engaged since the beginning of the campaign, we have heard 
that he has only seen one priest during a twelvemonth, and as 
he had lost his kit, he was not able to say Mass. 

We had a visit from Harman Grisewood for Holy Week, and 
vi^ere able to congratulate him in person on his being gazetted 
lieutenant in the 4th Hussars. He joins his regiment in India in 
a few weeks. Those who knew of his delicate health at Downside 
will be glad to hear that the campaign has had nothing but a 
beneficial effect on him, though he had an attack of fever which 
laid him up for some time in hospital. He was very modest as to 
his military doings, and it was only accidentally that we heard 
that he had his horse twice shot under him. 

Apart from our chaplains he only met one Downside boy — P. 
Saunders-— on the platform of a station. He reports that Father 
Francis' nationality and good nature, and also his cricketing 
prowess, as we might have expected, made him a great favourite 
with the men. There is some uncertainty in the matter, but we 
believe that Father Francis is on his way home, on a four months* 
leave of absence. 

We had an interesting visit from Alfred J. Purssell, who was 
obliged to leave Plumer's force at the very beginning of the 
campaign through a violent attack of malarial fever. When he 



Odds and Ends. 81 

reached Capetown he was only gfiven two days to live. He is 
now quite well again and on the look-out for a fresh billet, 
having been unfortunately not too well treated by the Chartered 
Company. Purssell was with poor Worswick during his fatal 

Promotions have been numerous. Charles de la Pasture has 
been gazetted to the Scots Guards ; Ed. Roche-Kelly to the 
Royal Irish ; Edwin Murphy is expecting to be gazetted from 
Sandhurst and to leave shortly for the front. Frank Lee has 
gained his majority in the 4th Lancers. Bernard Ware, we hear, 
is with Rundle's force. 

The London Gaaeite of March 26 has the following : — 

*' Surgeon Major C. R. Kilkelly, M.B., Grenadier Guards, is 
granted the local rank of Lieutenant-Colonel in South Africa whilst 
in charge of an Imperial Yeomanry Hospital." He is at Pretoria. 

Meanwhile Percy Kilkelly has been doing something which is 
only mysteriously hinted at in the following, but of which we hope 
to obtain more satisfactory information \— 

*' Captain P. P. Kilkelly, Bombay Establishment, has been 
granted permission to accept and wear the insignia of the Order 
of the Brilliant Star of Zanzibar, conferred upon him for services 
rendered in the Sultan's dominions of Kismayu." 

The Hon. and Rev. Basil Feilding has also volunteered for the 
front, and left for South Africa some weeks ago. 

Capt. T. Britten has accepted a Staff appointment, to the 
genuine regret of the colonel and officers of his regiment. He has 
the rank of Brigade-Major, and the step is looked upon by his 
fellow officers as a promise of future distinction. 

Francis Nicholson, who left us only last year, entered Sandhurst 
in January last. Under the present state of things he may pass 
out in July. 

There is a talk of Sir Francis Fleming (Governor of the Leeward 
Islands) retiring shortly from diplomatic service. We shall be 
the gainers by having, nearer home, the talent and experience 
which have brotight him so much distinction. 

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82 Odds and Ends. 

We had the pleasure of announcing, in our last issue, the 
intended marriage of Roger Ford. The ceremony was per- 
formed by the Abbot, in Clifton Pro - Cathedral. Since then 
Roger Ford has been the recipient of an address of congratula- 
tion and of a silver tea and coffee service from the members of 
the Bedminster Conservative Club, on March 11th. 

Mr. Walter Long, M.P., presided, and paid generous and we 
are sure well-deserved compliments to Roger Ford and to his 
father, the late Mr. James Ford. The bulk of the speech was 
political, but we know that our readers will be pleased to read 
the following extracts, for there never was one who took a 
more hearty interest in Downside than Mr. Ford, nor is there a 
more practically devoted son of St. Gregory's than Roger Ford. 

•*The Right Hon. Walter Long, M.P., who was received with 
applause, said it gave him pleasure to be present that evening to 
join them in offering hearty congratulations to Mr. Roger Ford 
upon the important event which had recently occurred in his life, 
to express with them their gratitude for, and warm appreciation of, 
the splendid service that he had rendered so long to the Conserva- 
tive party in that city — (cheers) — and to record again, as he doubted 
not they had often recorded before, their hearty congratulation 
upon the fact that the traditions, the character, the energy, and 
the lovability of the father's character were so thoroughly exem- 
plified in the son. (Cheers.) His early recollections of political 
matters in Bristol were connected with the memory of Mr. Ford's 
father, and he could say from personal experience that no man — 
especially no young man— ever had a more generous friend, and 
seldom, he believed, if ever, had they found one so willing to help 
and guide them, and so able to guide them with the wisest advice, 
and set them a brilliant example. (Cheers.) He ventured to think 
that Mr. Roger Ford would derive pleasure from the knowledge 
that much of the seed which his father sowed with such infinite 
loyalty, and at times with such little encouragement, had pro- 
duced such a good crop in the representation of the Unionist 
party in the city of Bristol, and he would be ill doing his duty 
on that occasion if he did not remember, as he was sure they 
would remember, the brilliant life and kindly character and 
eminent services of the late Mr. James Ford. (Cheers.) 

'' The Chairman next made a presentation to Mr. Roger Ford 
on the occasion of his recent marriage. He remarked that the 
members of the club had long appreciated Mr. Ford's worth, and 

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Odds and Ends. 83 

they thought his marriage would be a fitting opportunity to express 
it. He asked Mr. Ford to accept a silver tea and coffee service 
and an illuminated address in the following terms : — ' The Com- 
mittee and members of the Bedminster Conservative Club beg to 
offer you their heartiest congratulations upon your marriage, and 
avail themselves of the opportunity to testify their great personal 
r^^d, and to recognise the valuable services you have rendered 
to the Conservative party in Bristol South as chairman of the club 
for the past seven years. Your desire for the welfare of the club 
has only been equalled by the zeal and devotion invariably com- 
bined with tact and courtesy with which you laboured to make it 
successful. The committee feel very strongly that its present 
satisfactory condition is mainly due to your untiring efforts, and 
they trust that under your guidance the club will long continue to 
exercise a powerful influence for the good of the Conservative 
party in the division. The members of the club ask you to 
accept this address and silver tea and coffee service as a token 
of their respect and esteem, and an expression of their very best 
wishes for your future health and happiness.' 

** Mr. Roger Ford, who met with a hearty reception, said the 
address should remain in his house as long as he lived, to remind 
him of the many friends he had in that club and in Bristol South. 
(Applause.) He had been supported during his chairmanship by 
a loyal and hard-working committee, and they might rely on his 
doing all in his power in future to make the club an even greater 
success than it was at present (Applause.)'* 

We understand that the President General, Abbot Gasquet, has 
accepted an invitation to deliver lectures in America. Those who 
invite him anticipate a great success, in which anticipation all 
Gregorians will heartily join. 

We announced Bishop Benziger's consecration at the end ot 
last year, and sent him the congratulations of all Gregorians. He 
writes interesting details of his work : — ** 1 begin to know this 
Mission, my future diocese ; and the more I see, the more I feel 
already the heavy burden. The prospects for conversion are here 
more favourable than elsewhere, but we want workers. In one 
part of the diocese each priest has four or five or more churches or 
chapels ; one even has seventeen ; another nineteen, with up to 
10,000 Catholics. Their administrations are all the more difficult 
as they are scattered and absorbed in a mass of pagan population. 



84 Odds and Ends. 

Of course under such circumstances littie can be done for the 
conversion of pagans (though we have still yearly about 600 
adults), and even the necessary religious instruction suffers." 
The Bishop wonders if any Gregorian would send him pecuniary 
aid. Certainly, if they do not, it will not be from want of affection 
for the petitioner or want of conviction of the justice and urgency 
of the appeal. His address is — '' Quilon, Malabar Coast, India." 

Here is a recent extract from the Cambridge Review which will 
show that our university students are not obliged to conceal their 
religious status and inclinations : — 

'* At the Fitzwilllam Historical Society last Wednesday evening 
the Rev. G. B. Hicks read a paper on 'the work of St. Benedict.' 
After general discussion a division was taken upon the question — 
'Was the Benedictine Rule the chief civilising influence in the 
Middle Ages ? ' Ayes 8, Noes 6." 

We congratulate Mr. and Mrs. Somers Bellamy on the birth of 
a daughter on February 4th. 

A gracious reply has been received to the Address of the Chapter 
to His Majesty ; we publish it at the beginning of this number. 

With regard to the recent General Chapter, held at Downside, 
on February 4th and the following days, it was interesting as being 
the first under the revised Constitutions. The following items 
will be of general interest. The Cathedral Monastery of St. 
Michael's, Hereford, is permitted to receive novices for its own 
community. Abbot Gasquet was re-elected Abbot President ; 
Father Raynal was elected Procurator in Curia, and at the pre- 
sentation of the Familia of St. Gregory's was appointed Abbot of 
St. Alban's. Abbot Snow was elected Assessor in Causis legiHmis 
ac judiciariis. Father Ildefonsus Cummins succeeds Abbot 
Raynal as Cathedral Prior of St. Michael's. 

Abbot Raynal is, for the present, resident at Downside. After 
nearly thirty years Priorship of St. Michael's (he succeeded the 
late Archbishop Vaughan in 1872), we can understand that a 
change under any circumstances must have been violent and pain- 
ful. We are the gainers ; for his contagious energy and his 
interesting reminiscences of the past are a new element of life to 
the community. 

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Odds and Ends. 85 

As to reminiscences, two very interesting letters have come into 
our hands, written by one of the community to his family, and 
which we give here nearly in extenso^ in the conviction of the in- 
terest they will convey to our readers, and also in the hope that 
they will prompt contemporaries of the writer to give us comments 
or information. 

We gather that the recipient of the letter had just left Downside ; 
hence the intimate nature of the correspondence. 

DOWNSIDE, 1839 (?) 

'• My dear H , 

'* I have so much news to tell you I hardly know where to 
b^n. Several boys have quitted Downside, and several have 
come to take their places. Among the latter is a little fellow not 

tn^er than George Davis, denominated ' little Tom T ,' who 

figured as one of the culprits at our grand trial. On the first 
Thursday of October we heard that four boys had gone to George 
Eyston's desk and taken some jam : accordingly we determined 
upon having a trial upon them, and postponed the Library Meet- 
ing that we might have plenty of time. I made out a list of 
officers — H. Blount, judge ; O'Brien, counsel for the defendant ; 
myself for the plaintiff ; twelve boys for the jury ; half-a-dozen 
constables ; and two jailors. I took care to write out all the 
evidence beforehand, that I might make no mistake. We all pre- 
pared our speeches. When everything was ready, I arose and 
explained the case, &c. The prisoners pleaded not guilty. After 
the witnesses had been produced and examined, Mr. O'Brien 
arose and made a spirited defence, principally directed against 
Hart, who was unfortunately chief evidence. The learned judge 
then made a very eloquent address to the jury on the enormity of 
the offence in question ; on the necessity of putting a stop to such 
practices, &c., &c. The jury then retired; after spending some 
time in consultation, they returned, and the Foreman declared to 
the judge that it was the opinion of the jury that the prisoners 
were guilty. Here the jailors brought the prisoners before the 
table, the culprits, whose countenances were pale from fright and 
their eyes fixed on the ground. 

" The Judge, after he had upbraided them, in an unparallelled 
harangue, condemned them to be given up to the Prefect for 

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86 Odds and Ends. 

"The court broke up with a loud shout; and off went the 
jailors with the culprits to the Prefect, followed by the mob, jury^ 
counsel and judge. 

'* After night-lecture, Mr. Davis ordered them to kneel the next 
day in the refectory during breakfast, dinner and supper. Some 
days after I wrote out a number of rules, and gave them to differ- 
ent boys to propose at the General Meeting. The first thing done 
was the election of officers ; contrary to my expectation, they made 
me President General, H. Blount, Vice do., W. P. O'Brien, 
Secretary General, and F. Dobinson, Vice do. Many of the rules 
impose fines, which have considerably augmented the public funds. 

" Mr. Davis has been very kind to the boys since he has become 
a prefect; such as lighting the study &c. by lamps, instead of those 
plagueing candles ; he has taken away that vile stove from the 
play room, and in its stead has placed a grate, something like the 
ancient one (this is called the 'grate improvement') and a variety 
of others. Soon after my return we had play for Mr. Davis's 
being made prefect ; he gave us excellent tuck, fowls, &c. His 
feast fell on the fourth of November, when he gave us ^eese for 
dinner. In the evening we sent up a balloon which we had made 
ourselves. After supper we let off £Z 10s worth of fireworks ; 
of this, 33 shillings was in crackers and squibs. I, as Pres. Gen., 
had the management of them ; they gave me no little trouble for 
some days before-hand. 

"The shelf has been put up in the library; it cost us fifteen 
shillings. The two large shelves are very comfortably filled ; we 
have received since July nearly forty books by buying and donations. 

*' Last Tuesday was speech-day; your class, down to C. Eyston 
inclusive, were among the orators ; besides French, three of us 
spoke Greek." 

The second letter is from the same correspondent, who was then 
a member of the community : — 

*• March, 1846. 
" My budget of news this time is not altogether of the most 

gratifying description. I suppose H saw mention made in the 

" Tablet," of the death of his old friend Mr. Harrison. He had 
been taken ill about 3 or 4 weeks previously, and finding himself 
getting very unwell he thought it advisable to come home from Mr. 
Wassell's, where he was living, to his monastery, there to die among 



Odds and ends. 87 

his brethren. He arrived here on Tuesday afternoon, departed 
this life on the following Friday, and was buried on the Tuesday 
after ! We kept watch during day-time every day till the buriaL 
The body meantime was exposed, and startled some Protestants 
who came rather glibly into the chapel. 

** Such were the gloomy preparations for the feast of our great 
patron St Gregory ; but that of St. Benedict was ushered in with 
perhaps even a somewhat more doleful, or at least more frightful, 
occurrence. For one of our workmen — the best of them in every 
sense of the word — agoing in to examine our steam engine, when it 
was in work, was frightened by a sudden gust of steam from the 
safety valve, fell against the fly-wheel, which was going at the rate 
of 80 or 90 revolutions per minute, and was dashed into eternity 
in the twinkling of an eye. Mr. Davis and Br. Joseph (Davis) ran 
up to give him the last sacraments, but there was not a sign of 
life to be found in him. The other workmen were scattered about, 
half dead with fright. Poor Emery was buried the same day 
(Thursday) of the week following at Norton. We were thinking 
of burying him in our new cemetery, as he was a Catholic ; but as 
his protestant relations didn't relish it, the idea was given up. 
However, Mr. Davis was resolved to spare no expense to satisfy 
all parties, and to give him a grand funeral. At the head of the 
procession walked Mr. Pippet and Br. Francis (Rea) in satin hat- 
bands and scarves. After them came two boys dressed in cassocks 
and birets. These were followed by eight religious in birets, 
cassocks and gowns ; then came the eight of the bearers that were 
not engaged in carrying the coffin. Next followed the coffin, flanked 
by six pall-bearers, consisting of two religious, two conventual- 
boarders and two boys, all dressed in hat-bands, scarves, white 
neckerchiefs, &c. The chief mourners were succeeded by 20 of 
the workmen (besides the bearers, who were of course our work- 
men). Besides these were some of the servants. The people 
about, both Protestants and Catholics, were mightily pleased with 
the respect shown to poor William, who was generally beloved. 
The Norton people thought they had never seen so grand a funeral 
there before, and the shop-keepers closed their shops as the pro- 
cession passed. The religious recited the office for the dead as 
they walked along, singing the ' Venite ' and other parts. 

*' Actually it is three weeks ago since I commenced this letter. 
What a wicked creature I am. When the retreat was over I found 
myself enveloped up to the eyes in examinations of all kinds — 
writing questions, vrvA voce work, and looking over papers, &c«. 



88 Odds and Ends. 

&c., which 1 found no small labour, taking up my time till the 
evening of Easter Monday. After this the boys made me waste 
all my time in exhibiting the hydro-oxygen Microscope, and shew- 
ing the monsters of the tiny deep of a drop of water. 

'*Our zealous brother, Bennet Tidmarsh, has been labouring 
hard to have all the ceremonies of Holy Week duly performed. 
He got rid of the old sham paschal candle and ordered a veritable 
column of wax, between 5 and 6 feet in height ; which, rising some 
eleven or twelve feet in height on the candle stick, looks amazingly 
grand. He has also introduced a fine stone font, weighing nearly 
900 lbs. ; and our chapel being upstairs, it was hard work to get 
it up there. The font was designed by Mr. Hansom, and cv^nsists 
of an octagonal cup about 2\ feet in diameter at its narrviwest 
part ; each face being ornamented with a device, as the Lamb and 
Cross, the emblems of the four evangelists, etc., and rests on a 
pillar consisting of a cluster of four small pillars. 

" The first stone of our Poor School has been laid and the woik 
is progressing. We hope it is a prelude to the building of th\t 
monastery. We are all going to make a vigorous push to have it 
commenced after the vacation ; when the President comes, which 
will be shortly, we intend to try also to have all the constitutional 
fasts restored, as also to be allowed to wear the habit, &c., &c. 

** I suppose you saw the Review the Morning Chronicle gave of 
a book entitled 'The Novitiate,' or * The Jesuits in England,' 
by Steinmetz. We little thought when we were talking at>out it 
that we had been served in the same way, but we have since dis- 
covered that we had. A woman, who was under instructions, 
gave Mr. Davis a book which had been put into her hands by some 
of the Reformation people ; in which all our practices are retailed 
with minutest details. It is intended as an account of Downside, 
Ampleforth and Stonyhurst, but in fact it only tallies with us. It 
describes the way in which we used to have the sepulchre with 
the dead Christ, moss, concealed candles, &c. ; it mentions the 
way in which we are called; the penances we have to perform 
for coming in late or making mistakes in the office. In many 
parts we can discern the persons to whom allusion is made. He 
also tells the tale of one of the novices, who, in lighting the 
fire, puts the coals at the bottom, the sticks next, and the paper 
at the top, and the conversation that took place between the 
novice-master and the delinquent and the penance he got for his 
pains. The name given is Brother Bede, but the writer is out in 



Odds and Ends. 89 

that respect. It is very interesting, notwithstanding a consider- 
able quorum of lies and calumnies. We easily perceive whence 
the information respecting us is obtained. The book may cost 
about sixpence or a shilling. If you want to get it, it is entitled a 
'Sketch of Popery,' no doubt issued by the Religious Tract 

Society On Sunday we had the pleasure of 

seeing the pretty ceremony of first Communion." 

As to Emery's death, it was occasioned by the farm engine which 
was being put up by Prior Wilson. It is, of course, not the pre- 
sent engine, which was put up in Prior Gasquet's time, but it 
occupied the same site. Emery went, in spite of prohibition, 
during the engineer's dinner time. He must have stood over the 
engine, for no one could go between the fly-wheel and the wall. 
Father Morrall gives us the following comment on the funeral : — 

''There was not shown the slightest sign of disapprobation. The 
rector of Norton was kind and considerate ; the body was not 
taken into the church at all, but the rector went through the Pro- 
testant service at the grave. The Catholic service had already 
been performed at the house. During the reading of the Protest- 
ant service. Catholics surrounded the grave and recited Catholic 

prayers in silence After Emery's death the College 

authorities resolved that there should be a Catholic cemetery for 
our own servants and for the Catholics of the neighbourhood. 
St. Benedict's cemetery was therefore enclosed, and the churchyard 
cross was erected in its midst. 

"St. Benedict's church did not exist, nor its churchyard or 
cemetery. Emery's relatives were all buried at Midsomer Norton, 
and he died in that parish. The college undertook his burial, and 
the energetic parish priest of those days — Dom (afterwards Bishop) 
Charles Davis, head prefect in the college — determined to venture 
on what in those days was a bold thing — he would give Emery a 
Catholic funeral as far as was possible.' 

We are able to add that one of the boys "in cassocks and birets" 
was Abbot Raynal. 

Poor Brother Anselm will be much missed, for he was the most 
stable member of the community for the last thirty years. We 
shall long associate him with the little room on the second floor. 



90 Odds and Ends. 

directly above the Old House porch. His illness obliged us to re- 
move him to the old sacristy, as his room was too small to admit 
even an attendant. On the fly leaf of one of his books is the 
following entry, evidently the measurement of his room — ''Bed, 
two (walking) sticks long, three-quarters of a stick wide ; room, 
four sticks and one-fifth long, two sticks and a half wide.'* Yet 
nothing would induce him to exchange this room for any room in 
the new monastery. 

Only once before was Brother Anselm confined to his room, even 
for a day. That was the result of a fall which would have killed 
an ordinary person, but from which he recovered in a few days. 

Here is a very early item concerning our first establishment at 
Downside. As is well known, one of our earliest pupils was the late 
'* Billy '* Green of Bristol. His father seems to have done us good 
service in the first days. Probably he acted as agent for us in 
Bristol. On May 9th, 1814, Mr. Green commences an account 
with Rev. Thomas Lawson of Downside House. On May the 
19th, 1814, is an item— "To paid Quay Warden's dues, £Z 4 9," 
no doubt for goods brought by canal from Acton Burnell. 

We recorded the successful performance of ''Pinafore" at 
Christmas. We have again to congratulate Mr. Terry on the 
achievements of the choir. Among novelties they have given us 
lately the most notable was Palestrina*s 8-part " Stabat Mater.'* 
On one ocasion, after a very brief practice, they sang the bulk of 
Gounod's " Gallia." It is striking that the singers and the 
majority of the audience preferred their ordinary diet of Byrd, 
Tallys and such, to what we should have fancied would have been 
the more seductive menu of the great French composer. 

The Holy Week music contained some new items. Tallys' 
setting of the Lamentations made quite a sensation. Faboulier 
was reserved for the Antiphons of the Benedictus, Without the 
organ his music sounds bald and commonplace. His florid 
*'Oratio Jeremias" was replaced by Palestrina's Quatuor. As with 
every custom departed from, there will be some feeling on the 
point, but it was quite time that we gave the laws of the Church 
precedence over our domestic traditions. 

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Odds and Ends. 91 

The following boys made their first Communion on Maundy 
Thursday ; their retreat was given them by Abbot Raynal : — 
Gerard Gould, John Hawkins, Claude Hawkins, Cuthbert Hall, 
Noel Huth, Edgar Agius, Auguste Letellier, Tancred Agius, Hugh 
O'Gorman, Douglas Chambers, Francis Moysey, William Boshell, 
Francis de Stacpoole, Richard Spring, John Dunn. 

At Shrove-tide the boys, assisted by Mr. Terry, gave an excellent 
performance of *' Our Boys." We insert here the programme. 

Perkin Middlewick - - - - R. R. Terry. 

Sir George Champneys - - - - J- Chatterton. 

Talbot Champneys - - - - - T, Ryan. 

Charles Middlewick - - - - C. Roper. 

Clarissa Champneys ... Viscount Campden. 

Mary .-.-.- Cecil Blount. 
Violet ..... P. von Schubert 

Belinda ...... E. Maccabe. 

Butler ...... E. Radcliffe. 

Any inaccuracies in the above caste must be excused, as we are 
not able for the moment to obtain a programme. 

We owe an apology to Fr. Osmund Knight for our omission of 
his name from the list of changes in October. We were under the 
impression that he had given up the Sub-Priorship early in the 
sunmier, and that the fact had been recorded in the previous 
number of the Review, He has been, since October, Chaplain to 
Stanbrook Abbey. 

His contemporary, Fr. Meinrad Fulton, has finished roofing his 
new church. We hear of building operations in progress or in 
contemplation at Whitehaven, where Fr. Gregory Murphy is to 
build a much-wanted presbytery ; and at Redditch, where Fr. 
Isidore Green is improving the presbytery. We hope to be 
able at no distant time to report the resumption of work on the 
chancel of our church. 

We regret to report a rather severe accident to F. Benedict 
* Finch, which must disable him for some weeks. 

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92 Odds and Ends. 

A very handsome grant has been made of ''Surplus Record Office 
and other Publications " from H.M. Stationery Office. It consists 
of 139 vols., and nearly completes our list of the Rolls and Record 
Office series. 

Lord Mowbray Segrave and Stourton has presented our Library 
with a superb family history, in two vols., which he has brought out 
at very heavy expense. It contains so many points of interest to us 
that we hope to use it liberally in the pages of the Review at some 
future date. For the present we must content ourselves with our 
acknowledgments to the generous donor. 

Two interesting oil-portraits of Grand Masters of the Knights 
of Malta have been presented to us by Mrs. Cashel Hoey. To 
judge from accessories, they date from about the late Tudor period. 

We have received the following from a correspondent : — 
''Are our rooks becoming extinct? In the year 1886, as many 
as 64 nests could be counted in the short shrubbery, while last 
spring there were not more than 16. At this rate, it cannot be^ 
many years before our rookery ceases to exist, and if the birds 
that have been so long associated with Downside are to be pre- 
served, some very strong measures will have to be taken. One of 
the causes of this diminution is the falling of so many of the 
larger trees which provided the nesting sites. The great cause, 
however, has been the merciless shooting of the young birds which 
has taken place every spring for the last six or eight years. The 
death rate of infant rooks is abnormally high always, compared 
with that of other birds. The season of the year when they are 
hatched, the exposed position of the nest, and many other causes 
considerably reduce the number of the birds that will come to 
maturity. One of our old bird lovers says that the vulgar theory 
that rooks would forsake a rookery where they were not annually 
shot must have been invented as an excuse for the poorest of all 
sports, — shooting at a bird that is too feeble to move from its 
perch till it is killed. If a strenuous " close time " for the rooks 
could be decreed for three years, and no shooting allowed till the 
birds have somewhat recovered their numbers, our rookery might 
be saved ; but unless this is done, in a very few years the Downside 
rooks will be extinct." 

Father Croke Robinson, who gave the bo3rs' retreat and who is 
an enthusiastic ornithologist, entirely confirmed the above observa- 
tions, quite unpromptedly. 

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Odds and Ends. 93 

We have received the first annual report of the Catholic News- 
paper Guild, from its secretary, Mr. Dudley Baxter, who contributes 
an article to our present number. The object is to spread the cir- 
culation of Catholic newspapers and literature generally. The 
beginnings of the Guild were slow, and met with small encourage- 
ment. It is now well on the way to success ; indeed, it has done 
splendid service to our soldiers in South Africa. The ways and 
means of its workings we are not in a position to criticise, but we 
can appreciate and recommend the first principle impressed upon 
its members: *• Never destroy your Catholic newspaper." Mr. 
Dudley Baxter's address is '* Copford, near Colchester." 

The following handbill will give evidence of energy in a welcome 
direction. The lectures have just taken place, and have been a 
great success. The notorious Murphy lectured &c. here many 
years ago, and the effects have not died out yet. 








«« Why I joined the Church of Rome." 

'* Why I believe in an infallible Pope. 

" Why I go to Confession." 

Non-Catholics cordially welcomed. Questions invited at 
the close of each Lecture. 


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Father Ethelbert has been again elected to the Stratton Parish 
Council and to the Norton District Council. 

We regret to hear that the health of our devoted friend* Mgr. 
Russell, Vicar Greneral, is not satisfactory, and that he will be 
obliged to take a long rest. We wish him a speedy and complete 

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Pray for the soul of Brother ANSELM Barnewall, O.S.B., 
who died at Downside on February 7th, in the 80th year of his 
age and the 55th of his religious profession. 

We ask prayers for the soul of CLARE INWOOD, wife of Mr. 
Inwood, formerly professor of mathematics at Downside, who 
died, fortified by the Sacraments, on January 11th, aged 40 years. 

Pray for the soul of FRANCIS MOORE, formerly a student of 
St. Gregory's, who died on March 9th, at Southall, in Middlesex, 
havings received the Sacraments of the Church. 

We recommend to your prayers the soul of ANN CONSTANTIA 
DOLAN, mother of F. Gilbert Dolan, who died, fortified by the 
rites of the Church, on Msurch 14th. 

We ask also prayers for ARTHUR SXUCKEY LEAN, who died, 
having received all the consolations of the Church, on Wednes- 
day, March 20th, and was buried at Downside on the following 

Also for the Baroness PAULINE VON HUGEL, a benefactress of 
the Abbey Church, who died a saintly death at Boscombe on 
March 29th, and was buried in St. Benedict's Cemetery, Stratton. 

We have just received the news of the death of Col. O'SULLIVAN 

(die father of George O'Sullivan, who has just left Downside), at 

Cheltenham on April 10th. We ask our readers' charitable prayers 

for him. 


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Downside Review 



ine last number of ;hi: Dnivnsuh' Rtiieiv a 

•» oT avHtuint *.'f <^^nie interesting aiitiqu uian 

.'-v>i>Nions about tho a'U'^^nt inhabitants o{ 

heUI at the house oi the last A! 'Inn .if St. 

*.M- s^ Canterbur)', was ceininued. It w!]l be 

Srred that the t^'aei .a nae^t!v»n wvis written b\ 

'U.'iuary Twvne. .*']•», in order to ei^n\^'\ 

son some knowledge of the oriv,M'is oi Vam^- 

-uiopted this form, aad itna^^ined a p*\'isant 

- at Abbot V'okes' *.ount-r) }■ ni-e not far 

*nterbur}\ k)\^x inieresi in tlu- ir.attor lies 

. the persons than in the subjoet ; fv>r althoui>-h 

tl dialoi^e here given is of course inia^inar)', 

• the declaration of the writer that not only were 

^le he had chosen to take part in the learncti 

,'tion, in fact, p)erfectl\ capable bv education 

':t/;es to bear the role assi-Mud to them, b .• 

. himself had frequently been p' js^nt at -a. i 

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.??>•" . 

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Downside Review. 

July 1901. 



rtr N the last number of the Downside Review a 
xj brief account of some interesting antiquarian 
discussions about the ancient inhabitants of 
Britain, held at the house of the last Abbot of St. 
Augustine's, Canterbury, was continued. It will be 
remembered that the tract in question was written by 
the antiquary Twyne, who, in order to convey 
to his son some knowledge of the origins of Eng- 
land, adopted this form, and imagined a pleasant 
symposium at Abbot Vokes' country house not far 
from Canterbury. Our interest in the matter lies 
rather in the persons than in the subject ; for although 
the actual dialogue here given is of course imaginary, 
we have the declaration of the writer that not only were 
the people he had chosen to take part in the learned 
conversation, in fact, perfectly capable by education 
and abilities to bear the role assigned to them, but 
that he himself had frequently been present at similar 

G Digitized by LiOOgle 

98 A Day with the Abbot of St. Augustine's. 

discussions and arguments between Abbot Yokes, 
John Digon and Nicholas Wotton, and mainly directed 
by the Abbot, 

We left the actors at their mid-day meal ; which 
supposition the author introduces to conclude the 
first portion of his tract De rebus Albionicis. Before 
taking up the dialogue again, Twyne speaks at some 
length about the learned men who had specially turned 
their attention to the subject under consideration, or 
who had assisted others by their general knowledge 
of ancient literature to come to sound conclusions 
on the matter. He names some at length and 
refers to another book, in which he has spoken 
more fully about the antiquaries he has himself 
known: **And,'* he concludes, ** in that book I 
have made more distinct mention of the cultured 
Nicholas Wotton and of John Digon, as well as of 
Abbot Vokes, of whom the learned Wotton, when- 
ever he had occasion, was wont to speak in high 
praise, setting forth his prudence and almost universal 
knowledge. Nor did he ever hesitate, when speaking 
about him, to declare that he was a man worthy of 
all honour and reverence. He was only too willing 
at any time, he said, to hear the Abbot talk on any 
subject, and had often, as on this occasion, eagerly 
listened to his instructions on matters of antiquity." 

**So it fell out,'* writes Twyne, ** that when 
dinner was over, after we had walked awhile to take 
the air in the alley, seeing it was not yet late and 
the sun was still off its setting, Wotton declared 
that he was anxious to hear more on the matter of 
their previous conversation, requesting the Abbot 
to take up the discussion where it had been broken 
off and to carry it to its proper ending. *That is,' 
he added, * if it be not too irksome to you. Reverend 



A Day with the Abbot of St. Augustine s. 99 

Father Abbot, or if more important occupations do 
not claim your time ; you do not need to be told 
how very willingly we always listen to you when 
discussing any question. And certainly/ he con- 
tinued, looking at Digon and me, * I am sure we all desire 
that you will go on with what you were saying and 
tell us what you know about the first inhabitants 
of Albion, from which instruction this not unpleasant 
digression of dinner called you." 

Then the conversation began once more, Wotton 
and Digon taking their part in it and showing 
their acquaintance with the writings of ancient 
authors, classical and Christian. Abbot Yokes, how- 
ever, in this second part of the tract, is represented 
as holding the position of instructor, and to his 
opinion the two younger men are constantly described 
as appealing, as to one whose well-recognised learning 
gave him a right to speak on all these matters. 

Wotton, in the first place, expressed a wish to 
get rid of the fabulous. He thought they had 
had enough of giants and Cyclopean heroes — beings 
that might be proper sport for poets and story- 
tellers, or calculated to interest women and children, 
but which ought not to be considered in serious 
discussions. He asked, however, for some informa- 
tion as to the remains of human beings which had 
been dug up in various parts of the country, and 
which were ** shown in private collections or exhibited 
in public places,'* and which were considered proof 
that at one time or other the land had been peopled by 
giants. He named in particular certain excavations 
which had been made in the time of the then King 
Henry VHI., at the expense of Sir Christopher 
Hales, when certain mounds or barrows had been 
found to contain the bones of men of great size and 



100 A Day with the Abbot of St. Augustine^ s. 

fragments of bronze and iron weapons. **Can you 
tell me about these?" he said, for ** I know well 
enough, Father Abbot, that this cannot have escaped 
your notice since you are ever so anxious to examine 
into antiquity/* To many people, he added, this 
discovery appears to strengthen the popular opinion 
that England was at one time peopled by a race of 

** Not so, learned Wotton," replied the Abbot, 
*Mt does nothing of the kind ; although even when 
you talk about the graves of giants, you seem to 
confirm the common view. The exploration of the 
tomb you refer to did not escape me, and I myself 
saw and examined the very ancient objects then 
discovered; but,*' he added, **we had better confine 
ourselves now to what we know of the first inhabitants 
from the ancient writers who have spoken about our 
island." Upon this the Abbot made a long quotation 
from Tacitus in regard to the matter, and when he 
had finished, John Digon took up the matter by 
another quotation, which he prefaced by saying : 
•* You will remember. Father Abbot, no doubt, how 
the following bears out the words of Tacitus," and 
concluded by remarking, '*all this agrees with what 
you. Reverend Father, have said. It is taken from 
a copy of Ludovico Vives* relation about the Phoenicians 
m Spam. 

It would be tedious to most of our readers to follow 
out in detail the somewhat lengthy conversation which 
is represented as having taken place in the Abbot's room 
on this afternoon. Suffice it to say that the speakers 
seem to have been familiar with every author and ready 
to cap each other's quotations by others not less apt, 
as if they had already possessed the collection of 
extracts in the Monuinenta Brttannica. It is indeed 



A Day with the Abbot of St. Augustine^s. 101 

strange to find monks like Abbot Vokes and John 
Digon credited with the possession of so much learning 
and such culture by one who has a great reputation him- 
self as an antiquary, and to have his declaration that, to 
his personal knowledge, they really were the learned and 
serious students he here represents them. Out of the 
entire discussion I propose only to transcribe one short 
passage, which refers to Canterbury and to the disas- 
trous fire which destroyed so many valuable manu- 
scripts at Christchurch, on the eve of its dissolution as 
a monastery. ** Hardly any city in the kingdom, '* 
says the Abbot, ** equals this Canterbury of ours in 
its antiquity or its dignity ; few can be thought to 
compare with it. For a long time it flourished as the 
royal city of the strong Kings of Kent ; also it was 
the place of the chair of the Archbishop, and was 
honoured as the resting place of both, and for its 
fidelity to religion and the number of its religious 
houses. It often suffered dire afflictions : it was 
besieged by the Danes and lay in ruins ; it was con- 
sumed or greatly diminished by fires, the rage of 
enemies or the chance of accidents. But in my opinion 
no misfortune was so grievous as that fire which a few 
years ago broke out in Christchurch monastery ; and 
which, besides other buildings, destroyed the library. 
That celebrated library was founded by Theodore the 
Archbishop, was enriched by many benefactors, and 
was completed in time by Henry Chicheley, Theodore's 
successor in the Archiepiscopal chair. In that fire 
among many thousands of books, alas ! one copy of 
that precious book of Cicero, De republica (Theodore's) 
perished in the flames. Another copy I have heard 
exists in Rome ; but in my short stay there I did not 
see it, and I have not as yet received a printed copy, 
which together with prints of the works of Caesar and 

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102 A Day with the Abbot of St. Augustine's. 

other books, have been promised me by *Cardinal 
Evrard de la Marck, the friend of our friend Ludovico 

In concluding these brief notes upon this very rare 
volume on the antiquities of England, I would refer 
again to what I said at the beginning as to the light it 
incidentally throws upon the character of Abbot Vokes. 
It is well known that, on the authority of the dis- 
credited Bale, upon the last Abbot of St. Augustine's, 
Canterbury, there has hitherto been supposed to rest 
the dark shadow of nameless crime. Abbot John 
Essex, as he is usually called, together with some of 
his monks, were named by the visitors of the monastic 
houses at the time of their dissolution as being men of 
infamous character ; and they have been held up in 
history to execration as affording types of the im- 
moralities which necessitated the destruction of the 
religious houses. It is impossible to read the praises 
bestowed upon this abbot by the antiquary Twyne, 
and to note the words put into the mouth of Nicholas 
Wotton, the first secular Dean of Christchurch, without 
coming to the conclusion that the memory of this last 
Abbot of St. Augustine's has been most grievously 
wronged. Wotton and Twyne both were intimately 
acquainted with him, and, living long after he had 
passed away from the life of poverty to which the 
destruction of his beloved monastery had condemned 
him, they must no doubt have heard something of the 
scandals by which the destroyers sought to besmirch 
his good name, and thus in some measure defend their 
spoliation. It is hardly too much to suppose even that 

* Cardinal de la Marck was made Bishop of Li^e in 1505, and held the 
See till his death in 1538. Pope Leo X. made him Cardinal in 1520, and at 
the request of the Emperor Charles V., Clement VII. made him Legate in the 
Low Countries. 

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A Day with the Abbot of St. Augustine s. 103 

his friend Twyne sought in this little volume to give his 
son, and through him posterity, a knowledge of the 
truth- Instead of the Abbot being a man given up to 
odious vice, we are asked to believe him to have been 
the most cultured, cultivated and courteous of gentlemen: 
one who, as Nicholas Wotton declares, was worthy of all 
reverence and respect. We see him as the friend of 
learning of everj' kind ; and ready to encourage it in 
others, as in the case of the monk John Digon, who 
had been sent over to study under the great Ludovico 
Vives. We see him in these pages as the antiquary, 
to whose well-stored mind men were only too willing 
to appeal for information ; who could understand what 
a loss to scholarship had been the destruction of the 
Canterbury library, and who, at the very eve of the 
destruction of his house, was in communication with 
learned men in Rome to procure, for his library at St. 
Augustine's, some of the early prints of the classics. 
It is a mere chance that this volume has survived to 
counteract the impression made by the vague but 
deadly charges brought against the good name of this 
abbot. Twyne evidently did more than this ; for he 
mentions another book in which he had written more 
at length about the character and learning of Abbot 
Yokes and the monk Digon ; but this volume, alas ! 
does not appear to have come down to us. Still, I fancy 
that to most unbiassed minds the tract De rebus 
Albionicis will be sufficient to reverse the verdict of 
past generations, and to dispel the ugly cloud of 
calumny which has so long hung over the ruins of 
St. Augustine's. 

F. A. Gasquet. 

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TITfl '^^"^^^^^' ^^^ ancient royal capital of Eng- 
\r^rl' land, is a city rich in Benedictine memories. 
Its venerable cathedral, set in a scene of old-world 
beauty of trees and lawns amid the quiet streets of 
the one-time chief city of southern England, is a 
monument of the long centuries of earnest toil and 
patient work of the Black monks who formed the 
chapter and served the mother church of Wessex ; 
at the northern extremity of the town some few 
remains may yet be traced of the scarce less famous 
New Minster, a foundation of King Alfred the 
Great, transferred in later times to Hyde, beyond 
the city walls ; and St. Mary*s Abbey, another 
royal foundation for the daughters of St. Scholastica, 
was the third great house which in the ages of 
faith formed part of the heritage of St. Benedict. 
The abbeys of Romsey and Wherwell, both of them 
monasteries of religious women, and the Cistercian 
abbeys of Beaulieu, Netley, and Quarr in the Isle 

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f-i-.APTERS IN THr lilST^KY 
^^* F-.wLISH BENEDICT! :>rE M:.*- 


\ . ^. .'. . ..I r ^yPSHJRE : ITS T^i. ^ 
^' •• \\t l^^<^ REFORMATIO ^ 

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m.' <, ibo ancient r**yr^i t.. ■ ' 
... ;. :> -I vMty '•ich in BetK*J"^ /. . 
Its vciH'i.i. - '1 'Jj'.tl, set in a seen-, * . 

bt^auty v^' • •. ^ ir.J lawns unt'd t:u* ^i; 
th.- one-^i: . x u' ciry of southe-n i: • . 
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1 ' *ler times to ! i ^• :. 

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. . v^.>kiN rOUMPATlONS | 
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of Wight, complete the list of the pre-reformation 
homes of the monastic family. Of the old line of 
Benedictines (as we need scarcely remind our readers) 
only one member survived the storms and upheavals, 
the suppressions and scatterings of Henry the 8th's 
and Elizabeth's days ; and it was in Hampshire that 
the last scene of Father Sigebert Buckley's life was 
enacted and the formal deed drawn up, whereby the 
venerable confessor passed on to a new generation 
the lineage and livery which linked him to St. 
Augustine and St. Gregory the Great. 

It was at Punsholt or Ponsholt, in the parish of 
West Meon, that the blind old monk of Westminster 
found a home after the forty years of his imprisonment." 
There, in the house of Mr. Thomas Loveden, whose 
honoured guest he was, was drawn up, on November 
8th, 1609, ^^^ important act known as the Instrument 

' Weldon with his usual unhappy inaccuracy speaks of ** Ponshall the seat 
of Mr. Norton in Surrey or Sussex " (Chronological Notes, p. 76). This 
vas^ueness, the occasion of long and- fruitless searches, was dispelled at last 
by an entry in Dom C. White's ObitSt a manuscript in the Bodleian library, in 
which Father Buckley's death is said to have occurred ** in agro Wintoniensi." 
With Hampshire as a new field of enquiry it was not long before, with the 
kind assistance of Mr. Baigent of Winchester, the place and the house were 
discovered and visited. I have to thank also Mr. Edmund Bishop for much 
valuable information about the Loveden and Norton families. Ponsholt was 
a house belonging to Thomas Loveden, '* in aedibus Thomae Loveden," says 
the act alluded to above ; and not, as Weldon has it, ** the seat of Mr. Norton." 
Anthony Norton, who owned sixty acres at Punsholt, is styled ** of Blends- 
worth " in the Recusancy Rolls. See D. Gasquet's Hampshire Recusants, 

In the State Papers, Domestic, James L, vol. cxviii, n. 106, may be seen 
the grant to John Carswell and Thomas Hutchinson of the benefit of the 
recusancy of Thomas Lovedean (sic\ of West Meon, and John Parkins, 
of Bedhampton, co. Hants ; and in vol. clxxiii, n. 76, the petition of 
Anthony Loveden, gent., to the Priory Council to be admitted at once to 
answer the accusations for which he is bound to appear before them (Oct. 22, 
1624). In the same volume (n. 126) is another paper relative to the former 
grant of the benefit of recusancy of Thomas Lovedean, of West Meon, 
John Parkins and Thomas Parkins, of Bedhampton, Hants ; John Copes, of 
Watergate ; Thomas Lane, of Fishbome ; Morgan Wotton, of Amberley, in 
Sussex ; and Elizabeth Wells, of Twyford, Hants. 

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106 The English Benedictine Missions. 

of Aggregation, whereby was secured to the modern 
English Benedictines their succession to their breth- 
ren of the first thousand years of English monasticism. 
It may be useful here to recall the series of events 
connected with this scene so interesting to the his- 
torian of the English church, so vitally important to 
the English congregation of the order of St. Benedict,* 
(i) On April 2nd, 1604, license was given by the 
General Chapter of the Cassinese monks which was 
then sitting at the abbey of St, Benedict at Padilirone 
near Mantua, a spot so dear to Cardinal Pole, for 
certain of their English members to be aggregated 
to the abbey of Westminster. This Chapter was 
attended by one of the fathers of their congregation 
who had travelled from England for the purpose in 
the company of a distinguished young convert lawyer 
from Abergavenny, Mr. David Baker, to be known 
and revered in after years, under his religious name 
of Augustine, as the trusted guide of many souls in 
the paths of asceticism and contemplation. (2) The 
aggregation thus officially sanctioned was carried 
into effect on November 21st, 1607, when Father 
Buckley, in his prison cell in the Gatehouse of his 
old abbey of Westminster, admitted Father Robert 
Sadler and Edward Mayhew **as brethren and monks 
of the aforesaid monastery/* and ** granted, communi- 
cated, and attributed to them all rights, privileges, 
pre-eminences, honours, liberties, and favours which 
the monks professed and dwelling in the said monas- 
tery have in former times enjoyed.'' (3) At the Chapter 
held again at Mantua in 1608 (May 5) the assembled 
fathers ratified the aggregation already made by 

' The documents may be consulted in the appendix to Reyner's Apostolatus ; 
a translation of the most important may be seen in Father Taunton's Black 
Monks, ii. 80. 

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The Engush Benedictine Missions. 107 

Father Buckley of DD, Thomas, Augustine, Anselm 
and Maurus,3 who had followed the example of 
DD. Sadler and Maihew ; and (4) on September 
1 8th, 1609, Pope Paul V. sanctioned by word of 
mouth,* as Cardinal Montalti bore witness, the aggre- 
gation made by Father Buckley for the express 
purpose **of restoring in their persons the said 
monastery of Westminster and the English congre- 
gation, which had been brought to the verge of ruin 
by the heretics," The formal ratification of all that 
had been done in the matter was the next step, and 
(5) on November 8, 1609, at Ponsholt, Punsholt or 
Ponshelt (for with such variety is the name given), 
this was accomplished ; when in the house, as has 
been said, of Thomas Loveden, and in the presence 
of D. Maurus Taylor, a monk of the Cassinese 
congregation and Notary Apostolic, and of Anthony 

3 These were D. Thomas Preston, Anselm Beech, Maurus Taylor, and 
another whose identity (pace Fr. Taunton, Black Monks, ii. 80) is not so clear. 
I am myself inclined to think that the Augustine referred to was not D. 
Aug^ustine Baker but D. Aug^tine Smith, a Lancashire man professed at 
Monte Cassino in 1592, who passed to the English Mission in 1605, and was 
for a time Superior of the Cassinese fathers in Eng-land. The alternative 
Augustine is of course Father Baker, but at this time he was probably not yet a 
priest ; he had left Padua sometime after May, 1606 ; after a brief stay in Venice 
had returned to England, and resided '* some time " with Father Preston and 
then *' some time " with a young nobleman, and afterwards for at least fourteen 
months *' he led a life of almost total seclusion in the house of Sir Nicholas 
Fortescue," before passing over to Rheims for ordination (see Sweeney's Life 
of Baker, pp 27, 28 and 33, where no dates are given). Besides, in Paul V's 
breve of December 24, 1612, the names of the monks whose aggregation by 
Father Buckley was confirmed by the Pope are given, and after those of 
Sadler, Mayhew and Preston come "Augustine and Anselm of Lancaster." 

This seems to me decisive. The places of origin or diocese of birth are 
accurately given in the case of Sadler, Mayhew, Preston and Taylor (who 
closes the list) ; presumably the breve is correct in its attribution of the 
adjective Lancastriensis to the Augustintts and Anselmus enumerated after 
Father Preston's name, so I conclude that the Augustinus in case was he of 
Lancashire, Smith by name, and not his more distinguished brother in religion, 
D. Augustine Baker of Abergavenny. 

* '*Oraculum viva vocis ;" see Rejmer, Appendix 3. 

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108 THE English Benedictine Missions. 

and Henry Norton, the final legal attestation was 
drawn up and signed. There remained but one 
thing more, to commit the interests thus created to 
loving hands, willing and able to cherish them when 
his own days should have come to an end. And 
this the poor old confessor did in the following 
touching letter, addressed to Father Thomas Preston.* 

**Very Reverend Father and beloved brother. Since the 
Divine Will has so protracted my life that now, to my great 
comfort, I see the restoration of the English congregation, and 
its recent confirmation by the Sovereign Pontiff; and since 
Divine Providence seems to have kept me alive, as it were, for 
the very end that the possession of that congregation and con- 
sequently all its rights should remain in me and in the monks 
aggregated by me ; since also I fully see how all this affair by your 
prudent attempts and labours has been energetically promoted, 
and that so happily that no small hope has arisen that the same 
congregation will, in its own time, once more arise to its old 
vigour and splendour. But as I, on account of extreme old 
age and bodily weakness, cannot personally govern its affairs, 
therefore do I ask and beg your paternity, that as you are 
already the Superior of the Italian congregation, and hold the 
rule thereof, you will also vouchsafe to take upon you the care 
and solicitude of the English congregation, and, in my name, 
forward and carry out whatsoever shall seem necessary to your 
wisdom, and convenient for promoting, exalting and propagating 
our old and revived congregation of England. Whatsoever you 
do in this matter I, by these presents, do ratify and confirm, 
and in sign thereof, do subscribe my name (as far as can be 
done by a blind man) before the witnesses as below. Begging 
you to acquaint me at fitting times with the success of this 
business, and thanking you from my heart for the charitable 
comfort and brotherly care of me in my helpless old age, and 
humbly commending myself to you, I commit you to the 
Lord God." 

D. Sebertus, 

Monk of the English Congregation. 

In the presence of Thomas Loveden and Anthony Norton, ISth 
day of December, 1609." 

s I borrow the translation from Fr. Taunton's Bl€u:k Monks, II., 82. 

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The En gush Benedictine Missions. 109 

Two months later, assisted by Father Thomas 
Preston and Father Anselm Beach, the blind old 
Confessor, worn out with age and the rigours of 
forty years' imprisonment, passed away on the 22nd 
of February, 1610, and ** because the heretics would 
not let him be buried in the churchyard,"* his 
friends laid his honoured remains to rest in an old 
chapel or country hermitage in the neighbourhood. 
For a score of years, and possibly much longer, the 
grave of their venerable patriarch was kept in 
honoured memory by the fathers of the restored 
congregation, and the hope was expressed in their 
fifth General Chapter, held at St, Gregory's, Douay, 
in 1633, that means might some day be found to 
transfer his remains to a more honourable resting 
place.^ Their pious wish has, to this day, remained 
unfulfilled, and now, alas ! at the end of two 
hundred and sixty-nine years, the very place has 
been forgotten, and success has so far failed to 
wait on those who have sought in vain his long- 
forgotten tomb. 

* Weldon's notes, p. 76. The case was not unusual. In this very county 
Mr. Nicholas Tychbome, who had died a prisoner for his faith in Winchester Jail 
in 1589, was refused burial in the parish churchyard, so his friends interred 
bim near the ruined chapel of St. James, on a hill to the west of the city ; the 
place has ever since been reserved for the burial of the catholics of the 
neighbourhood, and to the catholic antiquary is a spot of deep interest. In 
this same county there are many similar cases on record. The Christchurch 
Registers have this entry on April 14, 1604 :— ** Christian, the wife of Thomas 
Steevens, died in childbirth, and was buried by women, for she was a papish." 
Waters' Parish Registers in England. 

7 See D. Anselm Beach's letter quoted in the Acta Cap. Generalis 1633 : 
"Optarem corpus ipsius posse transferri ad locum majus honorabilem, quia 
proculdubio senex optimus magni fuit meriti qui 40 annorum persecutionem 
perpetuam pro fide catholica sustinuit in aliquo semper carcere reclusus ;" and 
the wish of the assembled fathers " ut suo tempore corpus venerabilis senis 
elevaretur in locum decentiorem." Old county histories describe King- John's 
House, close to St. Wilfred's church at Wamford, near West Meon, as ** a 
ruinated place " in 1610. 

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Punsholt, the scene of these events, is now a 
farmhouse, venerable from age, and worn by the 
sunshine and storm of three centuries. The long", 
low structure of brick and tile work, the massive 
chimneys, the gigantic yew tree which has for 
hundreds of years served as shelter and porch to 
the door, are probably, age apart, much as they 
were in Thomas Loveden^s days. The place is 
some seven miles west of Petersfield, and ten or 
eleven to the south-east of Winchester. How long 
after Fr. Buckley's death it continued to be the 
scene of Benedictine work cannot be stated with any 
definiteness ; but from the many links which con- 
nected the Nortons and their connexions with the 
monks, whom from the first they had befriended, it 
seems not improbable that their house was for a 
long time the occasional residence, at least, of such 
of the Benedictines as found their way to the 
mission field of Hampshire.® There is, however, no 
further mention of a resident monk at Punsholt ; 
Longwood,' a few miles north of Winchester, is the 
next place in the county connected with the 
missionary work of the Benedictines. In a list of 
priests working in Hampshire, sent by the Rev. M. 
Clarke to the clergy agent in Rome (1632 — 33) only 
two Benedictines are named — W. Palmer and George 
Gore. The former, D. William Palmer, a member 
of the Cassinese congregation, died at Longwood, 
May 31, 1655 ; the latter was probably D. Gregory 
George Gaire, a monk of St. Laurence's, who 

« Dom Peter Warneford, D. Edward Mayhew of Dinton, Co. Wilts, and 
possibly D. Claude White, were connexions or relations of the Lovedens and 

9 Whether Longwood Dean, nine miles north, or Longfwood Warren, six 
miles north of Winchester, was the place meant, I cannot say. 

«» Foley's Records S.J. III. 266. 

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closed a life ennobled by imprisonment and exile for 
the faith on November 21st, 1634, at London. 
Where he lived during his work in Hampshire 
cannot now be ascertained ; at Punsholt perhaps, or 
Longwood. Dom Palmer's successor at the latter 
place seems to have been Father Paul Robinson, 
sometime President General, who died there on the 
6th of August, 1667. Robert Robinson, to give 
him his baptismal name, was as his panegyrist 
Weldon tells us," '* descended of a noble family, a 
fiamous lawyer, before he came to religion, a finely 
spoken man, and very polite in all respects ; he 
became a famous preacher, and gained the friendship 
of Charles II." 

Stoke Charity, a few miles north of Winchester 
and not far from Longwood, was the home for 
some years of D. Francis Morgan, a monk of St. 
Gregory's, born at Weston, in Warwickshire, in 1600, 
and professed in 1623. His labours in Hampshire 
earned for him, at the hands of his brethren, the 
honours of the titular cathedral priorship of Win- 
chester, and having borne them for three years, he 
died at his post September 8th, 1669. 

The next scene of Benedictine work in this 
county, if indeed it were not already within their 
sphere of influence, was their own old city of 
Winchester. The General Chapter of 1666, with a 
view to securing some preliminary training for boys 
destined for the schools attached to the English 
houses beyond sea, had urged the establishment of 
two such seminaries, one in the north, the other in 
the south of England, and the latter they suggested 
should be set up in Hampshire. What success, if 

" Notes, p. 205. 

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112 THE English Benedictine missions. 

any, attended their proposal, we know not ; perhaps 
the flourishing catholic school at Twyford, near 
Winchester,'* may have been, in some measure, the 
outcome of their deliberations. With regard to the 
monks who were resident in Winchester, the first 
whom we meet with is D. William Ambrose Brown, 
who after acting as cellerarius for four years at St. 
Gregory's, the place of his profession, was sent to 
Winchester in 17 17, and remained there 24 years, 
acting as Procurator of the South Province, and 
enjoying the fullest confidence of his brethren."^ 
His successor at Winchester was another Gregorian, 
D. Thomas Alexius Shepperd, who after four years 
there (1741 — ^45) was called, to be Prior of his 
monastery, which he governed till his death which 
occurred at Douay only six months after Father 
Brown's, on August 3rd, i755« Whether, as is 
probable, Dom Shepperd was succeeded immediately 
by another of his brethren, our records do not 
state; but from 1758 to 1769 D. William Placid 
Metcalfe, a Lamspring monk, was stationed here. 
The site of the Benedictine mission at Winchester 
seems to have been an old mansion, still standing, 
and long known as Hide or Hyde House. The 
existence of anything in Winchester remotely re- 
sembling a community must, in the last century, 

" An account of this school may be seen in Mr. Gillow's Haydock Papers, 
pp. 169 &c. It was founded in the reign of James II. at Silksteed, near 
Winchester, and removed about 1694 to Twyford. In 1696, when Pope was 
sent there, it was conducted by the Rev. John Banister, alias Tavemer. After 
good and bad fortune it was closed in consequence of the No-Popery cry, 
which was raised after the Stuart rising- of 1745. In Blundell's Diary, under 
date 1706, mention is made of Mr. Wood's School near Winchester. 
Perhaps he was for a time its head ; but his name is not given by Mr. Gillow 
in the Haydock Papers. 

'3 He was chosen Cathedral Prior of Worcester 1717 ; Definitor of the 
Province, 1741, and of the Congregation in 1744. The four last years of his 
life were passed at Bath, where he died February 2, 1755. 

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! V/est Front of Hy<i^ 1 ' 

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have filled their protestant neighbours with awe. 
One or two records of this establishment have been 
preserved. Among the collections of the late Sir 
W. Cope, of Bramshill, was an old newspaper 
cutting, of uncertain origin, which under the heading 
"September i, 1767" gave the following brief note. 
** Amongst the private Roman Catholics in Hamp- 
shire the names of a number of gentlemen who 
reside at a place called Hide House, near Win- 
chester, and call themselves Benedictines, are taken 
down.*'"^ Again in Richard Warne's collections for 
the history of Hampshire, (vol. i., p. 253), pub- 
lished in 1795, the place is spoken of. ** Hide or 
Hyde House (see Hyde Abbey), in the north part 
of Winchester, is an undemolished piece of an old 
monastery where some Roman Catholic gentry are 
still tolerated with residence, and where, it is said, 
they have an oratory, and live according to the 
rules of St. Benedict." If the truth were known, it 
would probably be found that the popular rumour 
had, as usual, greatly magnified the size and 
importance of the household, which after that date 
is no more heard of. 

With the chaplaincy of Brambridge, five miles 
south of Winchester, the list of last century 
Benedictine missions in Hampshire comes to a close. 
In 1764, a monk of St. Gregory's, D. William 
Augustine Caldwell or Walmesley, was sent to Bram- 
bridge to be chaplain to Walter Smythe, Esq., 
second son of Sir John Smythe of Eshe, co. Durham, 
and Acton Burnell, co. Shropshire, Bart. At the 
time of Father Augustine's appointment. Squire 
Smythe's daughter, Maria Anne, was a little girl of 

■^ I am indebted for this information to the Rev. R. G. Davis of Cowes, I. W. 

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eight, and it must have been with feelings in which 
interest, pleasure, pride and anxiety were blended 
that the good monk saw his spiritual child become 
the wife successively of Edward Weld (1775) of 
Lul worth ; Thomas Fitzherbert of Swynnerton Park 
(1778-1781); and, lastly, of the Prince Regent, 
subsequently King George IV.'* 

Father Walmesley resided at Brambridge till his 
death, January 8th, 181 5. He was taken for burial 
to the Catholic cemetery of St. James* at Winchester, 
where a still legible tombstone bears witness to his 
eighty years of blameless life and more than half a 
century of labour in the Hampshire Mission. 

The records of more recent work by the Fathers 
of the English congregation at Ditcham, Petersfield, 
Grayshott, Alton, and Heckfield may be left for the 
annalist of the future ; nor need we do more than 
note the establishment of the alien priory of St. Michael 
at Farnborough, where some of the Solesmes monks 
keep watch and ward over the magnificent but melan- 
choly mausoleum where rest the ashes of a fallen 

The county of Hants has given a fair number of 
its children to the order of St. Benedict. First, 
and most distinguished, was William Gifford, who, 
leaving the deanery of Lisle and the chancellorship 
of the archdiocese of Rheims, became a monk of St. 
Laurence's, and deserves to be reckoned the second 
founder of his house. He was made titular Bishop 
of Archidale and Coadjutor of Rheims in 161 8 ; 
succeeded to the archbishopric in 1622, and died in 
his cathedral city on April loth, 1629. The second 
was a native of Winchester, D. Augustine Heath, 
a secular priest who joined the same community of 

»s See Langfdale's Memoirs of Mrs. Fitzherbert, 1856. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

THE Engush Benedictine Missions. 115 

St. Laurence's in 1612, and died in his convent 
October 24th, 1631. D. Peter Warnford or West 
was, like the preceding, a Winchester man and a 
priest before joining the Benedictines in 1619. He 
died on the mission (where he had been professed) 
August 2 1st, 1657. From him the Order received 
that great treasure, the relic of our Lord's crown of 
thorns, which formerly belonged to Glastonbury 
Abbey, and is now preserved in a beautiful chapel 
erected for its safe keeping at the Abbey of our Lady 
of Consolation at Stanbrook, The Bruning family, 
of Hambledon Park, Hants, gave several of its sons 
to the Order. The first was D. Charles Jerome, who 
died on September 14th, 1689, at Paris, a year after 
his profession at St. Edmund's. D. Thomas Bruning 
joined the same community in 1696, and died at 
Bonham, Wilts (August 6th, 17 19); a third, though 
the oldest of the three, was D. Richard Placid, like- 
wise professed at St. Edmund's in 1663. He died 
at Bath in 1720. From Ludshott in our county 
came D. John Alexius Wall, who was professed at 
Lamspring in 171 5 and died there fifteen years later 
(September nth, 1730). D. Gilbert Knowles, the 
poet, an anticipator in some degree of the elder 
Darwin, was born in Hampshire in 1667, took his 
vows at St. Gregory's in 1692, and after some 
thirty years' labour on the Mission in Yorkshire 
returned to his Convent at Douay and died there 
September 8th, 1734.'* Two years later (April 14th, 
1736) another Winchester-born monk passed away 

^ His work is entitled '* Materia Medica Botanica, in qua Symptomata 
variorum morborum describuntur, Hert>sque iisdem depellendis optissimae 
apponuntur, Octing'entis praeter propter carroinibus Latinis bexametris totum 
opus constat. Londini 1723, 4to." It was prepared for the Press in 1717, 
and approved by his Superiors. See Gillow's Biog^raphical Dictionary of 
English Catholics. IV. p. 78. 

Digitized by 



in the person of D. William Pestel or Philips, a 
worthy son of St, Gregory's, professed in 1682. 
After acting as Procurator, first of his community 
and afterwards of his brethren in the Province of 
Canterbury, he was called to the Priorship of his 
monastery in 1721, and after holding office for two 
or three years was made a Definitor of the congre- 
gation and died in London. An Edmundian Father, 
D. William Hewlett, who took his vows in 1699, 
was, like the preceding, a native of Winchester. 
He laboured in the north of England from 17 14 to 
1726, when he returned to Paris and there died 
(January 27th, 1747). From Winchester again, so 
fertile was the city in vocations to the order which 
had of old so long flourished in its midst, came D. 
Richard Harris, another Edmundian, professed in 
^755- We have met with him before at Cheam in 
Surrey, and spoken of his career (see Downside 
Review^ December, 1899, page 283). After suffering 
imprisonment during the French Revolution, he died 
in Paris, June 9th, 18 10. From Portsea, where he 
was born in 1796, came to St Gregory's Br. William 
Basil Knapp. The last to make his profession at 
Acton Burnell, he came with the community to 
Downside, and there, the first of many brethren, 
passed to his reward, August 17th, 18 16. An older 
man than he, a son too of Hampshire and St. 
Gregory's, was D. Thomas Bernard Barn Born in 
1739, he was professed at the age of eighteen, 
served Foxcote in Warwickshire from 1767 to 1784, 
and Coughton in the same county from the latter 
year till his death in 1823 (May 20th). A lay 
brother of St Edmund's, professed in 1773, Brother 
James Minns, who died August 14th, 1824, is the 
last to be named among the Hampshire sons of St 

Digitized by 


The En gush Benedictine Missions, 117 

Benedict, till in the last and present century the shire 
has been so admirably represented by two reverend 
fiathers who bear a name honourable in the records of 
Hampshire Catholicity. 

Among the holy patriarch's daughters not a few 
are found who left this country to enter one or 
other of the English Cloisters in France or Flanders. 
At Cambray, among the English Benedictine 
nuns we find the names of two : Dame Margaret 
Winifred Cotton, born at Bedhampton, near Havant, 
in 1607, and professed in 1625 ; she died November 
5th, 1662 ; and Dame Susanna Philips who was 
born in 1648 at Stoke Charity, where there was for 
a time, as we have seen, a Benedictine Chaplain ; 
she took her vows in 1673, and died December 4th, 
1705. Two members of the Tichborne family and 
four of the Bruning became nuns of the Order at 
the English Convent of Pontoise, now represented 
by the Abbey of St. Scholastica at Teignmouth ; 
and others doubtless might be discovered were the 
records of the other abbeys of religious women of 
our order and nation more generally accessible. 

From 1794 to 1857, Winchester was the home of the 
first community established since the reformation 
for English religious women. In the former year the 
nuns of the Abbey of our Lady at Brussels were installed 
by Bishop Douglas, Vicar Apostolic of the London 
district, in a house'^ in St. Peter's Street, known then 
as Bishop's House, and nowadays as the Royal Hotel, 
and there they and their successors stayed, till on June 
i6th, 1857, the community removed to East Bergholt, 

*7 A view of it is g^iven in the Catholic Miscellany for t825 (IV. 209. 
See also the Catholic Magazine for 1838, p. 581). 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

118 The English Benedictine Missions. 

in Suffolk ;'* a quarter of a century later the county, or, 
to speak more accurately, the neighbouring Isle of 
Wight, became the home of another convent of Bene- 
dictine nuns, when, on August i8th, 1882, a colony of 
religious from Notre Dime de la Paix at Li6ge opened 
the Priory of the Sacred Heart of Ventnor. 

D. Gilbert Dolan, O.S.B. 

(To be continued,) 

•« Sec The Chronicle of the First Monastery founded at Brussels for English 
Benedictine Nuns, printed at East Berg^holt in 1898. 




'^^HE migration from Acton Burnell in 1814 took 
VU place in the mist. The Downside estate was 
lovely in the luxuriance of the trees and the freshness 
of the green, the house was solid and roomy, and 
was their own. Yet it was but a Manor house, an 
adaptation, with no indication of Church or Monas- 
tery. In 1823 came the ecclesiastical dawn, and the 
pale light discloses buttress and gable, pointed arch 
and pinnacle, a miniature minster firmly set down 
with a determination to stay. The community, in 
the half light of those days, gazed with complacency 
at the freshly cut stones, and lingered on each 
detail. To Downside *' College,*' hitherto relegated to 
the slums behind the Manor house, it was a veritable 
apotheosis. The change aroused the enthusiasm of 
the boys in passing from the old double cottage, 
where the ground floor served for study room, refec- 
tory and play room, and the upper sleeping regions 
were crowded and cramped, to take possession of a 
large study hall with separate class-rooms, a capacious 
refectory reserved for meals only, a spacious play- 
room, and a real dormitory. Later erections and 
the progress of architecture have depreciated the 
building, but the improvements then were more 
decided than in any subsequent additions ; even the 
removal to the present church was not more marked 
than that from the little parlour chapel to the 
chapel of 1823. The design, undoubtedly ingenious, 

Digitized by 


120 AT THE Dawn. 

outwardly presented the nave and transepts of an 
imposing church, and inwardly provided chapel, 
library, refectory, study hall, four class-rooms, pre- 
fect's room, lavatory, play-room, five cells, and two 
large dormitories. The Catholic periodical of the 
day called the chapel ^'a beautiful and pure specimen 
of airy Gothic, a style so admirably adapted to 
sacred structure.*' Some will remember the interior 
as originally arranged, with the monks in stalls well 
raised in the false transepts right and left, the boys 
in tiers below them, and the congregation in the 
body. The chancel was impressive, with the altar 
raised some feet, surmounted by the chaste lancet 
windows in the apse, and capped by the groined roof. 
The whole had a unity, compactness and an air of 
devotion, with no triforium, clerestory or timbered 
roof to dissipate the prayers on the road up to 
heaven : a change indeed from the old parlour chapel 
with its chairs, make-shift altar, piano and violoncellos. 
The current costume of cutaway coats was voted to 
be unsuited to the** airy Gothic,** and the authorities 
introduced over the coat an academic gown of light 
material, full and flowing, plaited at the neck and 
open in front : it was legal and a compromise. 

The solemn opening and the formal occupation of 
the new venture was a milestone on the journey to 
the future abbey. With fittings and furniture it had 
cost between six and seven thousand pounds, appar- 
ently without incurring debt. After two years of 
growth the approach of completion enkindled bright 
hopes. In remote preparation for the great day, 
Count Mazzinghi composed a special mass for the 
occasion. Father of the half-witted old gentleman 
afterwards so familiar at Downside, he was a noted 
musician of the time : organist at the Portuguese 



AT THE Dawn. 121 

Embassy at ten, and director of the music of the Italian 
Opera at nineteen, he had published upwards of 300 
pieces : he was short and portly, a favourite at 
court, and told many anecdotes of the Prince of 
Wales. The mass, arranged for three voices, was 
published with a lithograph of the College on the 
cover, and written in his style with pleasing melodies, 
not exactly airy Gothic, but the Credo wound up 
with seventy-two Amens — it excelled other masses 
in that anyhow. Mazzinghi also negotiated the 
purchase for ;^i6o, probably a nominal sum, of the 
organ in the pavilion at Brighton, and it was built 
up in the choir-loft to be ready for the opening. 
Musicians ! try to realise the change from the rickety 
piano **aged " in 1814 to the organ from the Brighton 
Pavilion. The sanctuary, too, grew resplendent with 
a new massive brass lamp (costing ;^83 iis. od.), 
new brass tabernacle (;^i3o), and six brass candle- 
sticks (;^3o), all of them brilliant in their first polish. 
Over the tabernacle stood the beautiful Spanish 
crucifix presented by Mrs. Sartorius, and taken from 
a Spanish galleon by her son the Admiral : exquisitely 
carved and ** ruddy as old ivory,'* the expression of 
the uncrowned head is calm and majestic, the anatomy 
is perfect without realism, and the whole eminently 
devotional. The nuns at Shepton Mallet worked a 
new cope on figured silk from London, and admirers 
of the vestment discovered too late that the figures 
were stags' heads instead of fleur du lys. With all 
these preparations everyone was on tiptoe with 

The great day, July loth, 1823, came at length. 
Carriage after carriage rolled up the avenue. ** There 
were present all the Catholic nobility and gentry of 
the West of England, besides a considerable number 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

122 AT THE Dawn. 

of gentry from Bath and the neighbourhood of various 
persuasions." So recordeth the Catholic Miscellany. 
With no railway or public coaches, those who came 
had to come in state. Dr. Baines, the coadjutor 
Bishop of the District, sang Pontifical Mass, officiat- 
ing clerics filled the sanctuary glowing in its brass. 
Count Mazzinghi sat at the organ, with a choir of 
trained singers from Wells Cathedral, to usher in 
the new Mass with its seventy-two Amens. In 
the stalls stood the community in their new academicals, 
below them the boys with their eyes everywhere, 
and in the body a ftiU congregation of nobility, 
gentry and various persuasions. Dr. Coombes, of 
Shepton Mallet, a man of reputation, preached, and 
the Catholic Miscellany tells us **that his sermon, 
by his numerous quotations, Greek and Latin, gave 
evident proof of his being conversant with the early 
fathers of the Church " : and doubtless duly im- 
pressed the various persuasions. The collection 
amounted to £6^ 7s. The service concluded with 
the Hallelujah chorus. 

Then came congratulations from within and from 
without. From within, when one monk met another 
with a gleam in the eyes, a smile on the face, and 
a flutter at the heart : how could they help that 
silent grip of the hand ? For them it was a 
glorious day, a fresh start ; they could now hold up 
their heads, they had a beautiful church, a building 
to be proud of, a bright future ahead : it was indeed 
the dawn. Congratulations, too, from without ; some 
genuine and others skin deep, some discriminating, 
others vapid, praising church, ceremony, music, 
sermon, building, grounds, but in whatever form all 
was sweet to those who had borne the labour, the 
anxiety, and the suspense. The Catholic Miscellany 



At the Dawn. 123 

relates : ** After the service a proper cold collation 
was served up in one of the new Gothic rooms, of 
which nearly the whole company partook.'* Speeches 
are not recorded, if that is any loss, but all is 
epitomised in the expressive term **a proper cold 
collation." A tent was also erected on the lawn, 
where, Sir John Lambert mentions, was **an excel- 
lent luncheon, which could not fail to commend 
itself to boys* tastes.** In the waning of the July 
afternoon the carriages came, the boys cheered and 
the guests departed, ** highly delighted with the 
interesting ceremonial and their hospitable reception.** 
The fresh era had commenced. 

The new accommodation gave immediate relief 
and comfort to the community. They had a suitable 
choir for Divine office, a sanctuary for carrying out 
ceremonies orderly, and a worthy home for the 
Blessed Sacrament. The old Manor house, now the 
monastery exclusively, was freed from overcrowding 
and the intrusion of the boys ; the professors* rooms 
were no longer needed as class-rooms, and there 
was an end to the perpetual clatter of boys up and 
down stairs, in and out everywhere. It conduced to 
silence, observance and study, and this freedom and 
peace helped the sense of responsibility that urged 
them to make the education worthy of the College 
of which they were so proud, and to do their share 
in attaining the bright prospects which they forecast. 
In 1824, as an earnest of success, seven novices 
were clothed with the habit, and six of these were 
professed in 1825, Philipson, Ullathorne, Davis, 
Kendal, Dowding (Aug.) and Spencer: one of them 
afterwards was created bishop. At the very com- 
mencement of the new era, before the establishment 
had well settled down after the vacation, came the 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

124 At the Dawn. 

rumblings of a fresh storm. Six weeks after the 
opening, Dr. Baines, the coadjutor Bishop of the 
District, in a letter to the Prior dated Aug. 27, 1823, 
asked: *• Would you be willing that the house of 
St. Gregory's should be made over to myself and 
successors, the Bishops of the Western District 
(being regulars), as an episcopal seminary for the 
same, on the understanding that the Bishop for the 
time being shall be allowed to exercise the same 
powers over its members within his own district 
which are usually exercised by the President and 
Provincial ? '' This virtually amounted to renouncing 
allegiance to the Order, for concurrent jurisdiction 
under these circumstances could not last a twelve- 
month. At this distance of time we can afford to 
smile at the audacity of the request, but the comic 
aspect did not commend itself to the community of 
the time ; the council was assembled, and unani- 
mously declined to entertain the proposition, and the 
result was politely intimated to the Bishop. This 
proposal was capped a month later by another, in 
which the Bishop asked if they would exchange the 
Monastery, College and lands of St. Gregory's for 
the Monastery, College and lands of St. Lawrence's 
at Ampleforth. They had recently declined to return 
to their old home at Douai, they had spent over 
£,^QOO on the purchase of the estate, nearly another 
jCjooo on the building, the enthusiasm at the 
auspicious opening had not yet subsided, hence the 
Council could but return a firm and decisive refusal. 
This suggestion rather exceeded the first in assurance, 
to use a mild phrase. The establishment of a 
diocesan seminary was undoubtedly an excellent 
object : here was a suitable building, fresh from the 
mason's trowel, the men to staff it, neither the 



AT THE Dawn. 125 

building nor the training of the men to cost a penny, a 
truly favourable coincidence : how pleasant it is to 
scheme the admirable uses that may be made of 
other people's property, and how pitiful for the 
owners to object! 

The refusal entailed his Lordship's displeasure, but 
nothing further occurred in the matter until the 
General Chapter held at Downside in 1826, to which 
the Bishop sent a communication containing pro- 
posals which would have completely changed the 
English Congregation. The nature of the discussion 
upon it may be gathered from a letter of Prior 
Barber's quoting the President General: **Our pro- 
ceedings at Chapter have excited some little breeze — 
quasi from within. But you do not know what a 
tremendous storm we have prevented from without ; 
if that had taken place which party spirit and ambition 
had proposed, the whole English mission would at 
this moment have been in an uproar, and the four 
Vicars Apostolic united in directing the whirlwind." 
The Chapter merely directed the Secretary, F. Placid 
Morris, to notify to Dr. Baines that his letter had 
been presented to the Fathers, **and that they unan- 
imously committed to me the charge of expressing 
to your Lordship their high sense of the attachment 
and affection you declare yourself to entertain for 
that body, and to return their individual and collec- 
tive thanks for your kind communication." The 
Bishop sent back this letter to the Secretary, desiring 
him **to give it to them or him who ordered him 
to send it." With this not very gracious reception, 
correspondence on the subject ceased for the time. 
So far no particular harm had been done : the 
Bishop, in his anxiety to obtain an ecclesiastical 
seminary, had asked Downside to hand over their 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

126 AT THE Dawn. 

house to hiiTiy and on its refusal had applied to 
General Chapter, which declined to entertain the 
proposal. Neither Downside nor the Chapter could 
have welcomed the project with any great effusion. 
In the autumn of 1826 Dr. Baines went to Rome, 
ostensibly on business of the diocese. Dr. Colling*- 
ridge, the Vicar Apostolic, was very old, and could 
ill spare the services of his coadjutor; consequently, 
in the prolonged absence he sought help, and entrusted 
the temporalities of the diocese to our own President 
Birdsall, thereby showing that he had no quarrel 
with the Benedictines. During 1827 and 1828 Dr. 
Baines remained in Rome, and in the course of 
those years the indignation aroused by the projected 
seminary scheme had gradually subsided at Downside, 
and a sense of security was taking its place, when on a 
sudden the real storm burst. In the summer of 1829 
Fr. Cuthbert Spain lingered in Rome on business 
connected with the Mauritius, and Dr. Wiseman, 
then Rector of the English College, spoke to him 
one day concerning the plans of Dr. Baines in 
reference to the Benedictines. On Fr. Spain express- 
ing his ignorance of the matter. Dr. Wiseman 
recommended him to obtain an interview with 
Cardinal Cappellari, the Prefect of Propaganda, and 
to communicate with the Superiors of the Order. 
From the Cardinal he learned that Dr. Baines had 
been negotiating about the erection of a diocesan 
seminary, and had pointed out how admirably Down- 
side was suited for the purpose, and how the monks 
there had no real canonical tenure. The Cardinal 
expressed surprise that the Benedictines did not 
know of the proceedings, and assured Fr. Spain that 
nothing would be determined without hearing from 
us. He specified three particular representations of 



At the Dawn. 127 

the Bishop : that the Monastery is not canonically 
erected, that its revenues are insufficient for support, 
and that we are inactive in the service of the 
Missions of the Western District. 

Fr. Spain at once wrote to the President General 
and to Downside. The ferment on receipt of the 
news may be imagined : here was real danger, not 
a mere request to the house to commit suicide, nor 
an application to the General Chapter to cut it off, 
but secret undermining at headquarters, quiet re- 
moval of the ecclesiastical foundations of its structure, 
and preparation for an explosion to scatter its tenants. 
The casual presence of Fr. Spain in Rome fortu- 
nately discovered the mine. Fr. Joseph Brown, the 
Professor of Theology, drew up a temperate reply 
to the above three allegations, which was signed by 
the whole community, and dispatched to Cardinal 
Cappellari before the end of June. President Bird- 
sail also wrote what Fr. Brown calls **a very spirited 
letter, carrying the war,*' as he terms it, ^*into the 
enemy's country." Long and anxious waiting inter- 
vened before the result of the replies could be 
expected. News came at length that Dr. Baines 
was to reach home on September i6th, and two 
days before that date, letters arrived from the Cardinal. 
He writes, he says, not as Prefect of Propaganda, 
but as a friend : he expresses good will, regrets the 
controversies, notes that Dr. Baines is very friendly 
to us, speaks well of us, but complains that we do 
not serve his Missions, and that our college is a 
hindrance to his seminary by diminishing his pros- 
pect of lay boys ; he recommends an effort to agree 
with what Dr. Baines may express, and to serve his 
Missions without claiming them as our own. This 
letter depressed the spirits of the community lower 

Digitized by 


128 AT THE Dawn. 

than ever ; it showed the influence of the Bishop's 
representations at Propaganda, that the Cardinal 
more or less sympathised with him, and that a critical 
contest was probable. However, it was not authori- 
tative, it decided nothing, and was only a recommenda- 
tion to an amicable settlement. 

Everything now depended upon the action of the 
Bishop. No time was lost. Dr. Baines wrote on 
the very night of his arrival at Bathampton, and 
an interview was arranged for October ist. The 
crisis was imminent, the community were now face 
to face with the danger and eager to learn what the 
Bishop really intended. Prior Barber and Fr. Joseph 
Brown were selected to meet his Lordship, and what 
happened may be best described from a letter written 
by Fr. Brown on October 3rd, two days after, some 
allowance being made for excited feelings : — 

^*Our reception was no kinder than it could be 
to persons calling by appointment ; and after a few 
minutes' indifferent conversation we entered on business. 
We had pre-arranged to make it our object to 
ascertain as clearly as possible his plans, without 
committing ourselves with him by too much opposi- 
tion, as that would make him less communicative. 
He began by asking if we were willing to comply 
with the Card.'s letter. We asked for more details, 
and without a blush he gave us the following, not 
straight forward, indeed, but with some contradictions 
which I pointed out to him. He has no objection 
to our quitting the district. If we are willing to 
become his seminary, over which he is to exercise 
the usual control which other bishops do, we shall 
remain unmolested and receive all his support. If 
we do not choose to submit to such terms, the least 
he requires is, first that we give up the lay school, 

Digitized by 


At the Dawn. 129 

or confine it within such limits as he shall hereafter 
nominate, paying him also a quota annually. Secondly 
that we place our missionaries under him so abso- 
lutely that he may call out what priest he pleases, 
and none shall leave the District without his per- 
mission. This, he was forced to own, broke up the 
present form of our Congregation, and he then said 
that the priests of Ampleforth would in like manner 
belong to the N. District and that Dr. Walsh did 
not want any of us, nor will Dr. Bramstone have 
any more of us ! ! ! Moreover, he called upon us for 
speedy answers, refusing to negotiate with any one 
except Downside. Having learnt his plans we 
raised objections and commented on certain false 
impressions expressed in the Card.'s letter de jurgiis 
et dissentionibus cum Dno Baines de privilegiis. I 
denied upon my honour that there had been any 
such, and we had some rather warm altercation about 
it, in the course of which he flung out at the last 
Chapter. In our objections, I told him that when 
the worst should come to the worst we could but be 
what his plans wished to make us. He then com- 
menced interrogating Mr. Barber whether he was not 
a native of his District, and finding himself wrong 
therein, attacked me, requiring to know on what 
plea I claimed exemption from his jurisdiction. I 
said on my solemn vows in an exempt house. He 
called for our proofs of exemption and we referred 
to the rescript of 1823 and Dr. Collingridge's implied 
approbation. He denied both, insinuated that the 
rescript was surreptitious, and said that he had 
copies of all correspondence which our Superiors had, 
since their removal to England, had with Rome, 
proving that we had never been canonically estab- 
lished, and that our former Superiors knew as much, 

Digitized by 


130 AT THE Dawn, 

and that Rome looked upon us since our return to 
England in another light to what it used in France, 
and would not give us canonical institution unless 
we altered our form of government. Then he charged 
us with the canons which declare the most severe 
censures against Superiors admitting to solemn vows 
in monasteries not canonically established and which 
annul all vows taken in said monasteries. He then 
produced our last Chapter list and called over the 
names of those professed abroad, whose vows alone 
he said were valid, and found the number but 22 or 
23. He concluded that we could not admit any to 
profession, nor give faculties &c., which he said was 
the opinion of certain eminent canonists whom he 
had consulted." 

There was no mistaking this ; it was to be war to 
the knife. The monks must either go and leave the 
building to the Bishop, or remain for the service of 
the Diocese, at his bidding, with diminished school, 
and payment of a tax. Consternation vied with 
indignation in the community, but they were united 
in the determination not to yield to these terms. 
Cool - headed Fr. Scott writes, on October 7th : 
** Sooner than grant these, or any one of these, I 
would move to another district, to Ireland, to America, 
to anywhere." Fr. Pratt expresses himself more 
impulsively on October 6th: **Poor Downside that 
has been a monastery for 16 years must now fall — 
and why? — because the permission of Rome is 
wanting and of the Bishop. It matters not for us 
to say that Dr. Collingridge invited us here, and that 
he was glad to have us here and so forth, this is 
all nothing. Dr. Marsh did procure five years ago 
from Rome a confirmation of our settlement in the 
Western District, but this Dr. Baines tells us is 



At the Dawn. 131 

defective. What in the world are we to do? the 
question is asked here by every mouth. The general 
feeling here is that we will not give to the Bishop 
one single iota: rather than come into his plans we 
would sell Downside and break up entirely. Now 
is it not mortifying in the extreme that after all our 
anxiety with the building, and all our trouble and 
labour, we should be broken up in this shabby 
manner ? We have here a fine establishment every 
day improving, every convenience of situation, upwards 
of 60 boys, 20 religious and novices, a glorious name 
and every prospect of success. All this must go. 
Even the Bishop himself told Mr. Barber that we 
have such an establishment, such a name here, that 
it will be impossible for him to succeed with a 
college in opposition to us. As I said above, we 
are all of one mind here, we will go to Botany Bay 
or anywhere rather than be subject to a man who 
can have the kindness to destroy such a monastery 
as this." 

The assertion of the Bishop that the nullity of 
the vows and the want of proper formalities on the 
creation of the monastery were supported by canon 
law, led to a thorough scrutiny of legal books, and 
it was discovered that the first applied only to Italy 
and the adjacent isles, and that the quiet and undis- 
turbed possession of a monastery during the space 
of ten years without reclamation from Pope or 
Bishop gave canonical existence and entitled to 
exemption and privileges. This helped to give heart 
to the monks, and all now looked forward to a 
struggle at Rome in defence of our rights. Dr. 
Marsh, who had formerly been President and had 
obtained the previous rescript, and Fr. Joseph Brown 
were selected to go to Rome to present our case. 

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132 At the Dawn, 

Fr. Brown left Downside at the end of October, 
with every good wish and confidence of the brethren : 
it must have created quite a sensation to give God- 
speed to delegates hastening to the Holy See to 
defend their existence. Fr. Scott writes on Novem- 
ber 4th : *^ Our Roman diplomats left London for 
Dover on Thursday evening. Dr. Bramstone and 
Dr. Gradwell both of them heaped their best wishes 
on the undertaking. Dr. Bramstone said they had 
his best wishes and his best prayers for their success. 
He totally denied what Dr. Baines asserted respect- 
ing him, viz., that he would have nothing more to 
do with us. Dr. Gradwell showed even greater 
kindness, if greater could be shown than Dr. Bram- 
stone's. He mentioned many of Dr. Baines's plans. 
He assured Dr. Marsh that we had no cause to 
fear, that Dr. Baines will not be able to injure us." 
It was an encouraging send off. 

A month passed after the celebrated interview, and 
in the absence of the delegates the Bishop provided 
excitement at home. On November 4th Dr. Baines 
wrote to Prior Barber notifying that a month had 
elapsed and that he had no intimation of compliance 
with Cardinal Cappellari's conditions, that he required 
an answer by the following Sunday : if in the negative, 
the Prior must state his reasons why he considered 
that the monastery was exempt. Prior Barber replied 
on the 6th that he understood that the President was 
the one to deal with the conditions, and he had placed 
the matter in his hands : that the Cardinal had written 
under a misconception of the facts, and he had taken 
steps to have the misconception removed : that with 
regard to exemption, having had undisturbed and pre- 
scriptive possession for years, the onus probandi lies 
with those who dispute it. The Bishop answered the 



At the Dawn, 133 

next day (November 7th) that the Superiors had not 
applied to him, but in any case he looked to Prior 
Barber for an answer about his own house : that he 
repelled the insinuation that he had misled the 
Cardinal: and he thus proceeds — •^Your positive and 
uncourteous refusal to inform me of the grounds 
upon which you claim your exemption from my 
jurisdiction has given me great pain, inasmuch as it 
compels me to deviate from that line of kindness and 
conciliation which I have hitherto pursued, convinces 
me that further forbearance in the assertion of my 
authority would be an abandonment of duty. I 
distinctly stated to you that in the event of your 
not acquiescing in the conditions prescribed by 
Cardinal Cappellari I could not possibly acknow- 
ledge your house as an exempt monastery unless you 
should produce some valid authority from the Holy 
See for its establishment. Your rejection of the 
conditions of that letter and positive refusal to 
furnish me with that authority leave me no alter- 
native. As however I wish to allow you an oppor- 
tunity of altering your determination I shall at 
present satisfy myself with withdrawing from every 
priest residing in your house whatever faculties any 
of you hold from the Vicars Apostolic of this District, 
and by declaring that no priest whatever has power 
to exercise any such faculties within the limits of 
your asserted jurisdiction, all such faculties cease 
ipso facto on the evening of the day on which you 
shall receive this letter." Again he requests com- 
pliance with the Cardinal's conditions and statement 
of reasons for exemption. 

Prior Barber replied on November loth that he 
did not insinuate that the Bishop had misled the 
Cardinal, but that the Cardinal had misunderstood 

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134 At the Dawn. 

the Bishop : that the Cardinars letter referred to the 
service of the Western District, and no proposal on 
that subject had as yet been submitted : that the not 
giving authorities for exemption was not discourteous, 
for there were cases, e.g. prescription, in which a 
Superior need not give authorities, and that he 
considered the prescription he claimed to be suffi- 
cient ground for exemption: *^ Whatever maybe the 
case, I do not set up the claim in the spirit of 
obstinate resistance to right. No doubt, my Lord, 
you act under the influence of conscientious motives 
in asserting your authority in the matter ; my motives 
in refusing to receive that authority are no less pure. 
The course of reading in which I have been lately 
engaged impressed upon my mind the imperious 
obligation of upholding to the best of my power 
those privileges of our sj:ate which indeed according 
to Canonists I cannot renounce. I have referred my 
cause to the Holy See. Its decision I await with 
perfect tranquillity. It is unnecessary to say that we 
shall not presume to exercise the faculties which as 
Vicar Apostolic of the Western District you have 
withdrawn.'' No reply was sent to this letter. 

The withdrawal of faculties tended rather to raise 
the spirits of the community. It brought little 
inconvenience to them, for although the Bishop 
intended the measure to apply to them and the 
students, he was mistaken, since the faculties for the 
inmates of the house are granted by the Superiors 
of the Order and not by the Vicars Apostolic. The 
harsh and hostile act only affected the small congre- 
gation in the neighbourhood, and was a burden on 
the priest who came from a distance to hear their 
confessions. It gained much sympathy for the com- 
munity, for it was usually reserved for cases of 



AT THE Dawn. 135 

serious delinquency, whereas the Downside Fathers 
had acquired a blameless reputation by their exemplary 
and innocent lives. On November 12th Prior Barber 
writes: *^ Brethren here continue in high spirits, not- 
withstanding the tempest which Dr. Baines threatens 
us with.*' 

The details of the arguments and proceedings at 
Rome scarcely come within this sketch of Downside 
at that time. The delegates duly presented them- 
selves to the Cardinal, who told them to embody 
their statement in writing. Fr. Scott writes on 
January 20th, 1830 : — *^ You will have heard the news 
from Rome. Our confreres are living with the monks 
in St. Gregory's Monastery. I am glad of this 
because both Cardinals Cappellari and Zurla belong to 
it, and spend the Sundays with their confreres. Card. 
Zurla, the most active man amongst the Cardinals, this 
I hear in London, is much our friend ; so is Card. 
Cappellari, but they think he has committed himself 
in part with Dr. Baines, and he, therefore, aims at 
an amicable compromise. Our memorial is given in, 
and is expected to be immediately taken into consider- 
ation. Dr. Bramston says: Mt's no use to give you 
monks advice ; you are wise fellows, you can act for 
yourselves ; you can take better care of your own affairs 
than anyone can do for you ; you showed some wisdom 
in sending your deputies to Rome at once.' Thus he 
goes on, quite chuckling, I daresay, that Dr. Baines has 
more pans on the fire than one." On December 7th they 
took a brief epitome of the points of the case — too 
brief for Fr. Brown — but in discussing the paper he 
was able to amplify and to allude to the withdrawal 
of faculties. The Cardinal, evidently prepossessed in 
favour of the Bishop, expressed his astonishment and 
told them that the case must now be heard by the 

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136 AT THE Dawn. 

Cardinals of Propaganda, and bade them draw up a 
full document and await the reply of the Bishop. 
On February 6th, 1830, Fr. Brown writes : " My 
last letter was written on the day before our dinner 
with Card. Capp. The dinner was a tete-h^tete. The 
Card, threw off all his wonted austerity, and appeared 
a new man, affable, jocose and friendly; such as Card. 
Zurla was at our first dinner with him. About Dr. B. 
and his plans he spoke with humour, and indulged 
sometimes in a witticism at his expense. The Card., 
as I have long been suspecting, has been gradually- 
coming over to a friendly view of our case, and begins 
now to think we have been hardly used.*' 

Meanwhile at Downside the ordinary routine con- 
tinued and excitement subsided. The withdrawal of 
faculties only affected the parish priest, and news 
came that the Bishop had purchased the estate of 
Prior Park for his seminary, so that he had given 
up hopes of appropriating Downside, and there re- 
mained only the questions of exemption and of his 
jurisdiction over the community. They were confident, 
eagerly expected intelligence, and were cheered up by 
every letter that came from Rome confirming the 
favourable turn. Fr. Scott writes on March 9th : 
** Yesterday's post brought me two letters. Mr. 
Brown's is dated the 20th. They were dining, and 
shaking hands, and cracking jokes with Card. Capp. 
and seem to be passing their days merrily enough. 
They were told that our case would be laid before 
the Congregation on the ist or 2nd of March. On 
the 1 8th of Feb. they dined with Cappellari, and he 
taking Mr. Brown by the hands at parting said: 
Ora Deum pro causa vestra quia ego oro." Sure 
enough the Congregation assembled on March ist, 
and passed a resolution granting a sanatio for the 

Digitized by 


At the Dawn. 137 

past if required for any defects in the canonical 
erection of the monastery, and confirmed the rescript 
of 1823. The Pope signed the formal document on 
March 7th. Cardinal Cappellari, in sending the rescript, 
recommended that, without disturbing our internal 
administration and the supply of our own missions, 
we should show willingness to help the missions of 
the Western District for ten years." 

This complete and decisive victory aroused the 
enthusiasm of the community. It crowned their 
anticipations with certainty, put an end to suspense, 
and imparted an intense feeling of relief, manifested 
in buoyance and joyful congratulations. The house 
was again their own, no bishop could now interfere, 
and threats of dispersion and dissolution, of authority 
and jurisdiction, were unavailing and harmless. On 
the evening of the receipt of the news the Te Deum 
was solemnly sung in the church for the preservation 
of the monastery. At the outset of the contest the 
very existence of St. Gregory's was undoubtedly 
endangered. The immediate, persistent and temperate 
resistance saved it : but above all, the unity of the 
brethren in clinging together to defend their house : 
had there been division, or a party attracted by the 
seminary scheme, the result might have been different. 
The honours of the day are due to Bishop Brown. 
Although then a young man, his deep reading, his 
enthusiasm and his clear head made him both a 
fitting counsellor for his Superiors and a mainstay 
in upholding the spirits of his brethren in the most 
serious crisis in the history of Downside. 

In the meanwhile Downside * College'* was revelling 
in its elbow-room, partially unconscious of the turmoil 
and anxiety in the breasts of its professors. Prudence 
and honour kept the trouble as far as possible from 

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138 At the Dawn. 

the knowledge of the students. The whole of the 
building was not at first occupied : the play-room 
was not finished, and one of the dormitories not 
fitted up for a year or more. The number of boys 
grew year by year and exceeded sixty in 1829 : this 
doubling of the school from thirty to sixty in four or 
five years, together with the better housing, much 
improved the morale of the college. It introduced 
more emulation in the studies, more life in the 
games, and the consciousness of being raised to a 
higher sphere. The testimony of Bishop Ullathorne 
and Sir John Lambert to the efficiency of the teaching 
and the devotedness of the professors applies to this 
period, for both were then inmates. A side light is 
thrown on this devotedness by the sacrifice of recrea- 
tion to help on backward students. Fr. Brown writes 
on June 28th, 1828 : *M do feel a certain pride in 
reflecting that in recreation time I have gone over 

with a boy such as N is, of no great abilities, 

and when I began with him very backward, in a 
year and a half, the whole of Horace, three books 
of Livy, four satires of Juvenal, and part of Terence's 

Heautontimorumenos." No doubt the mediocre N 

also took a pride in trotting out Heautontimorumenos 
for the delectation of mamma and sisters. 

Dr. Taunton, in Vol. XI of the Downside Review^ 
revives memories of his schooldays at this period. 
*'The bill of fare was simple but wholesome, and 
enjoyable for hungry dogs like myself. Bread {ad 
libitum) and milk for breakfast and supper, except 
upon the first Thursday of each month, which was 
always a whole holiday, when we were allowed a 
pat of butter each at breakfast. Dinner was com- 
posed of meat soup, plain, boiled, or roast meat, and 
occasionally pudding or pie.'' He speaks of good 



At the Dawn. 139 

bowling and batting at cricket, of an elaborate foot- 
ball made by Purnell of Midsomer Norton, of 
bathing at Mother Gaines', of nutting in woods 
beyond Chilcompton, of skating at Sir John's with 
a hint of something naughty at Old Down Inn on 
the return home. In the hard winter of 1826-7 a 
party skated to Bath, which included a walk to 
Camerton, a scurry over rough ice on the canal, 
solid refreshments, a peep into the shop windows, a 
return over the rough ice to Camerton, a supper at 
Mr. S. Day's, and the College taxed cart home. All 
this is trite and common to boys of many succeeding 
decades, yet family pride rejoices to know that our 
forefathers did as we do. The Shrovetide celebration 
was perhaps a specialty of the time : for a week 
previously dry wood was gathered from every avail- 
able quarter and stored in the play-room in view of 
** pancake " Tuesday. The boys mustered after 
dinner, on the table stood a huge bowl of batter, 
the fire glowed with wood embers, the first in the 
school opened the proceedings by a firm grip of the 
ftying-pan and by ladling into it a quantum of the 
batter amid the encouraging plaudits of his comrades. 
With some misgiving he placed the pan on the fire 
and all eyes were fixed on the creamy fluid sputtering, 
and crackling, and fizzing while it gradually gained 
consistency and attained the crucial moment for the 
tossing. An expert cook could turn it neatly, but 
to an unwonted tyro, doing it once a year, nervous 
with uncertainty of what might happen, the moment 
was — well, psychological. A preliminary pause, a 
silence around, an indecisive agitation of the pan, a 
half-hearted jerk and something happened : the cake 
may not leave the pan at all, it may make a suc- 
cessful somersault, it may overlap the black outside 



140 At the Dawn. 

of the pan, it may scatter into fragments, it may be 
landed bodily on the floor : whatever the catastrophe, 
eager hands amid shrieks of laughter restored every 
fragment to the pan. Each one in order had his try 
and his fry, and had to eat the result before his 
successor had cooked his cake : otherwise he was 
forcibly seized by his comrades, carried outside the 
building and contumeliously cast on the flags of the 
yard. For the boys it was a rollicking time, brimful 
of effervescence and unmitigated fun. 

The tucks that rewarded the heroes of the minor 
examinations were happily called ** marriage feasts," 
perhaps from the wedding garments or Sunday clothes 
donned for the occasion. A '* prospectus " of an ex- 
amination in 1829 has survived, probably a finale at 
the close of the year's study. The tootling of the 
flute contended with the clashing of the sword for 
public applause. 


Dolce Concerto Duet 


J. Espinet and T. Cologan. 

Waterloo (Byron) - 


E. Athy. 

Flute Solo - 


T. Tudor. 

Duet Flutes 


Wm.Coppinger and N.Cope. 

Latin Oration 


J. Carne. 

Sword Exercise 


First Class. 

Flute Solo 


T. Walsh. 

Pretty Page Duet - 



C. Bodenham and C. Davis. 

Greek Oration 


E. Eccles. 

Flute Solo - 


E. Smythe. 

Sword Exercise 


Second Class. 

Monody on Sheridan 


N. Paillet. 



C. Davis. 

Address to Greece composed by E. Athy. 
Flute Fantasia by Tulsa - N. Espinet. 
Piano ... J. Lambert. 

Dulce Domum. 

Digitized by 


At the Dawn. 141 

Here is a veritable bill of the period. Difficulty 
of communication entailed an agent in London, who 
collected the accounts from London residents, managed 
banking business, and executed varied commissions, 
and the following extracts from a letter dated 
December i6th, 1824, from the Procurator F. Scott 
to the Agent F. Lorymer vividly presents the pro- 
cedure of the time. 

'* Master Lewis Espinet. 

1824. Extras from 25 June to the 25 Nov' 

Sundries ... 

- 3 3 


Hose .... 

- 1 7 


Shoes .... 

- 1 4 


Tailor's bill - 

- 10 11 


Stationery 7/6. Incidental expenses 
Drawing and Dancing in next bill 
Pension from 25 December 1824 to 
the 25 June 1825 • 

12/- 19 


£2A 5 10 
" My D*^ Sir 

"In the above account the Tailor's bill may appear large, but 
the fact is, that his old clothes are all too little for him, and in 
addition, he feels the severity of our climate so keenly, that we 
were obliged to give him double clothing to keep him warm, 
however, notwithstanding the cold, he enjoys excellent health and 
pays assiduous attention to his studies. As Mons. Le Cointe 
recommended him to you, he will I presume pay his bills." . . . 

Now for a peep behind the Procurator's screen. 

"You will oblige us greatly by sending as soon as you can a 
cwt. of French beans ; they will come sooner and cheaper if you 
send them by the same conveyance by which Mr. Board sends his 
tea, directed to us near Shepton Mallet. Mr. Board might as well 
send us 281b. of coffee in the same parcel. Pray send the beans as 
soon as you can, for fish being so scarce and dear, we are greatly 
distressed in meagre days to make out sufficient." 

After the anxiety about beans we have a glimpse of 
recruiting for the school. 

'• With this you will receive some copies of our prospectus ; we 
are nearly full at present, but in the spring we shall have another 

Digitized by 


142 AT THR Dawn. 

dormitory finished, when we shall be able to admit between tv^enty 
and thirty more — by that time I hope you will have some ready to 
send. Mr. Kirwan has another son ; he did intend to send him 
here ; you would do well to keep an eye upon him. There is also a 
Mr. Kelly with two or three sons, who has mentioned his intention 
of sending them here, but where he lives I am unable to tell you. 
Our number of pensioners is 36— religious 11, novices 7. The 
latter are going on as well as we could wish. I send this by Mr. 
Richd. Spencer, who will call on you on his way to Do way ; he -wWX 
also bring you a ham of our own feeding and a cheese of our owti 
making ; the former you will have the goodness to accept, the 
latter I will thank you to send to the Miss Gallinis with all that is 
good and grateful from us." 

In 1827 a fire caused some alarm. Prior Barber 
writes on February 21st: *M assure you we have 
reason to be grateful to Divine Providence for our 
happy escape from fire. We all repaired to the 
chapel and sang a Te Deum as soon as the fire was 
out, and had a high mass at nine o'clock in gratiarum 
actionem'' In the same year the sodality was re- 
established on the basis of the old one at Douai, 
which was solemnly ** instituted, erected and founded'* 
on May 29th, 1678, by a Dominican father ** after 
a sermon and mass of the Holy Rosary at an altar 
expressly prepared and ornamented with a picture of 
the Annunciation.' In the troubles consequent on 
the French revolution it had fallen into abeyance. F. 
Folding drew up the libellus precum and designed 
the sodality cross ; Cardinal Weld obtained the re- 
newal of the indulgences granted to the old sodality. 
It was another link to old Douai and fostered a 
spirit of piety amongst the boys. 

All England was set by the ears in 1829 at the 
prospect of the Catholic Relief Bill. Up and down 
the country meetings were held, turgid oratory over- 
flowed, and bigotry obstinately resisted a growing 
sense of justice. Some settlement was anticipated, and 



At the Dawn. 143 

Catholics especially were eager to ascertain the nature 
of the proposed measure. The villages around Down - 
side had their say with the rest, and the following 
quaint note of s)rmpathy from Radstock gave amuse- 
ment, if not consolation, to the anxious community. 
•* Radstock, Jany 24th, 1829. Honourable Gentlemen. 
Sir's with respect to the prodestents sining of a paper 
against the catholicts having any right to present a 
member of Parliment, there are many have sined but 
know not what, I heard some say they wish that the 
catholicts was a million strong for says thay we could 
but die, for it would be better for to die by the edge 
of the sword &c. than to be starved to death. There 
are many ready to sine your protection I have told 
many that at the prodestents' church that in the I 
believe they acknowledge the catholict church &c., 
and I consider a great part of the lands, churches 
and houses in former days to belong to the catholicts 
which I hope in time will be regaind. Hon** Gentle- 
men Your most obedient humble servant: Stephen 

However the laity and the secular clergy may have 
welcomed the Emancipation Bill at its first appearance, 
the religious orders had cause enough for disappoint- 
ment and alarm. John Bull in his nascent feeling of 
fair play might be willing to extend disdainful toler- 
ance to papists in general, but he decisively and 
definitely drew the line at monks and nuns, Jesuits 
and monasteries : he would have none of them. The 
act provided for the extinction of religious orders ; 
individuals in England at the time could obtain pro- 
tection from penalties by registering their names and 
status, but for the future every profession would be a 
felony, and those who took vows and their abettors 
were liable to be punished as felons. Downside, in 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

144 At the Dawn. 

common with other establishments, was filled with dismay 
and consternation : it seemed to be doomed to fresh 
persecution and proscription with little hope of escape, 
for the rest of Catholics remained too thankful for 
their own measure of relief A week or two of 
reflection and a calmer review of the situation led to 
more hopeful anticipations. Fr. Scott wrote from 
London on March 19th : "I wonder not at your 
anxiety respecting the clause in the Emancipation 
bill relating to the Religious Orders. Last week I 
was in great trepidation, tho\ from the first, I felt 
convinced that it could not be carried into execution. 
I mean that part of it relating to the profession of 
new members. This I find to be the opinion of all I 
meet with. The Liberator told me to be quiet. *Let 
it pass,' said he, * in its present shape, and if I do not 
drive a coach and six through it, I will at all events 
drive a dozen monks through it.* The bill itself 
defeats its own purpose, because it makes all those 
assisting at a profession equally guilty. How then 
can they prove under it? Again, these things can 
be done in private, and where will be the witnesses? 
Besides, it seems the Attorney Greneral only can 
prosecute, and no wages of wickedness are held out 
to tempt an informer. The Jesuits at first gave up 
all as lost, and said they must obey it ; far different 
from that, I told them, was my determination as far 
it went. My recommendation, my advice, should 
always be, evade it in every possible way, evade it 
entirely, for it can be evaded." 

This shrewd forecast has been abundantly justified. 
The Act passed, professions took place at Downside 
as hitherto in private, and no one proposed to exact 
the provisions of the Act : the clause was still-bom. 
It was thought advisable to register the community, 



At the Dawn, 145 

and in the archives may be found certificates of 
registration of Ralph Pratt, John Folding, Luke 
Barber, Nicholas Rea, John Spencer, Joseph Short 
and John Rigby. Thus another storm passed over 
the monastery at the dawn with much thunder and 
threatening, ** but nobody seemM one penny the 



Digitized by 




JM^ENDiP Hills. The next morning we were per- 
l.ll«/ suaded to take a gentle hour's walk, over 
pleasant hills and dales to see a strange admired 
rock there, such (as they told us) no traveller would 
omit to see, being a miraculous work of our Chief 
Architect, for artificial workmen could never have 
accomplished it. In our morning's march, to our 
view did not appear far from us that most ancient 
and once- famous flourishing place of Glastonbury ; 
her Tower still standing and mounted on the summit 
of a hill, of that height that it commanded a great 
part of the country and some part of the sea ; and 
some of the walls and ruins of that rare demolished 
Abbey, to which we had a good desire to have gone, 
if we had been sure to have met with the truth of 
what was reported to us ; viz. : — either the Sepulchre 
of Joseph of Arimathea, or of King Arthur ; or if it 
had been the day on which we might have seen the 
miracle of the flourishing White Thorn in that nipping 
cold season." 

The narrator of this trip revisited the West of 
England in the following year (1635), ^1"^ ^^ ^hat 
occasion he supplied so important an omission in 
the programme of anyone who would wish to be 
considered as having "done" the West Country as 
concerns sightseeing : the account which he has left 
us of that visit may very properly be inserted in 



A XVIITH Century West Country Jaunt. 147 

this place, for Glastonbury is the bourne of many a 
pilgrimage from Downside, both from its historical 
and artistic associations, as well as from the religious 
halo which pervades and surrounds its hallowed pre- 
cincts. In the year 1635, accordingly, our traveller 
found himself in Taunton, and : — ** From hence I 
hastened,** he tells us, **and from their right down 
country swains, to meet with my last summer* s travel 
and by the way to behold and see and admire that 
which we then passed by, the ruins of a famous 
Abbey ; to which I passed through large, rich and 
fertile grounds, by Burgh Church, which stands 
mounted on a round hill like a castle : and there I 
crossed by three bridges over one stream, that flows 
thither from Bridgwater; and with the help of that 
high commanding land and sea-mark, Torr, I got to 
dine at this ancient town, by crossing the river which 
crosseth the middle of this shire (Brine River). Here 
had I soon a sight at full of the stately ruins and 
demolished downfalls of that ancient, rare and unparal- 
lelled Abbey, stuff enough left to rear up a new 
History ; yet had I but one under-meal's time, to 
admire and behold it. 

The first place I entered into (as it is generally 
received for truth) w«is the first religious fountain 
and holy foundation in this kingdom, Joseph of 
Arimathea's Chapel ; where the first groundsill of our 
faith was laid ; and where he with 1 2 disciples preached 
the gospel of glad tidings ; which hath been very 
spacious, rich, and stately, as by her two Towers with 
stairs yet standing, and her walls and structures 
about her, still willing and able to hold up their 
heads, do appear. All under-arched, strong and 
spacious, from which (as they commonly report) there 
went an arched vault to that high Torr, a mile 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

148 A xvilTH Century West country jaunt. 

distance, now filled up with earth. The Cathedral, 
which was built by the aforesaid King Ina, was of 
large extent, and a rich and rare architecture ; as by 
the towers, walls, aisles, angles &c., still remaining, 
though almost quite demolished, we may discern. 
The Abbot's Mansion, his large and spacious cellars, 
all arched ; his rarely modelled round freestone large 
and high kitchen, built in that manner by the Abbot 
to prevent his Prince's threat, do all still most plainly 
represent and show the splendour and magnificent 
greatness of this place, and what bounteous hospi- 
tality it afforded. 

There is still standing a strong wall, which is a 
mile in compass ; in all which space there are some 
appearing badges and relics of the several Chapels, 
variety of buildings, and religious mansions of those 
holy men, near quite demolished : a most lamentable 
spectacle to behold the ruins of so many religious 
houses, and sacred structures of so magnificent and 
resplendent eminency, built to the honour of God, 
and for the practice of devotion, razed and pulled 
down for idolatry and superstition. 

In the skull vault I wearied myself with tossing 
and tumbling over their Saint's bones : the unparal- 
lelled and strange Xmas-day-blossoming hawthorn, 
looking as if it would not flourish in summer, much 
less sprout forth on that nipping day in winter, I 
marked to be seared with Catholic marks, which may 
be credited with the more probability, for that gentle- 
men of rank and quality, and many of unquestionable 
credit thereabout that are living, do affirm the same ; 
I found a young bud and offspring of it planted in 
a tavern garden in the town, which is too young to be 
manacled with incisions, but old enough to matrizare 
and bloom on the same joyful and happy morning ; 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

A XVllTH Century West Country Jaunt. 149 

which, with a glass of good sack, I left springing and 
flourishing ; and such as desire further satisfaction here, 
may (if th^ please) travel thither then, and dance 
a Xmas Carol about them for their pleasure. 

Longer I could not stay, but mounted up into the 
air to her stately Torr, and there (upon that sweet 
commanding prospect) took leave of that old flourish- 
ing place, those fertile and pleasant moors and meads, 
and of the Ocean also, which in all this journey, 
from the beginning thereof, I had prettily inured 
myself to near a quotidian view and noise thereof for 
above five weeks and 500 miles march.'* 

It is true that the foregoing description of Glaston- 
bury leaves something to be desired for completeness ; 
nevertheless, it is extremely interesting, inasmuch as 
it gives us a picture of the ruined Abbey different 
from that our eyes are accustomed to gaze upon ; 
for, just a hundred years after the suppression of 
this famous Sanctuary, its towers were still standing in 
all their majestic beauty, and at this date, no vestige 
of them remains ; nor does it seem that any engraving 
or drawing is extant to preserve to us its appearance 
as it was known to our forefathers. 

But it is time for us to return to Wells, and to put 
back the hands of time by a twelvemonth, so as to 
resume the stages of the first trip which has hitherto 
been engaging our attention. It had evidently been 
a toss-up between the claims of Nature and Art : 
the wonders of man's genius and skill and the marvels 
of the works of God's hand. Though our travellers 
probably did not put the question to themselves in 
that precise form, yet when their choice had to be 
made between Glastonbury and ** Okey Hole," the 
latter, Wookey Hole, as it is called at this date, 
carried the day. 

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WooKEY Hole. " But we declined the sight of 
this place [Glastonbury], and on we passed to the 
other intended, which we found thus : — when we were 
come into the side of that huge rock, we saw a vast 
hollow cave in it, which had an entrance into it of 
the bigness and height of a great Church door; 
further in, wider, and higher, and every step some- 
what descending, yet passable enough ; without any 
great danger we entered, and in this our subterranean 
travels, having no light, nor guide but those lights 
only which our guide carried, we passed many vast 
and strange places ; one was like a spacious high 
Church : another was a long passage like an arched 
cellar : some were like butteries, some like kitchens, 
some like halls : some rooms were very strong and 
like we know not what : and with the continual 
dropping and distilling of the waters, such strange 
shapes and several forms were congealed, as there 
did palpably appear to our fancies, men, women, and 
other creatures, in that glittering, diamond-sparkling 
hoUowness, as made us gaze and wonder. 

After we had tried and tired our legs more than a 
furlong in an uncouth, stony and desperate march, 
and had gone the furthest period of our rock-journey, 
unless we would skip into Oven's mouth, as the 
desperate Scotchman did (the way likely enough to 
Purgatory), we there rested ourselves, being as our 
guides affirmed, and as it partly appeared to us after- 
wards, 80 fathoms deep, if not more. 

Many sweet little springs and clear shallow stand- 
ing pools we passed by and over, and of some tasted, 
and here at the furthest of our underground travel, 
being weary, we sat down and rested by a murmuring, 
deep and spacious river, that breaks out of that 
rocky mountain, and so not far off, falls into Mayor 



A XVIITH Century West Country Jaunt 151 

\West(m'SUper Mare\. Here we could not discover any 
boat, to waft us to Purgatory ; no other way was 
there, but in at the Oven's mouth : they that will 
venture into it, may find fire, or water enough to 
decide the controversy, if the sight only will not 
satisfy, as it did us. As fast as we could we hast- 
ened out, and well it was we made that speed, for our 
lights were all near spent, and then might we as 
soon found it Purgatory indeed, as the way to light 
out of that spacious winding dismal strange, craggy 
and darksome cell. Music doth sound and re-echo 
most sweetly and melodiously in those hollow caverns 
and passages, and we had a full trial thereof by a 
Recorder which was there, more tunable sweet and 
pleasant to our ears, than (as we heard) was the 
Recorder of the City to theirs. . . . {After which'] 
we arrived again to the welcome natural light of the 
sun, and so well aired, we lightly and nimbly counter- 
marched back to our Inn. . . . 

The route of the travellers now lay towards and 
through Bath, and of course our close proximity to, and 
still closer connection with the ** Queen of the West," 
makes their description of that city doubly interesting 
to us. For more than one reason, their account of 
the Abbey is of more than ordinary value, especially 
in regard to the list of monuments as existing at the 
time of their visit ; and occasion will be found in the 
course of this paper to return to this subject. 

The journey from Wells and Wookey Hole to Bath 
was accomplished in a traditional *• Mendip mist,'* as 
the narrative proceeds to relate. 

" To this City we came late and wet, and entered 
stumbling into a third cockpit city, over a fair arched 
bridge crossing Avon. She may well be a twin 
sister with her sister Wells, both for her situation 

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and her government ; and here we biUetted ourselves 
at the *• Three Tuns/* close to the King's Bath. 
And now prepared we with the skilful directions of 
our Ancient to take a preparative, to fit our jumbled 
wearied corps to enter and take refreshment, in those 
admired, unparallelled medicinable, sulphurous hot 
Baths ; there met we all kind of persons, of all shapes 
and forms, of all degrees, of all countries, and of all 
diseases, of both sexes : for to see young and old, 
rich and poor, blind and lame, diseased and sound, 
English and French, men and women, boys and girls, 
one with another, peep up in their caps, and appear 
so fearfully in their uncouth postures, would a little 
astonish, and put one in mind of the Resurrection. 
For our parts, we found the pleasure of it, and the 
better it was for us through the great care of our 
diligent attendant, more indeed than any benefit we 
found ; for ailing nothing it produced neither good 
nor harm to us ; yet sure, to such as stand in need 
of this place and the sulphurous waters, it brings 
exceeding great ease to such, and much content too, 
for that the like is not to be found in Christendom ; 
if there be, let foreign travellers decide it for me. 

To leave them, let us speak a little of the Town. 
It is governed by a scarlet Mayor and his 1 1 Brethren, 
2 Maces, and is seated in a deep bottom, and near 
three quarters thereof environed with that sweet glid- 
ing stream that comes from Malmesbury and runs to 
Bristow ; walled most about (except that part that 
the river hems in) with as many gates to enter her 
as her inhabitants have Churches for them to enter, 
and just so many rare baths springing up in her. 

The great Church which is by the King and Queen's 
Bath, was founded by Bishop Oliver : a Cathedral 
I must not call her, although in a City ; her famous 



A xvilTH Century West Country Jaunt. 153 

fountain sister we last left, having left her destitute of 
that Pontifical title. But thus far I dare vouch her 
to be, a fair, neat, and lightsome building, the roof 
stately, lofty, and cxiriously fretted ; the windows large 
and fair, though plain without painting. She is 
adorned with a reasonable rich Organ, fair seats, 
most curious and very neat, though lately erected. 

The monuments that are in this Church are these 
of more note amongst divers others. Bishop Montague 
his fair monument, by the middle aisle over against 
the large fair and spacious freestone pulpit. Over 
against that, Dr. Peeling's and Mr. CuUiford's. At 
the south angle, on the wall, is the monument of 
Judge Nicholl his Lady. At the north end of the 
aisle, is Sir William Waller's in armour, and his pious 
Lady, in alabaster, the pillars thereof in black touch- 
stone. Nigh unto it is Dr. Sherwood's monument. 
Against the choir is a fair large monument of freestone, 
without inscription. And near the High Altar, the 
monument of Mr. Bernes, a Londoner." 

Here we may very appropriately indulge in the 
luxury of a digression, occasioned by the mention of 
Dr. Sherwood's name. For some unexplained reason, 
but probably because of their usefulness and the 
paucity of their numbers, the medical men of the 
Elizabethan era were suffered to go unmolested for 
the most part, although they were almost to a man 
Papists, and as such, liable to all kinds of pains and 
penalties. Dr. Sherwood was one of the band of 
those who would on no consideration bow the knee 
to Baal. On this score alone he would command 
our interest, but he has a far greater claim on our 
attention, in as much as he is known to have been 
the friend and host of that venerable confessor of the 
Faith, and last Abbot of Westminster with jurisdiction, 

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154 A xvilTH Century west Country Jaunt. 

Abbot Feckenham* He thus constitutes a link be 
tween the past and the present, for in addition, he 
was the father of two of the monks of the revived 
English Benedictines, Robert and William Sherwood ; 
the former of whom was professed at St. Gregory's 
in 1 613, and the latter joined the house of St. 
Lawrence, where he made his profession in 1626, 
taking the religious name of Elphege. Any memorial, 
therefore, connecting us with our past must naturally 
appeal strongly to our feelings of loyalty towards 
Alma Mater ; but there is also a further reason for 
putting the existence of the good doctor's epitaph 
on record, for on enquiry of one of the vergers at 
the Abbey some time since, he, on reference to his 
catalogue, assured the present writer that there was 
no trace of such a monument, either now or in the 
past. In the **The Genealogist" (New Series, Vol. 6, 
p. 93) are given some extracts from the Registers of 
Burials of Bath Abbey. Amongst these occur the 
following, which are of interest : — 

1599. July 24 Ruben Sherwood, Doctor of Physic. 

161 2. Aug. 12 Mrs. Mary, w(ife) of John Sherwood, 

Doctor of Physic. 

1620. Feb. 16 John Sherwood, Doctor of Physic. 

Amongst the Harleian MSS. is a paper entitled 
"Church Notes taken in Bath.*' (Hari. MS. 1445, 
No. ID, fol. 276. b.). In this paper, after the state- 
ment that at the end of the cross aisle on the south 
side might be seen an altar tomb for the Waller 
family, there follows : — *• Next unto this, on a small 
brass in the right hand comer, this inscription and 
arms : — 

Maria Sherwood uxor Johannis Sherwood, sepulta 
fuit 12 Augusti 161 2. 

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A xviiTH Century west Country Jaunt. 155 

Henricus Sherwood sepultus fuit 3 Junii 1620. 
Johannes Sherwood, Med., sepultus 16 Febr. 1620. 
Conditur hie Sherwood 
medica praeclarus in arte 
Doctor ad Hue cujus 
Ama (anima) conisca volat 
Ossa licet lateant 
Hujus sub mole sepulchri 
Spiritus AEtherea vivit 
in Arce Poli. 
I give this inscription as it stands in the MS. and 
cannot correct it by recourse to the original brass, 
which, as has been stated, has disappeared : that it 
was copied incorrectly in the first instance is evident ; 
but such as it is, it is a record of the man and his 

The Coat of Arms as there set forth may be 
heraldically described as : — Ermine, 3 pellets. 

As no trace of this interesting plate seems to have 
been preserved at the Abbey, it is a subject of con- 
gratulation that the Downside Review should be enabled 
to offer a record of it for perpetuation. 

We may now resume the seventeenth century des- 
cription of the Abbey. 

** Close to this Church are two curious bowling 
grounds. One of them is curiously and neatly kept, 
where only Lords, Knights, Gallants, and Grentlemen 
of the best rank and quality do daily meet in season- 
able times to recreate themselves, both for pleasure 
and health : and likewise near unto her there is 
situated a fair building retaining still the venerable 
name of an Abbey. 

By this it was high time to depart from this dear 
place, . . . and on went the Lieutenant [the 
writer of these memoirs] alone, toward the old ancient 

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unconquered maiden town of Malmesbuiy, out at the 
North Gate, whereon stands King Bladud's statue, 
who first founded these precious baths 900 years 
before our Saviour's Incarnation, through that street 
where that fair freestone Cross of 20 pillars standeth. 
As soon as I came out of the Town, I was forced to 
climb up a mile together ere I had breath or room 
to view the country again ; but as soon as I had got 
out of this well, I might and did discover some places 
and seats of note. . . , Three miles on this side 
of Bath, in the High Road, on a high hill, are 
three stone "Dooles*'^ that part three great shires 
(Somerset, Wilts, and Gloucester) and there I took 
leave of one with my left leg, possession of another 
with my right leg, and shaking the third with my 
left hand all at once, with one moving posture.'* 
And here, too, it is high time to take leave of our 
genial cicerone, lest my readers should tire of his 
quaint remarks and descriptions. And "to conclude 
in a word " — to quote once more our guide, — I will 
here put before my readers his own farewell sentences 
in praise of his and our native land. They are, 
perhaps, somewhat turgid, somewhat rhapsodical ; and 
the anti-climax of doggerel with which they end 
offends our sense of the dignity inherent in the 
subject : yet I choose them, because they are so 
strangely applicable at this present day. It is the 
fashion with some people to take a gloomy view of 
our political position :. to be ever ready on all occa- 
sions to cry out *• actum est de Republica"; that 
our navy and army are going to the dogs : that our 
"splendid isolation" will and can only end in ruin* 

*( Doole" is ao East Ang-lian dialect word for a bouodaiy mark : either a 
stone or a mound of earth. 

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A XViiTH Century West Country Jaunt. 157 

Well, it is refreshing and reassuring to find that 
things are now precisely as they ever were : and for 
instance, if the continental gutter-press is, like an ill- 
conditioned cur, ever yapping at our heels, it merely 
follows precedent ; and now as then, whilst some 
nations are envious of our prosperity, others court 
our friendship and favour more from enlightened self- 
interest than from any love or admiration of us they 
may be supposed to entertain for our own sakes and 
qualities. Our Lieutenant thus speaks of England : — 
" She is the idea of true and essential delight and 
felicity ; so enriched and overmantled with plenty 
and pleasures ; so happy, glorious and triumphant, 
with such high, excellent and indulgeating Preroga- 
tives and remarkable singular blessings, as makes all 
Strangers over the whole face of the universe to gaze 
and wonder ; and whilst some of our neighbour 
nations are envious, considering our felicity, other 
some do court our friendship, reflecting upon our 
unanimity ; 

And here with their admiration. 

Will I close up my itineration. 

With this short ejaculation : — 
O formosa, triumphans, fortunata, resplendens 
Insula, Regio, Magna Britannia, Gloria Mundi ! *' 

H. N. BiRT. 

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^f^URiNG the Commonwealth we have hardly any 
>&^ mention of Somerset House. It seems most 
probable that it was assigned to the Protector as 
one of his town residences, but that it was seldom 
if ever occupied by him. Its convenient situation, 
however, just outside the city of London and on the 
way leading to Westminster, caused it to be selected 
as the place where Cromwell's body should lie in 
state, and there exists an old print which gives a 
representation of the ceremony. The Chapel, dis- 
mantled and no doubt stripped, was given over to 
French Protestants and, as we learn from Pepys* 
Diary, a preacher of the name of Mons. d'Espagne 
was appointed to the charge. 

On the Restoration of the Monarchy in 1660 the 
Palace of course reverted to its rightful owner. Queen 
Henrietta Maria, to whom it had been assigned as 
a Dower House in her marriage settlements. She 

The two illustrations to this article appear by the kindness of the Editor of 
the Hom€ Counties Magamint^ to whom our thanks are due. 

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II son;;. ;<si:r hoi si: l'ni>kr QiF.hv 



.^t rux-, ^ho C v^:''monweahh we h.ivc K^ 
IV.. t "n '-i Somerset House. It ^ -. '^ 

:^*»/!\i*]<. liu.: It MTis assigned to the Pruvc 
iT:i- I'* ii.^ tovxp. 'V.-^iJenccs, but that it v-: 
'• • \er e'CciiiMecl by him. Its convcnicr't ^ ' 
fione-wT. ju^l o. t^:Je the city of Lf^nd.*-- .■ *' • 
\v?*v Iv.'.u n>j lo \\\'Sin.l!ister, caused It t- }• 
ns t^'O ['I'Tce where Cromwell's body ■h'* 'i 
., I'e. and thert- c> -^t^ an old print \v'.*I- ,. 
r-jTe^-em ui n of tlje ceremony. The C' ; 
n» 'iitltMl ami fu» doubt stripped, was gi^^'" 
hiciuh Troie^Mnt^ and, tis we learn (r 
n;;,r\. a pu^*..!ier k^( the name, of Mons. .• \ 
was appi^inted to the chiart^e. 

On ilie Restorativ»n of the Monarchy in i- 
IV.iaee k^{ v:onr>e reverted to its rig-htful owr \ » 
Henrietta Maria, to v\hom it had been as*^ . - 
a Powti- Il^^^jse in her marriage settlement... 

The two 'illuKtratioiiS tc liiis articie appear by the kiiidncNS of ft 
rho Hom0 Cuunftts Mafr^tsine^ to whom our thankn an-. »lu*. 



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^%it «BW YORK 

I Mtc 



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Cathouc chapels royal under the Stuarts. 159 

determined to return at once to England, and started 
on her journey one day at the end of October 1660. 
The weather was very different from that which had 
prevailed on the disastrous day when she had quit- 
ted the country to which she was now returning, 
when a great storm had raged and all the furniture 
of her Chapel, including the great relic of the Holy 
Cross, had been lost in the shipwreck. On this 
occasion there prevailed an extraordinary calm, which 
made the sea look like glass, and there was not 
sufficient wind to fill the sails. Hence the journey 
from Calais to Dover, which, as the Queen's chaplain 
observes, ^*may with a fair wind sometimes be accom- 
plfshed in three hours," on this occasion took, 
in spite of the utmost efforts of the crews, no less 
than two full days. The King met the party at 
Dover, and a feast was made at Dover Castle, at 
which the French Capuchins at once began the same 
ill-advised procedure which had done so much harm 
in former days. The King's chaplain began, and 
blessed the food in the Protestant fashion, but P^re 
Gamache was not to be put aside in this way, and 
promptly rose and said the Catholic grace, Benedic 
Domine noSy in a loud and solemn voice, at the same 
time making a great sign of the cross over the 
dishes which had been set upon the table. This 
bold proceeding, as may be supposed, caused con- 
siderable annoyance to the Puritans, the Independents 
and the Quakers, trembleurs, who were present in 
large numbers as spectators; and the discontent was 
by no means lessened when the next morning the 
good priest proceeded to celebrate High Mass before 
the Queen in the Great Hall of Dover Castle, with 
all the doors open, and in the presence of a very 
great number of people ; many of whom, as he says. 



160 Cathouc chapels Royal under the Stuarts. 

*were inflamed with rage, from the blind and most 
criminal aversion which they bear to the Roman 
Church.' These proceedings might easily have stir- 
red up a rfevolt and lost the King the crown he 
had so recently and unexpectedly regained, but the 
indiscretions were apparently rather encouraged by 
the Queen Mother. Sometimes the contest between 
the two chaplains, Protestant and Catholic, was 
pushed to a most unseemly extent. On one occa- 
sion, for instance, it happened at the Palace of 
Whitehall that the dishes were already on the table 
and their Majesties waiting for grace, but neither 
chaplain had as yet arrived. Each hurried to be 
there, and raced to arrive there first, forcing their 
way with some violence through the people that 
filled the room. The minister m the struggle fell 
to the ground, amidst shouts of laughter from the 
lords and gentlemen round the King, who called out 
that Protestantism was upset, knocked down and 
floored, and that the Catholic Church was victorious. 
For the priest had said the grace, and dinner was 
begun, before the minister had recovered from his 
tumble, or gained his place. 

The preparation of Somerset House for the Queen 
Mother's residence was at once put in hand. It was 
much dilapidated and could not be occupied without 
repair. * Ruins and desolation,' said Henrietta, *are 
everywhere about and around me.' While the repairs 
were in progress the Queen went back for a time to 
France, where the Princess Henrietta was married 
to the Duke of Orleans, and it was not till July 
1662 that she returned to England. The marriage 
of Charles H with the Infanta Catharine of Portugal 
had by that time taken place, and there were there- 
fore from this time onwards two Catholic Chapels 



Cathouc Chapels Royal under the Stuarts, I6i 

Royal in London, the one at Somerset House be- 
longing to the Queen Mother, Henrietta Maria, and 
the other at St. James's belonging to Queen 
Catherine. Our present concern is with Somerset 
House only, and we leave the Chapel at St. James's 
to be dealt with in another article. 

The Queen Mother's establishment was arranged 
on a scale of considerable magnificence. She had 
her Lord Almoner, the Abb6 Montague, brother to 
the Earl of Manchester, whose salary was ;^700 a 
year. The Lord Almoner was the head of her 
Chapel, which was served as before by French 
Capuchins, but in less number than had formerly 
been the case; for whereas formerly there had been 
ten priests there were now only six besides two lay 
brothers. The two Oratorian fathers, who had re- 
mained when the other Oratorians were dismissed in 
the early part of the reign of Charles I, still survived, 
and now caused considerable jealousies. They in- 
sisted on it that they had a right, not only to be 
attached to the Chapel of the Queen, but to be 
considered as of superior rank to the Capuchins, and 
to such a direction of affairs that these latter were 
only to administer the Sacraments by their permission 
and generally to act under their direction. The 
claims of the Oratorian fathers were backed by the 
Lord Almoner, and a very pretty quarrel between 
the members of the two orders now resulted, which 
was brought to an end by an appeal made by the 
Capuchins to Queen Henrietta herself, who decided 
against the Oratorians and ordered them to apologise 
for the attempt they had made. Moreover she sent 
over to France and brought over three more Capu- 
chin priests, so that the number might be brought 
up to the full complement of ten which had been 

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162 Cathouc Chapels Royal under the Stuarts. 

originally agreed upon in the time of the late King. 
They had their lodgings in a * friary,' built for them 
near the chapel by the Queen, in place of the old 
one which had been destroyed in the time of the 

All the old services in the Chapel were now re- 
sumed and great numbers of Catholics attended 
them ; in spite of an Order in Council which was 
issued forbidding any except the Queen's own house- 
hold to attend either there or at St. James's. In all 
probability, however, this order, which was issued 
in July 1662, was never meant to be enforced, but 
was put forth only to provide an answer in case the 
King should be attacked in Parliament upon the 
subject. In any case there seems to have been no real 
difficulty put in the way of Catholics going either 
to Somerset House or to St. James's, and many who 
were not Catholics seem to have gone also with- 
out fear of consequences. Thus, for instance, on 
Ash Wednesday 1664 Pepys notes in his Diary that 
he went to the Queen's Chapel at St. James's, ** where 
I staid and saw them mass till a man came and 
bade me go out or kneel down ; so I did go out. 
And thence to Somerset House ; and there into the 
Chapel where M. d'Espagne used to preach. But 
now it is made very fine, and was ten times more 
crowded than the Queen's Chapel at St. James's, 
which I wonder at." 

The Confraternity of the Rosary was re-established 
at Somerset House, by the authority of the General 
of the Dominicans, and all the exercises of piety 
connected with it were revived, and the devotion soon 
became once more exceedingly popular, and drew 
great crowds to the Chapel on the days set apart 
for it. 

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Cathouc chapels Royal under the Stuarts. 163 

In 1665 Queen Henrietta determined to go back 
to France. She had never been altogether happy 
in England, and especially in London, where there 
was so much to remind her of the troubles of her 
past life. Moreover the damp air did not suit her 
constitution, and she suffered from perpetual coughs 
and colds, which she thought the clearer air of her 
native country would perhaps relieve. At the same 
time she was unwilling to go without first obtaining 
a promise that the Chapel at Somerset House should 
not be molested in her absence, nor the large 
Catholic congregation which was accustomed to 
worship there deprived of the means of practising 
their religion. She went accordingly to her son. 
King Charles, and laid the case before him. She 
told him that she thought that the waters of Bourbon 
would give her relief, and that she wished to go 
there if he would allow her Chapel to be kept open 
in her absence, but that **if it were to be closed 
even for a single day on account of her departure, 
she would stay and live as long as it pleased God, 
and so die at the post of duty.'* The King granted 
her request, and she accordingly left England, never 
to return, taking with her two of her Capuchin 
chaplains, but leaving the rest in London with strict 
injunctions to do all that should be in their power 
to forward the interests of Catholics in that city. 

The devotion of the friars was soon tried, for 
almost at once there broke out the great plague of 
London, which indeed was already commencing even 
when she started for France, though it did not attain 
formidable proportions just at first. Before long, 
however, between 4,000 and 5,000 persons were dying 
in a single week, and in fear lest the pestilence 
should infect the palace, as well as to prevent it from 

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164 Cathouc Chapels Royal under the Stuarts. 

being spread by contagion among the crowds who 
came there to mass, the Queen Mother wrote to 
order that the Chapel should be closed. The Capu- 
chinsy however, begged that this should not be done, 
and the Queen, ** judging that after all it were better 
that her palace should be infected than that one 
Catholic should die without confession and viaticum,'' 
acceded to their request She also sent large sums 
of money to be distributed in relief of the afflicted. 
All through the plague the priests worked nobly, 
and two of their number fell victims to the disease. 

We have no further notice of the Chapel at Somerset 
House for the next four years, but apparently the 
work went on smoothly and without molestation. 
In August 1669, however, it was brought to an end 
by the death of Queen Henrietta at Colombe near 
Paris. As the Palace was her property as Queen 
Dowager and it was on that account only that a 
Catholic Chapel was allowed there, it necessarily 
followed that the Chapel had at once to be closed 
on her death. When Agretti, the Papal envoy, visited 
London in the autumn of 1669 he found it still 
closed, though there were hopes that it would soon 
be reopened for the service of Queen Catherine, into 
whose possession it had now passed. He notes the 
great inconvenience that the Catholics of London 
were put to by this circumstance, for it was much 
more conveniently situated for most of them than 
was the Chapel of St. James, which was then quite 
outside of London and almost in the country. 

All through this period it will be noticed there is 
no connection of Benedictines with Somerset House. 
The Capuchins and Oratorians were the only 
Orders of which members were officially attached to 
the staff of chaplains. But other priests seem to have 














LiEvx* Con iSestat DV ROY 






To llie perpe^vtvl niemorY of 

To HerfcccfiW^qVEENEGIiieriDe 

jsfiJ j^likeioHerkJeM^t^veen Henrietta 

*3he Ihirdsonne 


Wlioe exchaT^eJHuslijtforimmortaliK* 

y?7^^of^M^ 1674. 
In iKe 6^^^re of his evoe 











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A8TO|^ j.£KOX AND 

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Cathouc Chapels Royal under the Stuarts. 165 

resided there in an unofficial capacity, and among 
these was at least one member of the English Con- 
gregation of Benedictines, namely, Dom Serenus 
Cressy, who was visited there by the celebrated 
antiquary Anthony a Wood in the year 1669. There 
may no doubt have been other Benedictines there at 
this time, but if so no record of them has survived, 
and their chief establishment in London at this 
period was certainly not at Somerset House but at 
St James's. 

A. S. Barnes. 

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^^HE history of Stonyhurst recently published is, 
\m we understand, the first of a projected series 
of monographs on our Catholic Colleges. It is 
profusely illustrated, and bound in green with an 
heraldic device in silver on the cover. This combi- 
nation of colours belongs to the Shirburn family, 
with which the college is so intimately connected. 
The illustrations do not always accompany the text 
to which they refer, and the absence at times of an 
explanatory legend to them necessitates a reference 
to the table of illustrations on the part of the 
uninitiated. The compilation of such a book imposed 
a difficult task on the authors. It is obviously 
meant in the first place for the alumni of the 
college, past and present. Hence the necessity of 
making it a complete record. On the other hand 
its publication exposes it to a wider range of readers 
and critics ; and there must have been a difficulty 
at times in judging what was too intimate or trivial 
to offer to a general public. The compilers can 
certainly claim a wide latitude, as their first con- 
sideration must be for the home circle. In any 
case, we are not in a position to pronounce judg- 
ment on the point ; our own interests run on parallel 
if not identical lines, and prevent us from being 
impartial critics. We venture to think that the book 

' Stonyhurst — Its Past History and Life in the Present, by Rev. George 
Gnigg^en, S.J., and Rev. Joseph Keating, S.J. London, Kegan Paul ; 
Trench, Triibner & Co., 1901. 

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Stonyhurst College, 167 

will find few readers who will prove insensible to 
the spirit of enthusiasm which infuses it. 

In 1582 Father Robert Persons, S.J., started a 
small school at Eu, on the coast of Normandy. His 
chief patron was the ill-fated Duke of Guise. Three 
years after the death of the latter, in 1589, it was 
thought prudent to seek the protection of Spain ; 
accordingly Fr. Persons established a settlement at 
St. Omer, in Artois, on September 18, 1592. Such 
was the origin of Stonyhurst. It became at once 
an object of jealous suspicion to the English Govern- 
ment ; moreover, the inhabitants of St. Omer shewed 
their concern by limiting the number of students, and 
prescribing that the Rector should never be an English- 
man. However, thanks to patronage in the highest 
places, the College throve apace. In 1593 the boys 
numbered 33, and so on in increasing proportion, 
till in 1632 they were 200. The restriction as to 
nationality of the Rector was speedily removed. 

This success naturally brought notoriety to the 
College in those troubled times. Titus Oates made 
a sojourn there for his own nefarious purposes. The 
State Trials contain some interesting incidents con- 
nected with St. Omers. The boys, with their 
unerring instinct for anything underhand, seemed to 
have divined the scoundrel in him. The following 
is a delightful instance. 

** Billing: I was walking with him (Oates) a little while. Dick 
Blunt and Henry Howard were playing one with another, throwing 
stones at one another's shins, at which he was displeased, and said 
that if they would not be quiet he would go and tell the Rector. 
Howard was hasty, and spoke angrily to him, and said that if he 
would not be quiet he would beat him. But Mr. Oates persisting 
and daring of him — says he ' What, do you dare me ? ' and comes 
up to him and throws up Mr. Oates his heels. With that, Mr. 
Oates looked very fretfully upon him, and withdrew himself into 
the Infirmary, as we thought to speak to the Rector." (p. 17.) 

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168 Stonyuurst College. 

Equally typical is the following. 

In the trial of Gates under James II, one of the boys, describing 
some nud-Lent festivities, says : — ** Mr. Oates was amongst them, 
and I was one of them that broke a Pan about his head for 
RecreaHon." (ib.) 

A full and valuable account of the training at St. 
Omers is given from James Wadsworth's ** English 
Spanish Pilgrim," published in 1630. From this 
we gather that the official staff consisted of-— the 
Rector ; Minister ; three Prefects, (of whom the second, 
from the description given, seems to have been the 
Prefect of Discipline, the third being Prefect of the 
Sodality and refectory) ; the Spiritual Father ; Bursar ; 
five Masters of the various classes; a Father, ** over- 
seer of the print-house,** and various under officials 
who are lay brothers. The following is the horarium : 
5, rise ; 5 — .5 J^, wash and make beds ; 5 J^i — 6, Mass ; 
6 — 7, study ; 7 ** they go down two by two, with their 
books under their arms, and first those in Rhetoric," 
to breakfast, bread, butter and beer ; (this meal was 
forfeited by those who had been reported to the 
Prefect ** for having spoken English the day before '*) ; 
7/^ — 9^> class; g]4 — 10, the upper schools read 
Greek to the three under schools; 10 — 11, private 
study; 11, dinner, with the following ceremonial : — 

"After they have ranged themselves awhile, the 
Rector and Fathers enter. The elder says grace 
himself or ordains another, which being done he 
placeth himself at the upper end of the table, the 
others in their order. All this time the students 
mouths are shut, not from eating but speaking, 
bestowing their ears upon six other of their com- 
panions, disputing three against three in two pews, 
one overthwart the other, of such things as may rather 
help digestion to the Fathers than benefit their 




own understandings." (p. 23.) The boys wait on 
each other in turns. The meal comprises an ** ante- 
past" of broth; a ** portion " consisting of half-a- 
pound of beef ; a ** post-past " of fruit or cheese ; 
bread and beer at will. The Rector says grace, and 
is saluted, cap in hand, by the boys as they pass. 
Then music practice, which the Rector attends ; recrea- 
tion in the garden till i ; i — 2, study ; 2 — ^]4y class, 
Greek and Latin ; 47, — 6, study ; 6, supper, with 
disputation and a lecture from both the Latin and 
English Martyrology ; music till 7'/, ; recreation till 8 ; 
8 — 85^, study ; 85^, prayers and bed. The prefect's 
blessing is asked before retiring. Whilst undressing, 
one of them reads aloud 

'*some miracle or new book until sleep close up all and Fr. 
Thunder's (the second prefect's) noise awake them in the morn- 
ing." (p. 24.) 

Even the malicious writer has to admit ** Discipline 
is here enough, were it well bestowed." On Tuesdays 
and Thursdays they have ** recreation of the open fields " 
till supper, which on that day consists of roast mutton. 
On Saturdays there are confessions from 4 — 6, and 
after supper till 8. On Sunday morning, 6 — 7, 
spiritual reading ; then the members of the Sodality 
go to their chapel for a discourse. Mass at 8 ; 
breakfast and spiritual reading till dinner. 

•* Anon, after dinner, to their church, where they sing Vespers 
and Litanies to our Lady for England's conversion, having written 
on their church and college doors in great golden letters, 'Jesu^ 
Jesu, converte Angliam^ Jiat, fiat,' " (p. 26.) 

By such strenuous training were the sturdy English 
natures moulded and fitted for that struggle against 
opposing circumstances which met them even in their 
youth. It is but natural that St. Omers boys should 
have left the mark upon Catholic English history 
which they did. 

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170 Stonyhurst College. 

The progress of the College was, however, not 
entirely unimpeded. It was burnt down in 1684, and 
again in 1725. A still greater calamity threatened 
its existence than this. In 1762 the Parliament of 
Paris plotted the destruction of the Jesuit Order 
in France. Artois had been ceded to the French in 
1659, so the doom of St. Omers seemed inevitable. 
However, they possessed minds trained to cope with diffi- 
culties, and without exciting the suspicions of their 
neighbours, and, indeed, without communicating their 
intentions to the boys till the last moment, they 
removed, first their valuables, then the boys in relays 
across the frontier to Bruges. The boys were oflFered 
their choice of remaining or of accompanying their 
masters ; we need not say how they decided. A touch- 
ing tribute is paid by a contemporary to the courage 
and endurance of the boys in the hardships of the 
flight and of the hastily improvised refuge. 

'' No murmur or complaint was heard ; they submitted to the 
present inconvenience with wonderful gentleness, and bore the 
hardships of their comfortless state with a singular tractability ; 
ready to share in every difficulty which they saw their guardians 
and teachers undergo." (p. 30.) 

In August, 1773, came the suppression of the 
Society by the Brief of Clement XIV. The civil 
authorities introduced a Flemish priest to act as presi- 
dent of the College, and then, after the manner of 
their kind, conducted a rigorous but futile search for 
treasure. They next obliged the English Dominicans 
to undertake the management of the establishment. 
The boys revolted and declared for no others but 
their old masters. On October 14 the latter were 
removed and placed under arrest. Armed sentries 
were posted throughout the College. The British 
boy rose to the emergency. A band of 40 escaped 
into the town, and the remainder gave a lively 



Stonyhurst College. 171 

performance, for the benefit of the soldiers, with the 
demolished furniture. The Rector and the first prefect 
were brought from prison and quieted them, but the 
tumult began again as soon as they left. Next day 
the Dominicans appeared, but the boys would have 
none of their ministrations. Other expedients were 
resorted to in vain, and finally the authorities closed 
the establishment. Over this blank prospect a small 
ray of light opened. At Liege the English Jesuits 
had opened, in 1616, a theological seminary. The 
Bishop, Mgr. Welbruek, sympathised with the Jesuit 
fathers, and while he acted under the directions of 
the papal Brief, permitted them to retain the manage- 
ment of the seminary for the benefit of the English 
Mission. Hither the Bruges fathers made their way, 
and gradually their former pupils followed them. On 
November 4 the schools were re-opened under the 
name of the English Academy. The Bishop obtained 
a Brief from Pius VI favourable to the establishment. 
In three years* time the number had arisen to 150. 

Their sojourn was cut short by the French Revolu- 
tion. In 1794 their position became so perilous that 
they had again to resolve on flight. They thought 
of Bavaria, but fortunately that scheme fell through. 
Eventually, on July 14th, they commenced their 
exodus towards England. The voyage was one of 
delays and perils, but at last, on August 13th, the 
pioneers of the exiles of two centuries landed at 
Harwich. The main body reached Hull on 25th 
August. Their destiny in their native land was more 
propitious than that of the fathers of St. Gregory's ; 
a place was waiting for them, and boys and masters 
went straight to their new home, Clitheroe in Lan- 
cashire. This they reached on August 29, and so 
rapid had been their movements, and so hasty the 

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172 Stonyhurst College. 

dispositions, that they found Stonyhurst locked and 
barred to them ; the first who entered, Georgfe Lambert 
Clifford, prised his way into it with an iron bar. 

Stonyhurst as it stands, with its century of develop- 
ment and its harvest of successes, old and new, is 
too big a fact to compress into the conclusion of a 
magazine notice. Besides, it is vitally able to manifest 
itself. We exhort our readers to study it in itself; 
if not in its actuality, at least in this presentment 
of its bright history. However sketchy and inade- 
quate our attempt to outline the history of Stonyhurst, 
it should be plain to our readers that the value of the 
book is not confined to its exposition of the career of 
a famous college ; but that it throws a wide and vivid 
light on a phase of English Catholic history with 
which we are all vitally concerned. 

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Novum TESTAMENTUM graece et latine. Textum graecum 
recensuit latinum ex Vulgata versione Clementina adiunxit, breves 
capitularum inscriptiones et locos parallelos uberiores addidit 
Fridericus Brandschied. Editio critica altera, emendation (Herder, 
Freiburg, 1901.) 

The first volume (containing the four Gospels) of 
the second edition of Brandschied's **New Testament*' 
has now appeared. The general plan of the first 
edition has been adhered to. The volume is of con- 
venient size, well printed in clear and readable type, 
and contains useful cross references in the margin 
to passages of the New Testament, with references 
to the Old Testament at the foot of the page. The 
present edition contains a few alterations of the Greek 
text previously adopted, and a summary of the chief 
documentary evidence in each case is given at the 
end of the text. These changes tend almost invariably 
to a closer agreement with the Vulgate. Finally, to 
the new edition is appended a conspectus of docu- 
mentary authorities, confined, however, ** chiefly to 
those passages in which the Greek reading seems still 
to differ somewhat from the Latin." 

The book will doubtless be acceptable to students 
who wish to have the Latin of the Vulgate side by 
side with a Greek text upon which it may be sup- 
posed to have been based. It must be remembered, 
however, that it is not the primary object of the 
editor to discover the Greek text which underlies the 

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Latin. He has set the Latin of the Clementine Vul- 
gate over against a Greek text, for which he claims 
that it is the nearest approach which has yet been 
made to the Greek of the autographs. 

Concerning the Latin, nothing need here be said. 
As to the Greek text, it is one which has been 
constructed by the editor on principles of his own. 
His method, as he informs us in his preface, - is 
based on the conviction that the original Greek of 
the New Testament is to be found only in such 
Greek authorities as are in agreement with the Latin 
of the Vulgate. He has, in fact, departed from all 
the main lines of modem Greek Testament criticism. 
He rejects Westcott and Hort's theory, that the 
purest Greek text is to be found in a few of the 
most ancient manuscripts. On the other hand, he 
is no partisan of the Traditional school, for he 
deserts the main body of Greek MSS. when they 
do not support the Vulgate. The same test {t.e. 
agreement with the Vulgate) is applied to what are 
technically known as ** Western" readings; that is 
to say, a class of text which is characteristic of a 
certain group of authorities, of which the chief are the 
Cambridge bilingual MS., known as Codex Bezae, 
and several MSS. of the old Latin version. The 
result is that, in some cases, readings are adopted 
as part of the original Greek text which have the 
scantiest attestation from Greek authorities ; and thus 
the vast mass of Greek evidence for the text is 
treated as of small account 

Now, we have here a principle which, if carried to 
its just conclusions, cuts at the root of all Greek 
textual criticism, and stamps as futile the labour which 
scholars, for generations past, have spent in ex- 
ploring the Greek sources of the New Testament. 




We naturally ask, Has this principle any solid 
basis that we should accept it ? And first, what was 
the nature of the Greek text from which the Vul- 
g^ate version was made? 

The idea that the Greek text of the New Testa- 
ment had undergone no change or deterioration 
before St, Jerome's time, is contradicted by facts. 
St. Jerome had to use his judgment in selecting a 
text from authorities which he considered the most 
reliable. Other versions of the New Testament exist, 
more ancient than our Vulgate, for which no one 
claims that they were made from a faultless Greek 
text. We do not on this account deny that they 
have been the vehicles of orthodox faith to thousands 
of Christians ; nor has the Church ever considered that 
those versions, through which the Scriptures were 
known to St. Ephraim, St. Cyprian and many a 
holy hermit of the Egyptian deserts, were incapable 
of conveying to men the truth of the Gospel, in its 
purity and entirety,' And yet, these versions differ 
frequently in matters of detail, both from our Vulgate 
and among themselves. They necessarily differ also, 
in a similar way, from the original Greek, Conse- 
quently, they may be illustrated and better understood 
by reference to the Greek, and by comparison one 
with another. 

Can there be any reason why we should not say 
the same of the Vulgate? It is true that the Vul- 
gate has received a high sanction from the Church; 
so that Catholics, who trust in her unerring guidance, 
have a firm assurance that, from this version, they 

' We may instance the words of the Holy Father in his Encyclical on the 
study of Sacred Scripture ; having* spoken of the Vulgate as the version 
authorised for public use, he continues : " Nor should other versions be 
neglected, which Christianity did of old time both hold in honour and use." 

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may learn the fiill message which the New Testa- 
ment writings were intended by God to teach us. 
Knowing, moreover, as we do more fully than in the 
case of any other ancient version, the circumstances 
connected with its origin, we should naturally be 
led to give to the Vulgate a certain pre-eminence 
over the other versions. 

But, are we required to uphold that no light would 
be thrown upon any of its passages, could we con- 
front it with the original Greek ? Might not a 
sentence be made clearer here, or an obscure passage 
explained there ? Or might we not see that a phrase 
in St. Matthew has been introduced by the remini- 
scence of a similar phrase in St. Luke ? Or, again, 
that in one set of passages words have dropped out 
of the text, while in another set they have crept in? 
Surely it would be throwing no discredit on any 
translation, made from a text which had a long 
history, to allow that it might fall short thus far 
of the autograph. 

How, then, is the nearest approach to be made to 
the original Greek of the New Testament ? 

The answer must be : Not on a priore grounds, 
but on the merits of each case, as one problem after 
another presents itself for solution — by an honest 
and discriminating use of Greek MSS. in the first 
place, and of the other sources, the early versions 
and the Fathers, in their proper place. These are 
none other than the principles laid down by the 
Holy Father in his Encyclical Letter, His words 
are as follows : ^^ Neque tamen non sua habenda erit 
ratio reliquarum versionum, quas Christiana laudavit 
usurpavitque antiquitas, maxime codicum primige- 
niorum. Quamvis enim, ad summam rei quod spectat, 
ex dictionibus Vulgatae hebraea et graeca bene eluceat 




sententia, attamen si quid ambigue, si quid minus 
accurate inibi elatum sit, ^ inspectio praecedentis 
lingfuae,' suasore Augustino, proficiet ; ** and, a few 
lines further on : ** Post expensam, ubi opus sit, 
omni industria lectionem, turn locus erit scrutandae 
et proponendae sententiae." 

Why, then, should we fear the results of a reverent 
criticism ? The textual questions at issue are not 
such as to cause us alarm for the integrity of the 
sacred writings ; nor is it the aim of criticism to be 
always pulling down : it will sometimes also build 
up, A notable example of the light which a study 
of the Greek authorities can throw upon passages 
of the New Testament is seen in the eighteenth 
verse of the first chapter of St. John's Gospel. The 
Vulgate there, in agreement with the '* Received " 
Greek text, reads : '* Deum nemo vidit unquam, 
unigenitus Filius, qui est in sinu Patris, ipse 
enarravit." Now the two most ancient Greek MSS., 
together with some of the early Greek Fathers and, 
two of the Syriac versions, represent: ** Unigenitus 
DetiSj qui est in sinu Patris &c. The gain in force 
which the passage thus acquires, as a witness for 
our Saviour's divinity, is obvious. 

There is, doubtless, a class of non-Catholics who 
do fear such a reverent criticism as has been referred 
to, or imagine that even small discrepancies in the 
text of the Bible are inconsistent with true orthodoxy. 
But, surely, there is no reason why Catholics should 
allow themselves to be identified with such a view, 
and thus put out of court with most of the biblical 
scholars of the age. 

It is regrettable, therefore, that a Catholic editor 
of the New Testament, who calls his edition an 
** Editio Critica," should preface his text with such 

II Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

178 Notices of Books. 

a statement as the following : *^ Necesse est origi- 
nalem graecae lectionis formam cum latina Vulgatae 
versionis lectione consentire, neque quidquam graece 
posse rectum ess^y quod aperte et essentialiter latinae 
Vulgatae lectioni refragetur"; for, from the editor's 
method of proceeding, it is clear that these words 
apply, not merely to substantial portions of the text, 
but even to single words, or to phrases apparently 
introduced into one Gospel from another. 

R. H. Connolly. 

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^YHjITH this number we attain our majority. In July 1880 
^t^r^ appeared the first number of the Downside Review \ 
naturally enough, considerable interest attended its first appearance. 
The reputation of the Chiswick Press was a guarantee that its 
presentment would satisfy artistic requirements, and the practical 
experience of Mr. Alfred Maskell gave us confidence that in every 
other department it would be found complete. 

The number consisted of 88 pages. A portrait of Dr. Brown, 
Bishop of Newport and Menevia, formed the frontispiece : an " odd 
and end" informs us that it is an etching by Brother Leo Almond; 
a partial mis-statement, because it is a photo-etching, from 
Dawson's well-known firm, of a pen and ink drawing by *' Brother 
Leo." A slip of pink paper attached to the back of the print 
informs us that artist's proofs before letters, and India proofs, may 
be had on application, at 10/6 and 5/- each. They are still to be 
had : for with very few missing, they are stored away at Downside. 

The whole enterprise was carried out with a liberal hand as to 
finance. It was worth money to secure a good start ; but the 
result came as a natural consequence, that after some years there 
was an unsatisfactory aspect in the balance sheet of the Review 
expenses. The Gregorian Society doctored up the invalid and 
took the whole responsibility of its financial constitution. 

There is a modest editorial, written in that accomplished 
style which, we regret to say, the possessor is allowing our readers 
to forget. The Review has been consistently faithful to the 
programme there laid down. One passage makes us examine our 
21 -year-old conscience. ** Our chief solicitude will be at no time 
to run the slightest risk of giving personal offence." Now, no one 
can embark on memoir writing without running the risk of coming 



180 Odds and Ends. 

on the rocks of personal offence : we must have ruo the risk 
plenty of times, owing to the disposition of some individuals to 
take offence at anything. But, as a matter of fact, we can only 
recall one instance in which, in an obituary notice, the relatives 
took some umbrage at what was said. There was, however, 
little difficulty in proving our bona fides ; and indeed the friends 
confessed that they were not so much pained by it, but a Mr. 
X., who was the gossip with the widest circulation in the 
district, had professed himself surprised at something written. 

The Editorial closes with a half page of verse, signed J.C.F., 
initials familiar enough in those days ; but the capable incumbent 
of St. Osburg's, Coventry, requires to be reminded that our 
present generation of readers might justify a claim of ignorance 
on the point. And the wealth of material under his hands ! 

From the last of the ''odds and ends" we gather that the editor 
was not " at liberty to disclose " the names of the writers ; and 
originally it was rare to find even initials at the end of the 
articles. But for some years now we have insisted on signed 
articles, as the first point of interest in a college magazine is to 
know who is writing. 

An interesting memoir of Dr. Brown follows, from the pen of 
our valued and unfailing contributor, Abbot Gasquet, then Prior 
of St. Gregory's. Next follows a chatty article from the *• Old 
Gregorian," Father Nicholas Kendal ; *• Succisa Virescit" is the 
title of a history of the Benedictine History of the previous hundred 
years, compiled by Father Gilbert Dolan, which ran through 
several numbers. Then follows an article on " St. Gregory's 
church, monastery and college," by Prior Gasquet. This is illus- 
trated with a photo-lithograph from the large bird's-eye view of 
Dunn & Hansom's design for the completion of the building. An 
allusion in the article to the "beautiful little temporary chapel " 
refers to the present sacristy, which had just been built and which 
was used as a monastic chapel till the opening of the transepts in 
1882. The account of the celebration of the fourteenth centenary 
of St. Benedict at Monte Cassino is by the late Abbot Sweeney. 
Next we have the " Supplement to Mr. Pips' Hys Diary," repro- 
duced from the old " Debating Book." The letterpress was by 
Abbot Sweeney, and the illustrations by Roger Bede Vaughan, 



Odds and Ends. 181 

Archbishop of Sydney : as both were alive at the time of reproduc- 
tion they are alluded to only as the ** author and the artist." The 
discussion which follows on *' the St. Gregory's Society Medal/' is 
by Mr. Edmund Harting ; a line illustration of the medal is given. 
Then follows a " Retrospect of the year " by Brother Leo Almond, 
a contribution which appeared regularly in the Review till the 
appearance of the Ravetiy the boys* magazine, rendered it super- 
fluous. A poem follows with the title '* English Prize Poem — 
1879," by George Alan (Indian Staff, Captain Intell. Brig, and 
Dep. Assistant Quarter-Master General, Intell.) Robertson. 
Robertson made a reputation for his verse, which was certainly 
above average school-boy merit. The Study Prize List and the 
results of the Athletic Sports are given without comment. From 
the former we see that Robertson's poem won him a prize of 
;^10, given by "a friend of St. Gregory's," who was, if we are 
not mistaken, a Mr. Molyneux, and not the late Lord Petre, 
as we thought at first blush. Lord Petre offered a more 
generous prize for English competition in 1877 ; so generous, in 
fact, that, because it was out of proportion to other equally or 
more important subjects and because of certain conditions attached, 
the offer was not accepted. 

•In the result of the sports we find Charles Murphy's name in 
nine events out of twelve, five times for first prize. One name 
quite puzzled us for a moment — '* S. Spread" ; until it came back 
in connection with an entertainment given in the playroom to 
raise the wind for the Cricket Club. One part consisted of a 
chemical demonstration by poor Johnny Digan, who died as a 
lieutenant out in India a few years afterwards. Digan's lecture 
consisted of the short formula ** I will now make (such and such a 
chemical)." But the results were potent if the exposition was 
brief ; he dispersed the audience within five minutes. When we 
came back. Spread and Jack Keogh (whose marriage we announce 
in this number) appeared as Zulus — every South African native to 
us was a Zulu in those days. Their outfit consisted in a panto- 
mine mask, brown oil paint, and as little else as the censorship 
would permit. Keogh was a reader and knew that the native hue 
was shiny ; hence the oil paint ; he was artistic, hence the com- 
pleteness of detail. Poor fellows ! It was impossible to use two 
of the baths for some time afterwards. What has happened to 
Spread ? He is one of the few who have not been heard of 
since they left. 

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182 Odds and Ends. 

Then comes a list of the Out Cricket Matches, four in number. 
Lansdowne won by 9 runs ; Clifton by 9 wickets. Norton were 
beaten by an innings and 11 runs ; Sneyd Park (a strong Bristol 
Club) by 9 wickets. A recent visitor remarked on the difference 
between the comparatively slight interest shewn in out-matches 
now with the feverish excitement caused by them in his day. He 
was speaking of the first institution of such matches ; and certainly 
as regards numbers the difference is great. One member of the 
community could only stand a little of a match, even as a spectator, 
as the excitement made him quite ill. In later years something of 
this sentiment was reached over the Prior Park match, but it was 
very exceptional even then. 

The Book Reviews of the first number consist of eight notices, 
three of the books only being by Gregorians. Then come the 
welcome '' Odds and Ends," a title which the present editor sug- 
gested to A. Maskell. In them we find congratulations to Dr. 
Riddell, who had just been appointed to the See of Northampton. 
Also we learn that we had then three Gregorians in Parliament : 
the late Denis O'Conor, Sir Roland Blennerhassett, and the 
O'Donoghue. The growing Irish agitation had ousted three 
others who had sat in the previous parliament. We have not one 
at present. One marriage and one death are announced. A letter, 
under " Correspondence," follows, signed J. D. B., and the number 
closes with the first instalment of the catalogue of black-letter and 
early books at Downside, contributed by Fr. Gilbert Dolan. It is 
satisfactory to find that two only of the contributors are dead, 
while three are contributors to the present number. 

The type and paper used in our last number, to mark the new 
century and series, have met with general approval. All agree 
that the lightness of the book makes it pleasant to handle, 
and one preferred the former type on the ground of greater 
legibility. Two or three only (there's the rub) complained of the 
reduction of the matter necessitated by the change of type. One 
pronounced paper and type better ; but preferred the old because 
they had become associated, to him, with the Downside Review. If 
only all objections were as flattering as the last I 

But it seems to the editor that we should have a numbering 
which would also connect it with the issue of the first series ; 
will some reader give an opinion or suggestion ? The present 
number is the fifty-ninth issue. 

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Odds and Ends. 183 

Our frontispiece is from a lithograph drawn by Mr. Wilkinson, 
the old drawing master at Downside. It is good work ; the 
treatment of the trees is worthy of Harding. It illustrates the 
building at the period of which Abbot Snow writes in his most 
interesting article. The ball-place of the period does not show, 
but it may be hidden by the foliage ; also the road which led 
from Green Lane and passed by the west side of the beeches near 
the college is missing. 

There is a very interesting coloured lithograph of the same 
period in existence, which we were tempted to give as a frontis- 
piece, but came eventually to the conclusion that the uncoloured 
lithograph would serve best for reproduction. What was tempt- 
ing in the former was the fact that in it there are figures of 
the community in university gowns with well - displayed shirt- 
fronts and a monumental species of biretta. But there are a 
couple of larches in the foreground which are not triumphs either 
of art or nature. It shews a broad gravelled path which contem- 
poraries refuse to recognise. It would lead through Cox's shrubbery 
and towards the present ball-place. 

The inscription on the plate is interesting. It runs as follows : 
• * College of S. Gregory the Great, Downside, near Bath. Empower- 
ed to issue Certificates to Candidates for degrees in Arts and 
Laws in the University of London. To the Revd. J. Wilson, 
O.S.B., Prior, the Professors and Students ; the Rt. Revd. Dr. Morris, 
Bp. of Troy, President, Sir Edward Smythe, Bart., and other 
Members of the Gregorian Club. This plate of our Alma Mater 
is respectfully dedicated by their obedt. Servt. and Fellow 
Member, George John Durrant, Solicitor, Chelmsford. London, 
Published by F. A. Little, 34 Henrietta Street, Covent Garden, 
March 18th, 1844." The plates are printed by S. Parmenter, 304 
Strand. It is a prettily coloured print, and probably there are very 
few copies in existence. Will any of Mr. Durrant s contemporaries 
tell us whether his artistic powers, which were certainly not 
meagre, were in evidence during his college days ? 

The crisis in the history of St. Gregory's, of which the article 
treats, is practically unknown to the later generations. It has 
never been treated of in print from our side of the question ; and 
as it was a very vital incident in the history of Downside we are 
sure it will be read with deep interest There are none living now 
to whom it might give offence. 

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184 Odds and Ends, 

The late Bishop Brown's sterling qualities come out in strong 
evidence. He was fond of narrating incidents connected with his 
visit to Rome ; Sir John Lambert told one of them — ^the skipping- 
rope episode — in the Review of December, 1890, within eighteen 
months of his own death. As regards the lengthy exposition of 
our case, alluded to in the article, the Bishop used to say that, 
when he had carefully copied it out, he was told that his writing 
was too small and would prejudice his case. There was nothing 
for it but to set to work and copy the whole of it again. It is 
quite possible that the acquaintance he then made of the future 
Pope, Gregory XVI., may have been of influence in his own 
elevation to the episcopate under that Pontiff. 

Was our organ ever erected in the Pavilion, or was it built for 
it but not erected? When did the cope with the stag's-head 
pattern pass out of use? There was a white vestment with a 
heavy cross in Berlin wool, which was used certainly till recently, 
and which Fr. Peter Wilson said was the work of the nuns in 
Shepton Mallet, but we do not remember to have heard of any 

The tabernacle of the old chapel, together with the altar and 
other fittings, are in use in the crypt of the Lady Chapel. The 
candlesticks are on the present high altar, not entirely in their 
original form ; for the present shields were added some twenty 
years ago, under Abbot Gasquet's priorship, when they were 
refurbished for the new church. But the ** massive brass lamp," 
a fine piece of metal work, where is that, and in what condition ? 

This is the inscription at the back of the Sartorius crucifix : 
'*Ce crucifix este donn^ k la communaut^ de Downside par 
Madame Sartorius k la condition qu' elle et ses enfants auront part 
k leurs bonnes pri^res et particuli^rement ses deux fils qui sent 
Protestants et dont elle desire ardemment la conversion. Ce 
Septembre, 1818. Copied from the original. It was taken on 
board a pirate vessel by the husband of the above." There is a 
label on it with the date 1881, in which year it was lent to an 
exhibition of Spanish ivories at S. Kensington. While admitting 
it, the authorities declared themselves uncertain as to whether it 
was Spanish or German XVII. century work. 

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lo what portion of the building was the fire of 1827? The 
matter seems to have been forgotten. The pan-cake ceremony of 
Shrove-tide lasted for the community till within the last decade. 
It was always carried out in the front parlour of the guest house. 
On one occasion something occurred to prevent the use of the Old 
House for the purpose, and the custom was dispensed with and 
has not since been resumed. The Sodality, we are glad to record, 
still flourishes. 

What would be thought of a party of singers from Wells 
coming to supply the music for one of our functions at the present 
day? Mazzinghi's Mass was rarely done in entirety. The last 
occasion was in 1873, at the jubilee of the Old Chapel. Even then 
it was considered that nothing short of such a concurrence of 
associations could justify it. The Agnus Dei was sung frequently, 
and a very beautiful composition it is. Rumour said that, having 
only a brief time allotted for the composition of the Mass, 
Mazzinghi took that particular movement from one of his operas. 
It seems scarcely probable that an adaptation would fit so satisfac- 
torily to the words as it does. 

On the subject of music we may mention that the critic of the 
SiUurday Review gave a very flattering notice of our choir in the 
issue of June 22. It would be arrogance on our part to take all 
the praise given there an pied de la lettre. We believe that the 
enthusiasm of the writer for the musical movement in which we 
can claim to have taken a part, the revival of the compositions of 
the early English composers, made him pass a more favourable 
opinion than we could think we had deserved. 

We are indebted for one of the drawings that accompany F. 
Gilbert Dolan's article to the clever pen of Mr. Witcombe, our 
present drawing master. His system of tuition is very much 
up-to-date, and very different from the old one. The boys 
for the most part work from one copy, which the master often 
draws under their eyes on the black-board. The outlines are 
firmly put in, and then the effect of broad washes of colour 
is obtained by the use of coloured chalks. The boys work 
fixmi this either in pastel or in wash. It is an experiment, 
and one is curious to see what the result of such a training will be. 
An objection might be raised that it is purely a decorative art that 
is taught ; it is not realistic in any degree. The answer, of 



186 Odds and Ends. 

course, is that art is decorative in its first intention ; further, that 
the best training for the eye is by broad schemes of colour. All 
the same, one is inclined to suspect that the outcome of such a 
training would be a clever poster or a Japanese drawing. 
Possibly another generation may consider these a more faithful 
transcript of nature than our accepted formulas. 

A visitor recently evinced much interest in the diptych which is 
at present in St. Placid's Chapel and which is ascribed to 
Schongauer. If the panel had a pedigree it would be invaluable, 
so rare are authentic works of that master. But alas, it is merely an 
ascription, and has only the authority of a general expert. All 
that we know of the picture is that it was at Bonham before it 
came to us. It may have been once the property of the Stourton 
family, and there is our one possibility of coming on a clue fo 
its identification. 

We heard recently the story of the acquisition of another of our 
pictures, the panel diptych in the Holy Angels Chapel, represent- 
ing the Adoration of the Magi, which belonged originally to 
the well-known historian. Dr. Oliver, of Exeter. F. Peter Wilson 
happened to be on a visit to him, and expressed a liking for the 
picture. Dr. Oliver said he should have it if he carried it out of 
the house on his shoulders. F. Wilson was content and fulfilled 
his part of the bargain, and so the picture found its way to 

The illustrations of the Royal Chapel, for which we are indebted, 
through Fr. Barnes, to the editor of the Home Counties Magasine^ 
are very interesting, and especially the plate of the tombstones. 
One of these in particular reads very quaintly, as it records a 
partial burial in what to us seem very plain words. There is a 
want of proportion in the lettering: the ** Stil Nouveau " at first 
sight seems to refer to the *• Priez Dieu pour son ame." 

Father Gilbert's article makes us fear that Dom Sigebert 
Buckley's last resting place will never be traced. Certainly, 
where F. Gilbert fails, in spite of his enthusiasm and his fiair in 
such quests, we have little hope of success except through some 
fortuitous combination of circumstances. 

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Odds and Ends. 187 

Some additions have been made to our Abbey Church. In St. 
Isidore's Chapel a new altar has been erected by its devoted donor. 
It is from Mr. Gamer's design, and is carried out in finely selected 
alabaster. A marble pavement has been laid down from his 
design by Messrs. Farmer & Brindley, who likewise supplied the 
altar. The marbles are exquisite in tint, being entirely free from 
the cnideness of colour one sometimes meets in similar flooring. 
The red marble is rosso anticoy the white pavanaMo^ and the black 
Irish fossil. It would be unfair to pronounce on the effect of 
the design until the chapel is completed. Those who consider it 
too large should remember that there is further work to be done to 
the altar and walls of the chapel. 

The new Chapel of St. Sebastian has risen rapidly since Easter 
week. The groining is now in progress. The tracery of the 
windows is admired by everyone. The chapel is larger than those 
already completed on the north side. Besides its practical use, 
this variation will increase the interest of the chapels and will 
prevent that feeling of monotony which sometimes follows the 
attainment of complete uniformity. 

We congratulate F. Francis Fleming on the important addition 
of a Baptistry to his already handsome Church. The connection 
of the donor, Mr. Fred Smith, with Downside justifies us in 
presenting the following detailed account to our readers, which we 
take from the East Suffolk Gazette of June Uth :— 

<*A handsome Baptistry has lately been added to the beautiful church 
of St. Edmund's, Bungay, of which the following is a description : 

*' The Baptistry is an octagonal building opening out of the Lady Chapel 
aisle. The diameter is 19 ft. inside, and 28 ft. to apex of groining. The 
interior is all built in stone. Round the lower part of walls under the windows 
there is a handsome arcade with two orders of columns with cusped tracery 
and diaper work in the spandrels ; the columns at angles are in alabaster 
to accentuate the angles, and stand in relief to the surrounding stone work. 
Over these, triple columns with foliated caps rise to the springing of the 
vaulted roof. The roof is elaborately groined with carved bosses at intersec- 
tion of ribs. The bosses are carved with the emblems proper to a Baptistery : 
the Agnus Dei, a stag, a dolphin, a dove. Seven windows (one light lancets) 
with traceried heads light the Baptistery. They are filled with " Norman 
glass" by Messrs. Simpson, of St. Martin's-lane, London, and with their 
elaborate leadwork patterns and the gemmed appearance of the glass have 
a very fine effect. 

*'The generous donor thought it would be a mistake to have figure subjects 
glass in the Baptistry, considering the wealth of stained glass in the Church 




— ^that its effisct would be lessened, and every one would ag^ree that he was 
right. The floor is in mosaic, by Ebner, of City-road, London. It is mostly 
in cake mosaic, with an elaborate border round the walls, and patterae with 
foliated ornament in the centre of each bay. The font stands in the centre of 
tbe Baptistry on an octagonal Devonshire marble platform, approached by 
two marble steps on seven sides. The font is a most elaborate (nece of work in 
beautiful materials. The gem to be put in such an expensive setting, it was 
agreed, must be something out of the common, and consensu omnium this 
object has t>een attained. The bowl is octagonal on the outside of one block 
of alabaster, with elaborately traceried and carved panels on each side. Eight 
Mexican onyx columns of beautiful marking and colour, with alabaster 
capitals and bases, adorn the angles. The bowl rests on eight columns and 
one larger central one with alabaster cap and bases. The columns are of 
rich and carefully selected marbles. Over the font, and acting as cover to it, 
is an elaborate canopy hung from the central boss of groining, and balanced 
with weights to draw up and down. It is octagonal in plan to corre s pond 
with font, and consists of eight open arches with flying buttresses and columns 
at angles, pierced tracery gables over arch at top. Over this on the top is an 
elaborate cresting with pinnacles at angles, and then the pierced tracery 
spire with crocketted ribs &c. A group of the pelican feeding its young 
forms an appropriate finish to the spire. The total height of font cover is 
twelve feet. Under the open canopy is a group of Our Lord's baptism by St. 
John. This group is beautifully carved, and, with the rest of the font cover, 
is the work of Mr. Beyeart, of Bruges. The font itself and marble platform and 
steps are the work of Messrs. Daymond & Son, of London. A handsome 
screen and gate separate, according to the rubrics, the Baptistry from the 
church. These, with the balance-weights for font-cover, are the work of 
Messrs. Jones & Willis, of London. 

*' An arch pierced in the old outer wall of Lady Chapel leads to a lobby 
(continuation west of aisle), and thence through an elaborately moulded deep 
archway into the Baptistry. The oak panelling round the church has been 
continued on, round sides of lobby, and seems to join the Baptistry more 
completely to the church. 

*'The exterior of the building is in red brick and stone, and corresponds 
with the church, though different in detail. At the angles of the octagon are 
flying buttresses with niches in them, which give a special character to the 
building. An elaborate cornice corbel and battlemented parapet above finish 
the building. The steeply pointed roof is covered with copper finial of special 
design. This work has been done by Messrs. Ewart, of London. Mr. H. B. 
Read, of Lower Olland Street, Bungay, was the contractor for the foundations, 
brickwork, &c. ; Mr. A. D. Botwright, of Upper Olland Street, Bungay, was 
the contractor for joinery and carpentry work, and both have done their work 
well. All the stonework, inside and outside, was worked and supplied by the 
Bath Stone firm, and fixed by Mr. F. Bradfield, of Bridgwater. The carving 
was done by Mr. A. B. Wall, of Cheltenham. The architect was Mr. Bernard 
Smith, F.R.S.6.A., of Victoria-street, Westminster, upon whom the whole 
work reflects great credit. The total cost of Baptistry was about £3000, 
The new font was blessed on the Vigil of Pentecost with the solemn ritual 
prescribed for that day. 

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Odds and Ends. 189 

The opening of the first portion of the Beccles Minster is fixed 
for Wednesday, September 4th. The ceremony will be performed 
by Dr. Riddell (O.G.), the Bishop of Northampton, and a sermon 
will be preached by the Bishop of Newport, Dr. Hedley. We 
may hope to present a full account in our next number. 

We hear of great energetic doings at St. Begh's, Whitehaven, 
in preparation for the bi-centenary of the Church, which is due 
in 1906. In addition to the formidable undertaking of a new 
presbytery, the decoration of the new church has already been 
accomplished by Mr. J. Pippet at a cost of ;^500; a window has been 
put up in the Lady Chapel ; while at the establishment at Quay 
Street, a memorial chapel has been built which serves as a chancel, 
and a new infant school has been opened, which serves as a 
nave to the temporary church. F. Gregory Murphy has been 
appointed Dean by the Bishop, and has been elected by the 
Catholic school-managers of the district to represent them on the 
committee for the distribution of the voluntary aid grant. 

Father Francis Sweetman returned to us on sick leave on the 
evening of May 31. Apart from a certain amount of lameness, 
which we are glad to report is disappearing, the severe attack 
of enteric has left no serious symptoms. His bearded, bronzed 
features give him a complete military look. He is eager to return 
to his work, though he will require a long rest to fit him for 
the arduous duties of his career. It is needless to say that he was 
enthusiastically welcomed by boys and community. 

We received alarming news of Father William Keatinge, who 
was reported dangerously ill of enteric. We are glad to say that 
he is better, though we have not heard yet whether he is able 
to return to work. Father Clifford had a second attack of enteric ; 
but, as we only learnt of it through the official announcement that 
he had returned to duty, we may surmise that it was not a severe 

We must S3rmpathise with the Hon. and Rev. Basil Feilding, 
whose presence on duty at Bloemfontein prevented his assisting at 
the death and funeral of the late Dowager Countess of Denbigh, 
and must have made the sad blow more difficult to bear. We are 
sure we can offer him the sympathy and prayers of every Gregorian. 

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190 Odds and Ends. 

Father Francis was able to assure us of what we all must have 
surmised, that Colonel Randolph Kilkelly is simply idolised by the 
staff and patients of his hospital. Here, again, we have to offer 
our sympathy, for his brother Fred died on April 23rd, in Dublin. 
The sad event was not unexpected, as his illness was prolonged 
over some months. But we should have predicted for him a long 
and successful life only a year ago. His manly, amiable and 
unselfish nature will make his loss keenly felt. He leaves a widow 
and child. Percy, who had just returned to India from special 
service in China, was on his way home w^hen his brother's death 
occurred. We offer our fullest condolence to his relatives and 
friends. It was pleasing to see that Downside was well repre- 
sented at his funeral. 

Our hearty congratulations to : — 

Francis Howard (O.G.), C.M.G., A.D.C., (R.), who is promoted 
from C.B. to be G.C.B. 

In the same Gazette we notice that a neighbour of ours. Colonel 
Hippisley, R.E., of Ston Easton, receives the C.B. He is acting 
as Director of Telegraphs at Army Head Quarters. 

Henry Cullen Gouldsbury has been promoted to be Lieutenant 
in the 5th Battalion of the Royal Irish Regiment. 

Father Francis' cousin, Captain M. J. (Hamish) Sweetman, was 
reported as returned to duty on Feb. 18. 

The Gazette of July 5th announced Edmund Roche Kelly's 
appointment as Lieutenant in the Royal Irish Regiment. 

The Marbling Post of May 22nd had the interesting announce- 
ment that J. H. Murphy (O.G.) had been elected member of the 
General Council of the Bar. As there are only twenty-four 
members to enjoy the distinction, it is certainly a matter for con- 
gratulation and for presumption that the hopes we entertained of 
Mr. Murphy's great success are beginning to be realised. 

On June 7th and 9th a Gregorian achieved distinction in another 
direction. Captain (Glennie) Greig, who has just returned from 
India, where he won the reputation of being the best bat in the 
empire, saved Hampshire from defeat at the hands of Lancashire. 
He scored 47 not out in the first innings and 249 not out in the 
second. This achievement places him high in the batting averages. 

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Odds and Ends. 191 

G. Heydon has passed the First Examination for Medical and 
Surgical Degrees, including Chemistry, Physics and Biology, 
at Cambridge. J. J. Watkins, at the same University, got a 
second in the University ** Mags," or College Examination of 
those in for the Classical Tripos next year. 

But our greatest success of recent years has been the carrying 
off of the 2nd Tyrwhitt Scholarship by Father R. Hugh Connolly. 
To the honour of winning a prize open to the whole University 
may be added the fact that we may conclude that it was an ex- 
ceptionally strong year, since the examiners awarded a gratuitous 
prize (for the first time in thirty years) to the third candidate. 

At Cambridge also on May 9th T. S. Westlake (O.G.) was 
announced to lecture to the Cambridge Philological Society, on 
"The Affinities of the Basque Language." 

We are interested to learn that Wilfrid Ward (O.G.) has been 
appointed to serve on the Royal Commission for University 
Education in Ireland. 

We gather from an invitation card which reached us that George 
Roche (O.G.) is President of the Incorporated Law Society of 
Ireland. Our congratulations. 

Also to Mr. J. Edmund Harting upon the success of his recently 
published volume on British Birds, with its beautiful coloured 
plates. We understand more than half the edition was sold 
immediately on publication, and a hundred copies have since 
been ordered by an American bookseller. The Kiqg, who was 
graciously pleased to accept a copy, has sent a graceful message 
to the author by General Sir Dighton Probyn. 

We have also to congratulate Haddon Cave on the birth of a 
son and heir. 

We have received the announcement of the marriage of John 
Keogh on June 4th, to Miss May Doolin. Also that Captain T. 
Fulton is to be married to Miss Whyte on the 16th of this month 
by the Bishop of Maitland. We wish them joy and happiness. 

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192 Odds and Ends. 

Also to Miss Norman, for some years the devoted aod able 
College Matron, who was married in Bath in June. 

The distribution of the titular Cathedra! Priorships has been 
made as follows : — Coventry, F. Benet Tidmarsh ; Bath, F. 
Alphonsus Morrall ; Norwich, F. Wulstan Richards ; Canterbury, 
F. Bernard Murphy. Ad multos annos. 

All's well that ends well ! We received a painful shock on being 
asked for the address of William Kiernander, so that a prayer book 
and watch and chain, which bad been recovered from a Boer, might 
be restored to his friends. It was conjectured that he had fallen at 
Magersfontein. The clue to the ownership was a certificate of 
admission to the confraternity of the S. Heart at Downside in 
November 1889. We gave the required information, with the 
happy result that we now learn that Kiernander is still alive. D.G. 

The cricket season has been an interesting and pleasant one, 
though not of brilliant success. The addition to the ground is a 
notable improvement, but the dry season was not favourable to 
the new turf. A pleasant development has been the securing of 
several out-matches for the second eleven, in which, with some help 
from the masters, they have been uniformly successful. As they 
were played on the day of first eleven matches they naturally divided 
the interest, and are perhaps responsible for the remarks on that 
subject made above. The Whitsuntide match against Mr. Radcliffe's 
eleven, in glorious weather, was the most enjoyable. On the even- 
ing of the match the performance of " Our Boys " was repeated for 
the benefit of the visitors. 

Book VI of Downside Motets has just been published. It con- 
tains the following : — Ave Maria, by Robert Parsons (ob. 1569) 
Tu es Petrus (S.S.A.T.B.B.) by Palestrina ; Sacerdotes Domini 
(S.A.T.B.) by Byrd ; Exaudi nos Domine (S.A.T.B.) by Nanini 
(1540-1607) ; Bone Pastor (S.A.T.B.) by Eslava (XIX cent). Only 
Books iv., V. and vi. are now in print, and may be had from 
Downside, price 9d. net. 

Popular traditions die hard, and one which clings most 
tenaciously to life is that which claims Tallis and Byrd as good 
Protestants and dubs them ** The Fathers of Anglican music** 

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Odds and Ends. 193 

'' Organist and Choirmaster'* \^ usually so well-informed a paper 
that it is a little surprising to find in its June issue (in the course 
of an appreciative review of Downside Motets) the following: — 
" Book V " of Downtide Mottts " is chiefly remarkable for containingr a Latin 
"version of Thomas TalUs's well-known anthem ** I call and cry" (see Dr. 
*^ Boy ce's Caihedral Music)). This may or may not be the original version. 
" We have compared Mr. Terry's edition with that of Dr. Boyce, and from 
" internal evidence alone we are strong^ly of opinion that the accepted Eng^lish 
** Cathedral version of the anthem, so familiar to us from the days of our 
" childhood, is ths original. Mr. Terry's Latin version reads more like an 
" adaptation than an3rthin£^ else." 

The following rejoinder from Mr. Terry appears in this month's 
number of the Organist and Choirmaster : — 


In thanking you for your very kindly critique of Book V. of *' Downside 
Motets," I cannot let the following paragraph in it pass unchallenged : — 

" Book V .... is chiefly remarkable for containing a Latin version of 
" Thomas Tallis's well-known anthem ' I call and cry,' (see Dr. Boyce's 
" Cathedral Music). . . . We have compared Mr. Terry's edition with 
" that of Dr Boyce, and from internal evidence alone we are strongly of 
" opinion that the accepted English Cathedral version of the anthem, so 
'' familiar to us, from the days of our childhood, is the original." (The 
" italics are your critic's). " Mr. Terry's Latin version reads much more 
** like an adaptation than anything else." 

Now the answer to this is very simple. 

(1) My edition is scored from the original Latin part books, published in is/S 
by Tallis himself. They may be found in the British Museum under the 
press mark <* K.3.f.9. Lond : 1575." 

(2) No English version of the motet ever appeared untU the reign of Charles 
I ; Tallis having then been dead fifty-nine years. It was Barnard who 
adapted the motet in 1641 to its English words, " I call and cry." 

(3) Your critic's argument *' from internal evidence " — based on Boyce — in 
favour of an English origin is surely beside the mark. Boyce's English 
version was not published until Tallis' Latin one had been in print for 
neariy two hundred years. To bring Boyce, therefore, into court as a 
witness, is surely a reversal of all accepted notions of historical enquiry. 

Your obedient servant. 
Downside Abbey, Bath, R. R. TERRY. 

June 17th, 1901. 
P.S. — It may seem superfluous to give further evidence, but I may say that 
the following authorities are dead against your critic. They all state positively 
that " I call and cry " is only an adaptation of *' O sacrum convivium " : — 
Bumey (History of Music, vol. iii., page 73) ; 

Ouseley (in Naumann's History) ; 
Sir Hubert Parry (Grove's Diet, vol. iii, page 273) ; 
Sir Geo. Grove (Dictionary, vol. iv.^ page 54) ; 
Henry Davey (History of English Music, page 746) ; 
Dictionary of National Biography (Article on Tallis). 

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194 Odds and Ends. 

A link with the past goes with the Green Lane Farm, familiarly 
known once as <' Mother Shepherd's," which is being pulled down 
for rebuilding. It was once the village school, and afterwards, till 
the erection of the new buildings for that purpose, was the coU^;^ 
laundry. Another landmark has disappeared with the group of 
Scotch firs, just above Chilcompton Station, which were a familiar 
object on the road to ** Sir John's." 

The Downside Dinner took place at the Westmister Palace 
Hotel pn June 27th, with Sir Rowland Blennerhassett, Bart., in the 
chair. President Gasquet and Abbot Ford were present, and 
some forty Gregorians. After the dinner and speeches, a 
pleasant informal gathering was continued till late hours. We 
were glad to see Mr. Ambrose Walford present, returned definitely 
from Japan ; and Mr. Blackwell, an old Gregorian of the sixties, 
whom we had lost sight of for some time. A monthly dinner 
takes place on each " first Thursday" at the Comedy Restaurant, 
Panton Street, which has only to be known to be better attended. 
Mr. F. B. Kindersley acts as Secretary for the latter. Mr. 
R. Roskell was very successful as Secretary and Manager of the 
Downside Dinner. 

Francis Nicholson has been playing creditably, both with ball 
and bat, for the Sandhurst first eleven against M.CC. A corres- 
pondent sends us the interesting item that J. Galavan was second 
in the putting the weight in the Scotch and Irish International 
Sports with a throw of 42ft. O^inch. 

Here is how the Review appears served up in the menu of a 
Roman Book Catalogue : *' Preziosa rivista resasi ormai quasi 
introvabile intiera " ! 

There are numerous points for comparison in the Stonyhurst 
History. For instance, we find that the weekly half-holidays at 
St. Omers were Tuesday and Thursday, as they are at Downside to 
the present day. *^ Tip and run " used to be a favourite pastime 
at Downside till cricket began to be taken more seriously, when 
it was decided that it demoralised the cricketer. *' Common 
innings" was played at Ampleforth in former days, and per- 
haps is so still. The "penance walk" is in vogue at the 
same establishment, though it is unknown at Downside ; also the 



Odds and Ends. 195 

word "portion** at meals — "a small portion," &c. ; a frequent 
penance at St. Lawrence's was to '* take no tart/' which may be a 
survival of the extreme penance for absence from Church inflicted 
at St Omers of deprivation of breakfast. 

We may question whether the author's claim for the derivation 
of the word " place " can hold. It is in frequent use with us : 
ball-place, shoe-place, &c. One institution we hold in common 
with them is the keeping secret the name of the play. 

It is somewhat surprising to learn from Massinger that it was 
the custom for the boys to go home for the short Christmas 
holidays. One might have thought that the difficulties of transit 
in those times, if no other reason, would have prevented it 

An appendix on the Natural History of the neighbourhood is a 
useful addition to the book. What has happened to Natural 
History at Downside? 

Half the moral of the present war seems to lie in the value of 
scientific retreat — rear-guard action you call it. How successful 
the progeners of Stonyhurst were in this art is shown by the most 
interesting and unique collection of vestments and church plate 
which they succeeded in keeping together in their various flights. 
W^e do not even know what we left behind us. Certainly we 
brought nothing with us. 

It seems that we were premature in thinking the Downside book 
in an advanced state of preparation. We are unable to hold out 
hopes of its speedy appearance. 

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KILKELLY— April 32rd, 1901, at Mandena, Eglinton Road, 
Donnybrook, F. F. KiLKELLY, second son of Surgeon-General 
Kilkelly, 12 Upper FitzwiUiam Street 

FATHER NORBERT WARD (O.G. 1856-1861) died after a brief 
illness at Cleator Moor on the 23rd of May, in the 59th year of his 
age and the 34th of his priesthood. He had a successful career, 
both in his monastery of St. Edmund's and on the mission. He 
was rector of Cleator Moor from 1892. Public testimony was 
liberally given by all religions and parties to the efficiency of his 
labours, both in civil and religious affairs. We lose a bri^t, 
amiable and generous confrere. 


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Downside review. 

December 1901. 

3n fDemoriam: 
:Bi0bop iBrownlow. 

Ob., Nov. 9th, 1901. 

SEVEN years ago Bishop Brownlow left his 
quiet, fruitful ministration at Marychurch 
to take up the heavy burden of the episcopal 
office. He was not young, nor was he entirely 
free from infirmity, but his long varied experi- 
ence in priestly duties gave confidence as to 
his qualification for the office, and though his 
death was no surprise to those who had known 
his condition during the last year, yet we 
might reasonably have hoped that he would 
live in active duty for some years to come. 
His keen sense of the obligation of his office 
and his courageous resistance to physical weak- 
ness were the cause of his death. On Sunday, 
October 27th, he held a visitation and confirmed 
at St. Mary's, Bath. In spite of a severe cold, 
he persisted in going to London upon business 
next day. On his return to Clifton in the mid- 
dle of the week he was obliged to take to his 
bed. A fatal termination to his sickness was 

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not apprehended till the very. end. Alarm was 
aroused by a succession of fainting fits, and 
death quickly followed in the afternoon of 
Saturday, November 9th. He had arranged to 
ordain a member of our community on Nov. 
lothy and one of the last signatures he can have 
written was upon the document authorising 
another prelate to take his place for that purpose. 
St. Gregory's shares with the Catholic Church, 
and especially with the diocese of Clifton, in the 
loss of a courtly and learned prelate; but in 
particular of one who at all times has shown us 
a generous and appreciative friendship. His 
own experience of an English public school 
made him a broad-minded, disinterested critic of 
our college interests, and gave particular weight 
to his opinions and advice. 

We have already recorded his generous offer of 
a prize for Church History to the School. His 
particular interest in this branch of study and 
his personal qualifications to the subject are 
matters of public knowledge. At our college 
entertainments he was an unfailing and ap- 
preciative attendant. 

We shall not be expected here to attempt a 
sketch or appreciation of his career; our task is 
to express the loss which falls on the Church in 
the deprivation of his zealous ministration, of 
his learning and of his embodiment of Christian 
courtesy ; and in especial our lasting gratitude 
for the confidence and friendship he extended to 
St. Gregory's. — R.I. P. 




At the close of the Millenary Celebrations 
AT Winchester, September 1901. 

/, who of old in the land in perilous times held sway^ 
Alfred^ Athelwulfs son^ the darling of England^ gave ear, 
Hearing the words of your wise men at Winchester. Far away 
And faint as words whispered in dreams seemed their words, 

yet they reached me here ; 
Spoke of aim and achievement not given me to shape or 

Told me the land that I loved so still loves and remembers me. 

What ho! let the clarion call to horse! Yestereve, as a 

minstrel, I 
Sat and sang in the Danish camp while the ale-cans rattled 

and rang. 
And I sang of the Joys of a viking* s life^ and of battle and 

plunder I sang. 
Till the wind-scarred cheeks of the sea-wolves flushed, and 

I knew that their hearts beat high. 
So I sang the louder, and watched them drain their mead- 
horns theflercer, till all 
Lay helpless as babes in a drunken sleep on the floor of their 

banquet' hall. 
So will visit them early, ere they awake from their sleep, 

with a rider-band. 
And will give their flesh to our English crows, to the eagles 

and wolves of our land. 
How my thoughts crowd back der a thousand years ! As 

though it were yesterday. 

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I recall our wild^ glad cry as we crashed on the foe in the 

fierce hand-play^ 
The clamour^ the clang of corselet and blade^ the shrieks of 

the maimed and dyings 
The thud and thunder of resonant hoofs that told of pur- 
suing and flyings 
The clashing of lindens ^"^ whirring of shaft and arrow^ the 

The clinking of war- gear ^ creaking of spears snapped atwain 

in the presSj and der all 
Our wild hurray^ as the foe foamed back like spent waves 

from our buckler-wall* 
Such was the tribute of sword and spear that we to the sea- 
wolves paidy . 
And we played them matches at linden-play on many a 

daring raid. 
So we foughty now vanquished^ now victors^ till we had 

settled this sure^ no fief 
Should England be of a foreign king^ no milch^cow of a 

Danish chief 
And xve fought on sea^ as we fought on shore^ unweatying 

to the cloiCy 
When our land lay saved^ though spent and weak^ and 

though half of her was the foe's. 
But we knew we should win back the land that lay in the 

power of the foe at our ease^ 
While the ships I had builded and manned kept voatch and 

ward der the northern seas. 
And those few ships^ shaped from my rude designs^ I heard 

your wise men say 
Were the germ and seed of your world-wide power and your 

navy q/ to^ay. 

' Shields made of linden-wood. 

•The Shield-burg. Cf. Du Chaillu's Viking Age, vol. II.. ch. vii., "War 




But the Tvork of war was but part of the work that lay 

to my hand to do. 
I builded cities and abbeys afresh ; I founded London anew^ 

To be the heart of my kingdom^ the centre and mainspring 

of its well-beings 
But your London^ that throbs with the wealth of the worlds 

was not of my foreseeing. 
And I builded forts against future warsy for I looked to 

the future in ally 
And my levies I shaped to a fighting force to be ever ready 

at call — 
A force y not an army^ perchance^ yet^ meseems^ the parent of 

armies whi^h bore 
The English banners to victory on many a distant shore. 
Then I gathered wise men from every side^ when stilled was 

the Danish stotm^ 
And 1 looked to the letters and laws of my land^ and set my 

hand to reform. 
The ancient statutes I shaped aneWy as my zvise men deemed 

most meety 
And old usages I looked intOy and sifted the chaff from the 

And with voices of children my abbey-schools buzzed and 

hummedy as with murmurs of bees y 
As they conned their tasks. Then once morcy so I dreamedy 

would scholars from over-seas 
Come to my landy as they came of old y for the learning that 

flourished then ; 
So I bade my bishops and monks betake themselves to their 

books again. 
And I englished books for the unlearned folk from the 

learntd Latin tongue ; 
And I taught men the power of our native proscy though 

halting yety and young. 

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And the ancient lays of our forefathers^ that stir as a clarion- 
The spirit to war^ I bade men sing in the camp and the 

banquet^hall ; 
And I bade my monks write histories of the land^ that all 

might know 
What manner of men were our early sires and the people of 

long ago. 
So I strove in all things to make the most of the chance thai 

lay to handf 
And to fashion forces that after me should work for the 

weal of my land^ 
Should work for her weal in the seething mass of the secret 

causes of things^ 
And bias her course to the noble and true ; and I strove to 

leave to her kings 
A kingly example. And while I wrought thus from hour 

to strenuous hour^ 
Your wise men say that I sowed the seed whereof the fruit 

and flower 
Are your letters and laws^ your imperial rau^ your commerce 

and world-wide power. 

Thus I muse of the England of long ago^ and dream, my 
old dreams again^ 

How the people I loved should prosper and thrive, the fore- 
most rau among men ; 

And this — from your wise men at Winchester I learnt it — 
in time befelL 

So I bid'' Weshdir'^ to my peopU of old. •* Wes hdr 
for ever. Farewell ! 

' An Anglo-Saxon salutation and drinking-pledge. 

/. Ellis Hughesdon 

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<^T has been truly said that men nowhere picture 
^j themselves so truthfully as in their correspon- 
dence. The two newly found letters of the 
Venerable Servant of God, Dom John Roberts, O.S.B., 
are of course far too brief to throw much new light 
upon a life of which a good deal was known before. 
But we may also say that they are sufficiently full 
of detail to allow us to recognise in them the chief 
traits of that character which Dom Bede Camm has 
drawn so accurately, having woven into his story all 
the then known records of the martyr.* 

I. Let us commence our study of the new letters by 
looking at the signatures and handwriting. We 
notice that he began to sign by writing three letters of 
his English name John, then erased them and subscribed 
by the name he bore in religion, Juan de Mervinia. 
In the second letter this takes the form Fr. Joan 
Mervinia^ Anglusj monachus Sancti Benedicti. The 
Spanish monks seem at this period to have generally 
called themeselves /Va, not Dom. 

*A Benedictine Martyr in England, being the Life and Times of Dom John 
Roberts, O.S.B,, by Dom Bede Camm, O.S.B., B.A., London, 1897. 

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204 TWO Letters of Ven. D. John Roberts, o.s.b. 

2. The Handwriting. Under the signature there is a 
somewhat remarkable flourish, and this appears to me 
to be a link connecting this handwriting with that of 
another Record Office letter (Domestic, James I^ xxii. 
63), which is signed yi^Aif Roberts^ and which Dom Bede 
Camm (p. 295) accepts as an autograph of the martyr. 
As, however, there were two priests, contemporaries, 
both called John Roberts, who have frequently been 
confused with one another, the identification of our 
martyr with the writer of this letter needed further 
confirmation. And even when the letters are put side 
by side it is hard to make quite certain of the point, 
for the Spanish is written in what used to be called a 
** Roman " hand, or as we should now say in ** Italic *' 
characters. The English letter, on the contrary, is in 
the current English hand of the time of James I, a 
debased cursive Gothic, often called ** court hand/ 
The difficulty of settling the identity of the penman 
under such circumstances is as great as would be ex- 
perienced in finding out the scribe of some lines of 
modern Greek or German, when the samples of writing 
available to argue from were all in ** round " hand. 

Without going into details it will suffice to say here 
that there seems to be sufficient evidence for accepting 
the English letter as autograph. The similarities in 
the flourishes, in the little crosses and loops, give 
reasonable ground for this conclusion, which is not 
invalidated by some difficulties and dissimilarities even 
in the Italic characters found in both letters. For the 
writer had lived in England during the years that 
elapsed between the dates of the two letters, and 
it was inevitable that the strongly marked Spanish 
characteristics found in our letters, penned shortly after 
his return from Spain, should, during that time, have 
been considerably modified. The same reasons would 

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Two Lbttbrs of vbn. d. John Roberts, o.s.b. 205 

lead me to say that another Record Office letter 
(Domestic Elizabeth, cclxxiii, 80), which, though not 
fully signed, might for some reasons have been 
ascribed to the martyr, ought not to be considered as 

3. We now turn to the date. It is written very 
oddly — 1600 3. This led the Record Office archivist 
to assign it to the year 1600, but this is impossible 
on internal evidence. The form may be a mere slip 
of the pen, 1600 3 for 1603.* It may also be due to 
Spanish custom. Though I cannot at this moment 
point to a precedent, I feel sure that they sometimes 
added units at the end of the date, in a way parallel to 
the classical latin usage, MDC and MDCIII. 

4. Itinerary. These preliminaries being settled, we 
have but to turn to Dom Bede Camm's volume in 
order to see how the new letters fit into the rest of the 
life-story of the martyr. Perhaps the simplest way of 
showing this will be to draw up his itinerary for this 

On December 26, 1602, Dom Roberts, together with 
Dom Augustine Bradshaw and one other whose name 
is not now known, started for England. When they 
reached their journey's end we do not know, but they 
had passed Paris some time before Easter (24 April, 
1603, old style). Then we have a report by a govern- 
ment spy of a conversation, in which Dom Roberts 
took part, held *'in Mr. Bluet's chamber." Though 
neither the place nor date are certain, it seems clear 
that this took place before the Martyr's arrest, and 
there is one passage in the report which is of import- 
ance for us, as it forms an exact parallel to the letters 

* It is conceivable that the writer intended the sigfn which looks like 3 to 
stand for some abbreviation of *' annos," e,g, — a*. It was usual to add this 
after the year number. 

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we are discussing.* On the 7th of May (? old style) 
he writes from Newgate prison the first of our two 
letters. It may seem strange that a person confined 
in so close a prison should have such facilities for re- 
ceiving visitors and writing letters. But before banish- 
menty friends were allowed freer access to prisoners in 
order to furnish them with necessaries for the journey, 
for in those days governments never thought of pro- 
viding such things. On the 13th, old style, he left 
London in company with 44 other exiled priests, and 
journeyed, partly by water, partly by land, to Dover, 
stopping a night at Canterbury. When they got to 
Calais the English pursuivants let them go. Dom 
Bede Camm says he was at Douay on May 24. This 
date must also have been reckoned according to old 
style (June 3 of our new style), for May 24, new 
style, would have been May 14, old style, which was 
the day after he left London. He had therefore taken 
eleven days to reach Douay. Our second new letter 
shows us that just a month later he was **on his return" 
to England, and had got as far as Rouen. Possibly 
he may be lodging at the great monastery of St. Ouen 
in that town, and there for the present we may leave 

* ** Roberts tould me that noe En^she man mi^t come to Spajme but 
such as brougiit the lettres comendatorie eyther of the Arch preist or of the 
provincial! of the Jesuets or of some of the Assistants, and if any would come 
to S*- Sebastiane or any such place in Spayne [they, MS» torn], apprehend 
them and take them for spies. 

That he was comaunded by his superioure to send as many E[n£:lish M.S, 
torn] as he could to Spajme, and yt they should be well intreated and welcome 

ther That one of the three benedictan monks is towards the 

ladie Cromewel, sueredlie he was well apparelled." (Record Office, Domestic^ 
James I, I, 7.) The anonymous reporter fails to distinguish clearly the names 
of his informants. His paper, which covers two-and-half pages, closely written 
appears to represent all that he has heard from many sources, and at different 
times. The calendar assigns to it the date March, 1603, but that is perhaps a 
little too early. There is other independent authority for saying that there 
were three Benedictine missioners. (See Camm, p. 145.) 

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5. The subject matter of the first letter needs little 
elucidation. A candidate for the priesthood has been 
to Rome to gain admission to the English College 
there, but has been refused for want of letters of credit * 
He has returned to England to get them, but has had 
no success. The reasons of refusal are known to the 
young monk, though he will not mention them. From 
this, one is prone to infer that the difficulty was some- 
how due to the troubles of the Appellant party, with 
which our martyr was on friendly terms. However 
this may be, " solicited by his great friends and moved 
by compassion,'' and ** principally by the love of God," 
he takes up his pen to supply the necessary introduction. 

It is evident that he does not consider himself a /^r- 
Sana grata to '* los padres^'' the Jesuit superiors of the 
seminary, and yet he nowhere uses hostile language in 
their regard. Even the spy, who reports his conver- 
sation in **Mr. Bluet's chamber," ascribes nothing of 
this sort to him. Nevertheless, his host on that 
occasion was a man accustomed to talk bitterly of the 
Society, and the spy would not, and did not, fail to 
report anything damaging to the Jesuits which he could 
pick up. Dom Robert's belief that he was distrusted 
presumably originated in the difficulties that arose at 
the time when he and his companions left St. Alban's 

* From the Pilgrim Book of the English College (printed in H. Foley's Records 
of English Province, SJ»), we find the following^ names, which would suit our 
bearer, so far as this circumstance is concerned : Udal Dawes, Thomas 
Porter, Francis Gary, Richard Chartan, John Chickens, John Smith, Robert 
Ellett (Ibid, vol. vi, p. 576). Mgr. Allen, present Rector of St. Albans, informs 
me that the names of the scholars admitted in 1603, are thus entered in the 
Liber primi examinis oi that colleg'e: — *' Henricus Moms, Thomas Gulielmi, 
Robertus Edmiindi, Thomas Aynsworthus, Joannes Bemus." From this it 
would seem to follow that if the bearer was really one of those named in the 
Roman list, he was not eventually received into the college. But it must also 
be remembered that the use of aliases was then so frequent, that the con- 
clusion cannot be considered as proved beyond doubt. 

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for St. Benito.* But it was now four years since those 
things had happened, and our martyr was presumably 
too generous to nurse the memory of them. The want 
of good understanding was, therefore, more probably 
due to one of those bones of contention between the 
two orders, as to which, appeals to Rome had been 
or were soon to be instituted. Until the constitutional 
questions affecting the vested interests of both parties 
were settled, perfect cordiality was not to be expected. 
When the Regulae were issued by the Holy Office in 
December, 1608 (Camm, p. 300), they had the desired 
effect. " Ex illo tempore,^ wrote Father Owen, the 
superior of the English Jesuits, in 161 2, ^^ optatissima 
pax subsecuta est^'' or, as Dom Reyner put it, ^^ postea 
...cessavit omnis ilia controversial' That happy con- 
summation was, however, still a matter of the future, 
and, for the time, the causes of irritation remained. 

6. The ulterior object of the martyr is most plainly 
to attract husbandmen to the vineyard of the Lord. 
The spy himself, in the passage already quoted, shows 
that the martyr spoke on other occasions in exactly the 
same sense as that in which he now writes. He felt 
that he had a mission to collect labourers for that 
harvest which, at the moment, seemed almost ready 
for the reapers. Elizabeth's persecution was over, 
James's had not yet begun. In the breathing space, 
as we know, Catholicism recovered rapidly, and our 
martyr perhaps hoped, as many others did, that bright 
days were soon to dawn. 

7. Other details. Unfortunately he tells us far too 
little about himself. We are most curious to know how 

* These are described by Dom Bede Camm at p. 86 etc. of his Lifat with 
supplementary matter in The Manthy for October, 1898. Further information 
from Stonyhurst and Rome, collected by the present writer, will be found 
in the same periodical, September and October, 1899 ; and in December, 1897, 
a study on some general aspects of the whole question. 

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he was arrested, but the information on this point was 
conveyed by word of mouth, and no clue is given in 
the letter. ** My brothers are at liberty ; I do not know 
where they are." This seems to throw suspicion on 
the spy's statement (made, as he pretended, on Dom 
Roberts's authority), that **one of the three Benedictine 
monks is towards the Lady Cromwell." In a post- 
script there is a brief allusion to Dom Austin Brad- 
shaw, but the brevity of the message makes it obscure. 
8. The second letter. The two months which inter- 
vened between the two letters had been, as we have 
seen, full of changes. ^^The pleasure and disposition 
of his Majesty " King James had been to seiid Dom 
Roberts into exile. ** Now I am on my return." The 
water-borne trade between Paris and London passed 
through Rouen, and passengers for England sometimes 
embarked there instead of at Havre. It seems natural, 
therefore, to suppose that the monk was on the look- 
out for a ship to cross in, and was lodging the while 
in the great Benedictine monastery of St. Ouen. 
Before he left he would naturally wish to write to his 
General, and our letter is intended as a passport for the 
bearer when he arrives at St. Sebastian. This was 
necessary, for so great was the mistrust of Cecil's ubi- 
quitous ^^intelligencers," that Englishmen who arrived 
without letters of credit were ^^apprehended and taken 
for spies." I cannot discover who the cleric was whom 
the martyr addressed. The abbreviation *M1*«," in the 
address, has puzzled everyone to whom I have shown 
it, and the person who sent on the letter to the English 
government was equally at a loss, and describes the 
letter in general terms as directed **to a friend." The 
bearer was **a Catholic," perhaps a postulant for the 
order. Dom Roberts sent many such to Spain, and 
would have been more likely to entrust to them the 

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^'news from England'* and the ^* circumstances of my 
imprisonment and exile,'' than to others. But how dis- 
appointing for us, that he once more forbore to confide 
his story to paper ! 

He says nothing of the doiibly-heroic act of charity 
which he was about to undertake. The plague was 
then raging in London, and to return there meant 
facing the plague - pits as well as Tyburn. Of this 
the **true chaplain" writes not a word, but, with an 
oremus pro tnvtcem^ the note closes, and the little 
revelation of character ends. 

And now enough has been said to prove the pro- 
position from which we started. These short letters, 
like little ** snap-shot" photographs, give us a true 
picture of our hero, although their scale is small. May 
it be our good fortune not only to see him and his 
companions honoured with the highest honours that 
the Church can grant, but may we, also, soon have all 
the acts and records which concern them set forth with 
such care and clearness, that all may see, read, and 
appreciate the greatness of their virtues and trials, and 
the grandeur of their triumphs. 

It only remains for me to express my thanks to all 
who have helped me with suggestions and advice in 
drawing up the commentary and the translations, in 
which I have aimed at nothing but religious fidelity to 
the originals. The discovery and transcription of the 
documents are due to my collaborateur, Father Patrick 
Ryan, S.J. 

J. H. Pollen, S.J. 

(i.) The Venerable y^Air Roberts j O.S.B., to Alonso 
de Corral^ General of the Spanish Congregation 
O.S.B. Newgate, 7 May, 1603. 

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Two Lbttbrs of Ven. D. John Roberts, o.s.b. 211 


El portador desta no Ueva otras encomiendas que 
estas, y assi a V. Rnca supplico segun esto le hazer 
la charidad que pudiere. Es Catholico y estudiante, 
y fuese a Roma para estudiar alia en el seminario de 
IngleseSy. pero los padres no le quisieron recebir, 
porque no vino con las chartas del Archipresbiter, 
por estas ha buelto a este Reyno, soy testigo que 
por diversas vias las ha sollicitado por ninguna 
alganzado. yo bien entiendo la causa, y assi por 
muchos respettos, movido principalmente por amor 
de dios a V. Rnca supplico le ayudar adelante en el 
camino que lleva, y el mismo representara a V. Rnca. 
si por su propria diligencia, o alcuna tra9a de V. 
Rnca puedo alcan9ar que le reciban en el coUegio 
bien sera, pero entienda V. Rnca que el entender 
ellos ser el por mi encomendado, o ser gusto de V. 
Rnca, que en ninguna manera le recibiran, y assi 
caut^ agendum, yo estoy preso aguardando la 
voluntad y disposicion de su Mag^. V. Rnca me 
ayude con sus oraciones, que en ellas estribo yo muy 
mucho. el portador dira la manera de mi prision, 
examinacion y carcel. Mis hermanos tienen libertad, 
no se en que parte estan ellos, V. Rnca me perdone 
sino soy mas largo, verdaderamente no escriviesse 
sino fuesse sollicitado por mis muy amigos, y junta- 
mente movido con una compassion para con el 
portador, a quien iteriim encomiendo a V. Rnca. 
Newgate a 7** de Mayo, 1600 3. 


He cntendido que Augustin ha J^^ [erased] 
escritto a V. Rnca acerca de &c, Juan Mervinia. 

y que ha procurado Information 
de otros. no le valga por si. &c. 


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212 Two Letters of Ven. D. John Roberts, o.s.b. 

(Addressed) Al Rmo el Maestro Alonso de Corral, 
Abbad de S. Benito el real de Valliod^ y general de 

su Congregacion 

(2). The same to an unknown Official at the Port of 
St. Sebastian. 

+ Rouen, 3 July, 1603. 
Al sennor Martin de Erasquin supplico encaminar 
al portador &c, y V. m"* que por amor di me le haga 
la m"^ y charidad que a todas semejantes personas 
haze. Es Catholico y lleva chartas mias a mi general, 
el dira a V. m"^ las nuevas que tenemos en Ingladerra 
y tambien las circumstancias de mi prision y destierro 
Agora estoy en la buelta, y el successo como mis 
demas cosas encomiendo a las devotas oraciones de 
V. m^ a quien la divina misericordia guarde, como 
este verdadera capellan suyo a la misma supplica« 
A Roan 3"* Julii, 1603. 

fr. Joan Mervinia 

Anglus monachus S^ Benedicti. 
(Addressed) Al R** y muy Seiinor mio, el 11** puerto 

&c, en S. Sebastian 

(At the head in a contemporary hand). To a friend 
in S. Sebastian a letter in favour of the bearer. 
(Both letters are autograph, on pot paper. They are preserved 
in the Record Office, Spanish Correspondence. The former in 
Bundle 7, under date 1600; the latter in its proper place in Bundle 
9. There are other scribblings on the back of the first paper, 
which appear to be meaningless ; and it has been docketed 
**Tho. Wilson," the name of one of Sir Robert Cecilys Secretaries 
for foreign correspondence, and then perhaps acting as a spy in 
Spain. The second letter is now pinned to a note from another 
spy, with which it appears id have had no connection whatever. 
The flourish below the signature is not a facsimile^ but corresponds 
in the number of loops &c.) 

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(i). To the Very Reverend, the Maestro Alonso de 
Corral, Abbot of San Benito el Real, at Valladolid, 
the General of his congregation. 

The bearer of this does not carry other recommen- 
dations than these ; and so I beg your Reverence 
herewith to do him the charity that you can. He is 
a Catholic and a student, and was at Rome to study 
there in the seminary of the English ; but the fathers 
would not receive him, because he came without the 
Archpriest's letters. He has returned to this king- 
dom [to ask] for them ; I am witness that he has 
solicited them in divers ways, [but has] obtained 
none. I well know the reason, and so, for many 
respects, but moved principally by the love of God, 
I beg your reverence to help him on in the way he 
is taking, and [which] he himself will explain to you. 
If, by his own diligence, or some contrivance of your 
Reverence, he could manage that they should receive 
him into the College, it would be well. But you 
will understand that, if they hear that he has been 
recommended by me, or that you desire it [his admis- 
sion], they will in no wise receive him ; and so, 
** Caute agendum. " 

I am a prisoner awaiting the pleasure and dis- 
position of his Majesty. Help me with your prayers, 
for I rely upon them very much. The bearer will tell 
the manner of my arrest, examination and imprison- 
ment. My brothers are at liberty. I do not know 
in what place they are. You will pardon me if I am 
not longer. In truth, I should not have written if 
I had not been solicited by my great friends, and 

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[were not] also moved by compassion for the bearer^ 
whom I again commend to your Reverence. 

Newgate, on the 7th of May, 1600 3. 

I have heard that Augustine has joh [erased]. 

written to your Rev, about &c., j.,^^ xm^^a^i^ 
, , / , , . ^ Juan Mervinia. 

and that he has procured infor- 
mation of others. [?] He should 
not avail for it for himself &c. 

(a). I request Seftor Martin de Erasquin to help the 
bearer on his way, and for the love that you bear me, 
sir, do him such kindness and charity as you show 
to all persons in like condition. He is a catholic^ 
and takes letters from me to my General. He will 
tell you, sir, the news which we receive from 
England, and also the circumstances of my imprison- 
ment and exile. Now I am on my return. My 
success, as also my other affairs, I recommend, sir^ 
to your devout prayers. May the Divine Mercy 
preserve you, as this, your true chaplain, prays It to 
do. From Rouen, 3 July, 1603. 

Brother John of Merioneth, 
English Monk of St. Benedict. 
Addressed I — To the Reverend, my very good master^ 
the Port ... in St. Sebastian. 

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mAPOLEON ushered in the nineteenth century with 
general havoc amongst the Kingdoms of Europe. 
During the course of the age throne after throne 
toppled over, Grermany and Italy snapped up their 
realmlets, and the political market became overstocked 
with exiled monarchs. Amid this crash of nations the 
Kingdom of St Gregory's parted with its last king seven 
years after the last Emperor of the French parted with 
his imperial diadem. Our throneless monarchs, shorn of 
their royal estate, are scattered throughout the land, 
rubbing against ordinary civilians and oblivious of the 
divinity that once did hedge their state. The oldest 
survivor, Joseph V, who reigned in 1833 (sixty-eight 
years ago), is still in evidence at Malvern. 

In the blithe little Kingdom, founded solely for 
pleasure and amusement, no parliament, no budget, no 
taxes, no wars, no conscription, no colonies marred the 
equanimity of the realm. A traditional rather than a 
constitutional monarchy, it depended on unwritten law to 
restrain the prerogative, to sustain prestige, and to shape 
procedure. Its origin must be traced beyond the migra- 
tion to Downside, before the sojourn at Acton Burnell, 
until it is lost in the antiquity of old Douai.* The 

* A writer in the eighteenth century, referring to the period 1721-1726, 
speaks of it as : ''An ancient privilege of electing a King among ourselves." 
DvmnncU RevUw, vol. xix., p. 125. 

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216 His Majesty. 

founder of the dynasty, the first of the rojral line, is 
unknown, as also how he came by the regal title, whether 
he acquired it by assumption, by general acquiescencCt 
or by evolution from a progenitor who could a tail 
unfold. The Kingdom was a standing fact and its misty 
origin intensified the reverence paid to its authority. 
The French revolution, however, could tolerate neither 
monarchy nor nobles, and with other aristocrats ruthlessly 
cast out the whole court of St. Gregory's without bag or 
baggage, but happily forgot to guillotine its King. 
After a brief abeyance the court, independent of mere 
territory, replace its bag and baggage, and assembled 
at Acton Bumell in 1798 to pay homage to Edward 
(Smythe) the first of a new dynasty. Thence onward 
the royal line continued in unbroken succession until 1 878 
when the Kingdom ceased, not by revolution, not by 
annexation, not under the heel of a conqueror but by 
inanition, the natural demise of the crown. The list 
of sovereigns in England may be seen in the Downside 
Review, Vol. II, p. 89 ; sixteen reigned at Acton Bumell 
and sixty-five at Downside. Antiquarians and historians 
have unearthed the doings of bygone kingdoms and 
empires for the worry of schoolboys, but have hitherto 
spared the realm of St. Gregory's : we do not propose 
to add another chronicle of names and dates, but a few 
sketches of an institution that has irrevocably passed 
away, may not be unwelcome. 

St. Gregory's was an elective monarchy, limited not 
only in authority, but in time. An election scene always 
has a fascination, whether that of the president of the 
United States, or that of a minor civic official : the ele- 
ment of chance, the spice of adherence to party, and 
the personal equation tend to sustain interest. The 
election of the Downside king fell to the students, not 
exactly by universal suffrage, for a proletariat — the 

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His Majesty. 217 

" last ** class — were not merely disfranchised, but im- 
prisoned in a class-room during the polling, where they 
took consolation in feasting as far as their slender purses 
allowed. In the play-room on the first Tuesday in 
December the electors awaited in simmering excitement 
the nomination of the candidates. The authorities 
selected three, usually the head boy of the school, the 
patriarch, i.e. the longest in residence, and an uncertain 
third who combined somewhat of each qualification. 
The elector improvised his own voting paper, an illus- 
trated document prepared long before with decorations 
suggested by schoolboy art and schoolboy humour. 
The candidates retired to the prefect's room while the 
votes were collected in a hat: few precautions were 
needed against trickery from a confident trust in boys* 
honour. After the scrutiny of the votes by the prefect 
in presence of the candidates, they returned to the play- 
room to proclaim the result, and frantic cheering greeted 
the successful candidate. The king-elect, outwardly 
shy and shrinking within himself, yet inwardly elated, 
spoke a few words of thanks, and his future subjects 
already received him with an air of reverence. Imme- 
morial custom (existing in 1 721) prescribed that until 
the coronation the issue of the election should be kept 
an inviolable secret from the rest of the world, and the 
electorate dispersed with this burden in their bosoms. 
A punch night enlivened the evening and gave the elec- 
tors an opportunity of dangling their secret before the 
professors and proletariat. Amid the babble and clatter 
a little youngster, the last in the school, was hoisted on 
to the table, and on securing silence a weak, puny 
voice squeaked out : •* I propose the health of the un- 
known king." 

Theatricals absorbed attention during the interval 
before Christmas. Thereign commenced on the playnight. 

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Boxing-day, and closed on the Epiphany, a brief span 
of re};al state in which was condensed a bounteous 
share of thorough enjoyment for king, court and 
subjects. Modem cjmicism may set down the whole 
procedure as childish in the extreme, but it cannot 
ignore the fact of its continuance in England for eighty- 
one years, its countenance by superiors who have been 
the greatest lights of Downside, and the unanimous ver- 
dict of all who took part in it. Instituted as a pleasant 
way of spending the Christmas it ceased only when no 
boys remained at college during the holidays. The 
position of the king adjusted itself to a happy mixture 
of fiction and fact : fiction made him absolute and ir- 
responsible, fact surrounded him with respect and rev- 
erence: honour restrained him from taking undue 
advantage of the fiction, and the tact of superiors 
brought him in fact under control. He was allowed 
precedence everywhere : all, the prefect and prior in- 
cluded, addressed him as ** Your Majesty ** : he was free 
to leave the bounds and to return when he chose, he 
rose in the morning and retired at night at his own 
pleasure : he asked for no permissions, was exempt fh>m 
all duties, and was beyond blame or punishment : as in 
the British constitution, the king could do no wrong : 
at meals he had a separate table with more generous 
fare, and day by day two officers in turn shared in the 
royal hospitality. 

The court consisted of a fixed number of officials 
taken from the boys in their order in the school, without 
favour or competition, or any reference to competency 
for the duties. The Lord Chief Justice, the first in 
rank, was a general referee in cases of dispute and toast- 
master at the banquets : the Earl Marshal kept order 
within the precincts of the court with summary juris- 
diction, and for offences inflicted fines, brief banishment, 




or personal chastisement if advisable : the Mayor of 
the Palace superintended the adornment and cleanli- 
ness of the hall pertaining to the court : the Lord High 
Almoner collected fines or donations which were assigned 
to the poor. The rest of the officers ran in couples : 
Ambassadors, who conveyed to the professors His 
Majesty's invitations, or rather commands, to attend the 
palace: Heralds, who proclaimed the king with due 
formalities when Christmas day fell on a Friday or 
Saturday, in order not to lose two or three days of the 
reign through the postponement of the play-night till 
the Monday : Treasurers, whose office was a sinecure, 
for the Procurator was the real Chancellor of the Ex- 
chequer: Secretaries, who issued invitations to the 
banquets and undertook any other royal correspondence. 
The remaining officials — Cup-bearers, Royal Pages and 
Pages, were of a lower grade and liable to service : they 
waited at table, ran errands, and made themselves gen- 
erally useful when required The rest of the school 
were subjects, but had not the privileges of the palace, 
and usually elected a minor king of their own, who 
reigned in one of the class-rooms with varying success. 
Deprived of dignity and state, bereft of authority and 
official recognition, this minor realm was subject to the 
disorders of irregulated governments, and was liable to 
insubordination and rebellion, to free fights and un- 
courtly language. 

A large share of the enjoyment derived from the 
institution consisted in the freedom and privileges of the 
palace. A room was set aside for the exclusive use of 
the king and his court, and was always spoken of as the 
"palace." Formerly the room was over the old play- 
room, and later, the one now dedicated to theatricals 
and concerts. No master ever set foot within the palace 
without special invitation : if he required an official, he 

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knocked at the portal and the interview took place out* 
side the sacred precincts. Constantly during the year 
under the eye of a prefect or master, this freedom from 
control imparted an exquisite sense of release and com- 
fort. Not that the privilege was ever abused, or that 
the boys acted differently than they otherwise would, for 
tradition, honour, and the supervision of the elder 
officers ensured order and decorum. The palace was 
at the disposal of the officers throughout the day. The 
**oW palace, a room dreary and dismal enough in 
itself, became gay and festive, if not brilliant, by a 
liberal treatment of festoons of evergreens, by the trans- 
formation of naked gas pipes into chandeliers sparkling 
with pendant crystals, and the brightening up of the 
walls with pictures and illuminated cards ; a dais with 
the chair of state under it, was erected at one end of the 
room. The ** new *' palace — ^nearly fifty years have now 
gone by — with its architectural features, higher roof, 
and greater size, made a more resplendent and baronial 

The coronation took place immediately after the play 
and farce on Boxing-night The final efforts of the 
hired brass band engaged attention while the king and 
his officers robed themselves in the costumes of the 
knights and nobles of the play. The drop-scene slowly 
rose and disclosed the king standing in front of the 
throne with the officers ranged right and left in the 
order of their dignity : a little on one side two pages 
supported an elaborate gilt frame containing the "king's 
card " with the officers' names and titles illuminated in 
bright colours. As the stage curtain uplifted and re- 
vealed the supposed unknown king and his court in their 
brilliant vesture, the audience greeted him with enthusi- 
astic welcome. At the subsidence of the applause a 
small procession left the stage : the Lord Chief Justice 

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His Majesty. 221 

led the way carrying the crown on a cushion, and was 
followed by the King in his robes, a tight-fitting tunic 
of red velvet resplendent with gold lace and stars, red 
velvet shorts, white silk stockings, and red velvet shoes; 
a train of red silk damask, edged with ermine, hung 
from his shoulders and was borne by two pages. The 
Lord Chief had a train also, which he threw over his 
arm and hugged gracefully. The audience standing 
stretched their necks to watch every step of the King 
until he knelt in front of the Prior, who placed the crown 
on his head muttering some inaudible words. Amidst 
encouraging cheers the King retreated to the front of 
the throne and delivered a speech, prepared beforehand 
either by himself or one of the professors. The diction 
was somewhat stilted, but in substance he declared that 
he was too full for utterance, that he thanked them from 
the soles of his shoes upwards, that he was horribly un- 
fit, but that he would do his level best with the support 
and forbearance of everyone. During the plaudits that 
followed the harangue he solemnly sat on his throne. 
The Lord Chief stepped forward, still hugging his train, 
read aloud the contents of the king's card, and returned 
to his place at the right of the throne. The whole 
audience stood and with might and main sang ** Grod 
save the King." They stinted no lung power, they 
abated not one jot of the words, but completed the 
whole hymn with all the vigour they could muster, while 
the King on his throne, alone seated, looked very serious 
and very sheepish. Three more cheers for the King, 
and the drop-scene began slowly to unwind, and gradu- 
ally fell lower and lower, first cutting off the heads of 
the court, then concealing their bodies, finally their legs 
and buskins, and the reign had commenced. 

The next morning a quaint feeling of constraint inter- 
vened between His Majesty in plain clothes and his 



222 His MAJESTY. 

usual companions, the old terms of familiarity had 
received a check, and the new halo of respect was not 
yet distinct : a few hours put matters on the requisite 
footing. Lassitude and placid enjoyment marked the 
first day of the reign. The effort and excitement of the 
theatricals overnight induced a desire for rest, the 
successes and mishaps of the play furnished material for 
cozy chat, the commencement of the holidays brought 
release and content, studies and duties were over, and the 
boys were in the first flush of the freedom of the palace. 
The room was spick and span in its fresh decorations, 
gay with colors and rich in reminiscences: the king's 
card occupied the position of honour, and around the room 
hung a dozen cards of the immediate predecessors, to tell 
of bygone splendours and recall bygone incidents. After 
morning prayers, spiritual reading and mass, no duties 
were imposed, and the whole day was free. In fine 
weather the young animal craved activity and fresh air, 
but in wet and murky times the palace provided a happy 
harbour of refuge, where the hours passed merrily enough 
in games according to the rage of the moment. Cards 
were always in favour, being seldom in vogue during the 
year, and parties of two or more were absorbed in various 
games, from loo to beggar-my-neighbour and whist, 
that is whist of a sort, boys' whist. One set introduced 
a rule not found in the clubs or in Cavendish : ** if any 
fellow had a bad hand he could call for a fresh deal ; " 
whist players will appreciate the situation. Tricks with 
cards, so dear to boys, occupied much ingenuity and 
mystification. Draughts, chess, backgammon, dominoes, 
all had their turn : at one time spillikins were in fashion, 
at another the Derby or the St. Leger were contended 
for by tin horses, jerked along a cardboard race-course 
by the throws of dice. 

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His Majesty. 223 

The evenings in the palace were the charm of the 
institution. The warm red curtains made the room 
snug, the brilliant gas-lights and glowing fire made it 
bright and cheerful, while smiling faces and constant buzz 
of conversation gave life and geniality. Towards five 
o'clock the pages collected the tables together down the 
length of the palace in preparation for tea. They took 
kindly to this service from the novelty of it and for the 
scamper through the house to fetch the articles required. 
Meanwhile the ambassadors sallied forth to convey to 
each master His Majesty's commands to attend the 
evening's entertainment; some obeyed, others begged 
indulgence for absence, and thus the fiction was kept up. 
Tea, toast and butter are not luxuries, but boys revel in 
any eating out of the ordinary ; they escaped the supper 
in the refectory with the rest of the school, they were at 
their ease in their own room, they had cups and saucers, 
and the prattle, clatter and laughter testified to thorough 
appreciation. At the finish the pages whisked away 
the debris and replaced the tables for the evening's 
amusements. Pre-arranged parties of chums quickly 
took possession of a table for some hours' fun over 
cards — loo, vingt et-un or pips, for the universal ** nap " 
had not then asserted its sway. Money stakes were pro- 
hibited, and gambling hunger had to be satisfied with 
counters, nuts or oranges, or personal penalties to 
the loser which boys delight to inflict. Punch or negus 
with accompaniments of cakes or fruit, was handed round 
by the pages, and added a stimulus and final touch to 
enjoyment. Babble and merriment abounded, but no 
shouting or horse-play marred the decorum due to the 
royal presence : when the noise threatened to exceed 
bounds, the mere rising up of the Earl Marshal sufficed 
to impose a hush and accusing glances at the implicated 
table ; not a word, even, was needed to maintain order, 




for a spirit of courtesy prevailed and an uncertainty 
about what that Earl Marshal might do. Here and 
there little knots passed the time in pleasant conver- 
sation, or perhaps in riddles or puzzling feats of sleight- 
of-hand. The king's table attracted wistful eyes and a 
circle of onlookers ; he sat on his chair of state under 
the dais, and invited the chief officers and guests to join 
in the game, a coveted privilege which included pla3ring 
for small stakes and staying up until the king himself 
retired. The novelty of the money risk, the fluctuations 
of luck, the interest in the game, the selectness of the 
party, contributed to keen enjoyment The climax came 
when the rest of the court had been summoned to night 
prayers, when the lights were extinguished at the further 
end of the room, when the ceasing of the laughter and 
noise had brought comparative silence, and, cosy and 
snug, the little party went on with the game in the still- 
ness of the night : it is delightful to boys to be up when 
the others are in bed. As a rule the privilege was not 
abused ; His Majesty gave the signal for retiring at a 
reasonable hour, guided no doubt by a casual hint from 
the prefect. 

Fine weather made the reign pass trippingly with occu- 
pation to fill up the day. A walk to inspect the brewery 
at Holcombe usually entered into the programme. 
Without outriders, without escort, without any sign of 
rank, the King joined the rest of the party with his par- 
ticular chums. Even in its winter dress, with bare trees, 
scanty hedgerows and stunted grass, the broad valley 
has a special beauty on a bright December day. From 
without, the brick buildings and out- houses of the 
brewery and its brick chimneys scarcely satisfy an 
artistic eye, but from within, the tall walls pierced with 
window openings, the narrow ways silent to the tread, 
the bridge passages above, the quaint odour around. 



HIS Majesty. 22S 

produced a weird sensation, which was counteracted by 
the comforting reflection that it was the birthplace of 
beer. An attendant, unsuspicious of the honour, con- 
ducted royalty and court officials over the processes. 
Arms, even royal arms, were thrust into huge heaps of 
dry barley, glossy, gliding and eluding a clutch like a 
fluid that it was not ; courtly nostrils inhaled the sweet 
aroma of the malting floors, where a lambent layer of 
steam played on the surface of the warm mash while the 
spirit was being enticed into John Barleycorn. The 
attraction of all was the huge vat breaking through 
the ceiling into the floor above, over twenty feet in 
height and containing some i,8oo gallons At its base 
the whole court assembled in silent wonder and reverent 
expectation, for glasses and biscuits appeared. The 
attendant turned the tap at the bottom of the vat and 
the superincumbent mass pressed out a stream of foam. 
In the crystal glass it glistened amber, clear, sparkling, 
with a cap of cream, and just escaped from the weight 
of twenty feet of beer above it — (Oh ! to think of it. 
Oh ! to dream of it !). It was no light lager but old- 
fashioned strong ale : one glass was inspiriting, two ex- 
hilarating, a third — ^well, not suited for young heads : 
in any case his majesty's officers returned home in a 
more talkative mood. 

An expedition to Shepton Mallet was often organised 
on one of the banquet days. No railway stole half the 
pleasiire of the jaunt, and the court sallied forth for an 
honest tramp across the ever beautiful Nettlebridge vale 
and onwards. Shepton, as a town, is not invigorating, 
but after a five mile Mendip Wedk its aspect is grateful 
from a luncheon point of view. It was a town even 
before its Anglo-Bavarian fame, and in those days boys 
saw little of towns between midsummer and midsummer 
Its main street twisted its narrow course amid dwarfed 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

226 His Majesty. 

houses and bashful shops, through the quaint maricet- 
place where the church tower struggles to show itself 
from behind later buildings. The boys greeted the 
shops with a view to sundry purchases, and replenishing 
pouches with contraband tobacco. Shepton has a gaol, 
a model gaol, and — it is safe to speak now after the lapse 
of many years — one King at least is known to have 
served his term on the treadmill, with the Lord Chief 
Justice looking on to see His Majesty complete his full 
tale ; but this belongs to the secret history of the court. 
The lunch at the inn was a sprightly meal, with appe- 
tites blameless, fare simple, cold meats, bread and 
cheese, with pipes or cigars to follow. The king of 
course presided, but his presence did not check the 
flow of spirits and the exhilaration promoted by the un- 
usual surroundings, whilst the privilege of smoking 
without concealment added a welcome zest. 

Happy was the reign that included Jack Frost among 
the visitors at the court. The clear sky, biting air, and 
crisp roads intensified life and energy in the royal suite ; 
ambassadors skipped with delight, heralds flung off their 
tabards, treasurers cast accounts and cash-boxes to the 
winds at the prospect of skating. After breakfast, the 
whole realm was in a ferment, officials dashing about 
aimlessly, unofficials clamouring and shouting amid 
busy preparations. It looked like war with a light 
heart and the cry, not ** k Berlin " but " to Sir John's,** 
the object not the humiliation of a proud foe, but the 
** assault and capture of Embor pond.'* The equipment 
complete the eagerness for the fray culminated and 
chafed at the delay, the waiting for the leader, the royal 
leader, while His Majesty with calmness and dignity 
was finishing his breakfast. When he appeared arrayed 
in overcoat and muffler with an attendant page to carry 
his skates, the whole army raised a wild shout of 



His majesty. 227 

enthusiasm and rushed recklessly on the road to glory. 
Who can forget that winter scene at Sir John's? It is 
graven deeply on the memory, for skating was the keenest 
pleasure in years when every pleasure was vivid The 
royal court forgot dignities and responsibilities in the 
first mad scamper over the ice without aim or object ; 
it cared not for honour or precedence in the abandon to 
tick, hockey, foUow-my-leader or other rollicking game 
of the hour; the king perhaps dimly mindful of his 
state, kept staid enough to prevent the inglorious spec- 
tacle of His Majesty with his royal back on the ice and 
his royal legs in the air. Hours sped on in exquisite 
enjoyment, it did not pall, spirits did not flag, and grow- 
ing appetites were appeased out of kits supplied from 
Christmas hampers. The regret at the creeping on of 
dusk was tempered by the assurance that no study or 
work hindered the same programme on the morrow and 
the next day, and all through the Christmas time. The 
run home was cheered by the prospect of dinner at the 
end and the evening in the palace. After a day's skat- 
ing, or a long walk in the wintry air, the snugness and 
comfort of the night in the palace were inexpressible ; 
the grateful rest after exercise, the freedom from all 
duty, the fascination of the games, the stimulus of punch 
and accompaniments appealed to a boy's sense of 
absolute content. 

Two state banquets broke the routine of court life, 
one given by the officers in honour of the king, and the 
other by His Majesty to his officers. The secretaries 
issued formal invitations to a list of guests supplied 
by the authorities : ** The officers of His Majest3r's court 

present their compliments to Mr. and request the 

honour of his presence, etc." or, ** We have received 
instructions from his Majesty to command your presence 
at a state banquet, etc.'* The guests included former 

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228 HIS Majesty. 

students who were spending the Christmas at the college, 
and neighbours and friends within reach, who valued the 
privilege of joining in the festivities. By five o'clock 
the King and officers had donned their court robes : 
some appeared in velvet tunics, red or blue, edged with 
ermine and sparkling with spangles and gold braid, some 
in silken robes slashed with satin, others in highland tar- 
tan, all in long hose and buskins or sandals. The Earl 
Marshal wore a sword to keep his own legs in disorder. 
All assembled at the festive board in the refectory, a 
cross table at the top with two parallel tables the length 
of the room. When everyone had found his place the 
King, with the crown on his head and his train borne 
by pages, marched up the banqueting hall to his chair 
in the centre of the cross table, with the Prior on his 
right and the most distinguished guest, perhaps the 
Bishop of the diocese, on his left, a proud position for 
a boy in the school. Around the tables the company 
was arranged in order, a guest, a monk and an officer, 
and below the salt the rest of the boys partook of the 
hospitality. The Prior said grace, the King took his 
seat, and all sat down to a bountifully-spread board. No 
mere enlargement of ordinary fare the dinner assumed 
the proportions of a veritable banquet — beef, turkeys, 
geese, chickens, ducks, hares, perhaps a haunch of 
venison or pheasants ; pies, puddings, jellies and sweets 
galore ; the beverage sherry, or maybe, champagne if 
the royal father provided it. The six pages in their 
costumes and the college butler's staff waited at table. 
The scene was picturesque and animated: the large 
room completely filled, the bright colour and sparkle of 
the officers' robes mingling with the sombre monk's 
habit and the prosaic lay costume, the glitter of the glass 
and the hues of the flowers and evergreens, the glinting 
in and out of the pages, the buzz of conversation 




and the ripple of laughter, the obvious delight on 
the bo3rs' faces, made it unparalleled in college pro- 
cedure. It might not compare in brilliancy with a large 
modem dinner-party, but in contrast with ordinary 
college meals it assumed an air of sumptuousness and 

The dessert was spread in the palace. From the 
King's throne one long table was placed down the 
centre of the room and others at the sides, sufficient to 
accommodate all the company. They were laden with 
every delicacy that could please the eye of a boy or 
tempt his palate, without stint or grudge, and inter- 
spersed with decanters of port and sherry. After 
dinner had been duly and diligently discussed the King 
rose and led the way to the palace, where seated on his 
throne under the dais he presided over the dessert. 
With truly British sense of adequacy after dinner 
oratory naturally followed under the direction of the 
Lord Chief Justice as toastmaster. His speeches were 
brief, some half-dozen sentences, written out previously, 
delivered with some timidity, and received with the rap- 
turous applause in which boys are so pre-eminent; if 
the replies became prolix the audience contrived to indi- 
cate the surfeit of words. The Prior usually proposed 
the King's health, who replied and proposed the officers. 
The Lord Chief responded and successively proposed 
toasts of the Prior, the Bishop (if present), the Visitors, 
the Prefect and the Masters. Although prepared 
beforehand the speech of His Majesty betrayed an under- 
current of nervousness, partly from his position and 
partly from emotion. He was a boy, he was presiding 
over the whole house, all eyes were upon him, and the 
acclamations that greeted him were not formal merely, 
but had the ring of the affection of his fellow-students. 
Songs lightened the speeches, some whose strains always 


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230 HIS Majesty. 

brought a thrill of pleasure, some at which the quality of 
the voice instantly secured a hush, and other dear old 
ditties whose chorus aroused deafening enthusiasm. 
During the evening the king's or officers* cake was 
cut, theoretically with the Earl Marshal's sword, prac- 
tically a humdrum carving knife came to its assistance, 
and portions cut were handed round as at a wedding 
breakfast. When the round of toasts was complete, 
and each one was in the fullest state of complacency 
with himself and neighbours, the company rose and 
sang "God save the King'* in its entirety. With the 
tables cleared and broken up, all settled down to cards 
and the usual amusements. 

The brief reign of twelve days quickly melted away, 
yet the unwonted routine of the days seemed to 
make them loiter. Short enough to forestall tedium, 
it was long enough to crowd in incident and multiply 
pleasure; short enough to give rise to a longing for 
more, it was long enough to heap up a store of 
memories. A prominent feature in Downside life, all 
old Gregorians look back on the Christmastide there 
as a pleasing reminiscence. Kings who passed the 
chair had an experience never repeated in subsequent 
life : whatever positions or honours came afterwards 
would lack the vividness of perception, the freshness of 
feeling evoked by the honours, reverence and affection 
of their fellow-students. The end came on the Epiphany. 
In the evening the whole school and the masters were 
invited to the palace. The room was crowded, the 
games were in full swing, hubbub and laughter prevailed, 
but an air of dejection was creeping on, a sense of 
parting. At eleven o'clock the Prefect gave the signal, 
the games ceased, the company rose, the party at the 
royal table withdrew a little, and without any speech or 
congratulations all prepared to sing "God save the 



His Majesty. 231 

King** for the last time. There seemed to be a touch 
of irony about the hymn at that moment, which was 
neutralized by the regret and a certain pathos in the 
situation. It was a parting, a farewell to a position of 
honour : the boys regretted it for themselves, and they 
felt for the King, and felt more kindly towards him than 
ever. Perhaps it was the best tribute they could give ; 
they had sung it with enthusiasm at the coronation, they 
had put feeling into it at other times, and it served as a 
renewal of esteem and affection at parting. So the 
reign ended with : — 

" Send him victorious, 

Happy and glorious. 

Long to reign over us, 
CSrod save the King.** 

T. B. S. 

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TITfl ^ ^^^^ ^^ clear indication at all as to the fate of 
^^^ the Catholic Chapel at St. James's, after the 
fall of Charles I. In those days St. James's Palace 
stood almost in the country ; far away from the crowded 
part of London ; so the chapel would not have been 
of much use as a preaching house^and it may very pro- 
bably have been simply dismantled and left without 
an occupant. In 1661, however, it became necessary to 
fit it up and put it in repair, in order that it might 
once more be used for the devotions of a Catholic 
Queen, and no sooner had the treaty been signed which 
arranged the marriage of Charles II. to the Infanta of 
Portugal, than the requisite orders were given that 
this work should be put in hand. A great deal of work 
seems to have been necessary, so much indeed that 
contemporary records sometimes speak as if the chapel 
had been rebuilt entirely, which, however, was not 
the case, for the walls at any rate were still standing. 
The work was a long while in hand, and the chapel was 
not complete and ready to be used again until Septem- 
ber 1662. 

y Google 

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Cathouc Chapels Royal. 233 

If there was to be a second Royal Chapel in London, 
it next became necessary to provide a staff to work it, 
for Charles was not willing that the chapel of his 
Consort should be less magnificent than that which his 
mother kept up at Somerset House. He desired there- 
fore that, just as her chapel was worked by a com- 
munity of religious — the French Capuchins, — so also 
there should be religious who should keep up the recita- 
tion of the Divine office in the chapel of St. James's. 
He therefore opened negociations with the English 
Benedictines, a body for which he entertained consider- 
able affection, both on account of the services ren- 
dered to him by Fr. John Hudleston and others after 
the battle of Worcester, and because of many kind- 
nesses he had received from them during the period of 
his exile, and especially when he had been a guest of 
the monks of St. Malo, at their country house at 
Clermont. The preliminary negociations were made 
with Fr. Paul Robinson, who had served the office of 
President General and was in high favour at Court, 
the king having made his acquaintance on the Conti- 
nent. His suggestions as to the conditions under 
which the foundation of a house in London would be 
possible were well received by the King and by Lord 
Stuart d'Aubigny, who had been appointed Lord High 
Almoner to the future Queen, and, at the request of 
the latter, the proposal was laid before the General 
Chapter of the Congregation which was to meet at 
St. Gregory's at Douay in the August of that year, 
1 66 1. The proposal took the form of a letter written 
by Stuart d* Aubigny, which was brought to the Chapter 
by Fr. Austin Latham, who was also charged with 
verbal directions, so that the plan might be fully dis- 
cussed in all its aspects by the assembled fathers. 
The King offered to pay the sum of ;{^ioo per head 

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234 Cathouc Chapels Royal. 

for each of a community of six fathers, and ^^50 each 
for such lay brothers as might be necessary. 

As may be supposed, the congregation was not 
long in making up its mind to accept this very liberal 
and quite unexpected oflFer. To men who had been 
accustomed never to visit their native land except at the 
risk of being sentenced, if they should unfortunately 
be captured, to the most terrible and humiliating of 
deaths as public traitors, and who had themselves, in 
many instances, — Fr. Paul Robinson may be taken as 
one case out of several which could be named, — ^spent 
years already in an English dungeon for no other 
offences than their priesthood, such an offer must have 
presented itself as brilliant indeed. They were no 
longer to be proscribed by the law, — no longer to be 
fugitives, hunted like wild beasts from shelter to 
shelter, and living under perpetual fear of apprehension, 
— but were to be allowed to reside at the Court 
itself, free to live in community and to exercise all the 
duties of their religious life, and to minister to all 
comers in a large public, or at least semi-public church 
in the metropolis itself. Who could say of what develop- 
ment this might not be the humble beginning. The 
inclinations of the King were no secret to any of them. 
His desire to marry none but a Catholic bride was of 
the happiest augury. What limits then could be put 
to what the future might have in store ? A few years 
to come, and England might once more have a Catholic 
sovereign, and the Catholic religion might once more 
not only be tolerated, but might come again to be the 
accepted, though never again the exclusive religion of 
the land. A committee was appointed, consisting of 
Fr. Austin Hungate, who was the President at the time, 
Fr. Paul Robinson and Fr. Ansel m Crowder, with 
powers to choose six priests for this new foundation. 




** except they did not intitulate a Prior, or a Conventual 
Prior/' and by a further resolution the same three 
fathers were given ** power to make laws for the 
governance of the chapel and were constituted its 

The choice of the Committee of selection is not given 
by Weldon, and does not seem to have come down to 
us in any other way. Dr. Oliver, however, in his 
** Notices of the Anglo-Benedictine Congregation" 
seems to have seen a list of the monks who 
were at St. James' in 167 1; and from this list, recon- 
structed from his scattered notices, we can give, with at 
least considerable probability, the names of those 
who were originally selected, for it is not likely that 
changes were ever made except to fill up a death 
vacancy. The father selected as Superior of the little 
Community, — he does not seem to have had the title of 
Prior or any other title to distinguish him from the 
rest, — was Fr. Bennet Stapylton, of the family of 
Stapylton or Stapleton of Carlton in Yorkshire, a house 
whose modern representative is Lady Beaumont. He 
was the eldest son, but had given up his claim to the 
family property, in order that he might become a Bene- 
dictine monk at Douay. He was a man of consider- 
able worth and ability, and was already Prior of St. 
Gregory's. He remained at St. James's till 1675, and 
then returned to Douay. He was President General 
of the English Congregation from 1669 till his death at 
Dieulouard in 1680. With him at St. James's were 
Fr. Lionel Sheldon, also a Gregorian, who was Master 
of Ceremonies, and, later on, chaplain to Mary 
Beatrice of Modena when she was still Duchess of 
York. He too remained till 1675, and then went to 
Brussels, where he devoted himself to the service of the 
English troops, and died of some fever caught while 

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^^S^S^ ^" ^^^^ work of charity in 1678. A third 
Gregorian was Fr. Anselm Touchet, second son of 
Lord Castlehaven, and author of several religious works. 
He too remained till 1675. Fr. Placid Adelham was 
the fourth member of the Community. He was a 
convert, and had formerly been a minister of the Church 
of England. After the break-up of the Community in 
1675, he went on the mission in England, and was in- 
volved in the troubles of the Titus Oates plot. He was 
actually condemned to death in 1679, but was reprieved, 
and lay a prisoner in Newgate until his death, a year or 
two later. The fifth priest was Fr. Austin Latham, 
whom we have already met with as the bearer of Lord 
d'Aubigny's letter to the Chapter. At a later date he 
was appointed Procurator for the Congregation in 
Curia Romana, and his place was taken by D. James 
Ferreira, a young Portuguese monk from Dieulouard, 
who probably owed his selection to the growing feeling 
in London, after 1670, that English priests should not be 
allowed to be attached to the Queen's Chapel. Lastly, 
Fr. John Hudleston, whose services to the King at 
Mosely, after the battle of Worcester, were probably the 
main cause of the Benedictines receiving this appoint- 
ment, completed the full number of six priests, to which 
the Community was strictly limited. He had, in 
addition to the ;{^ioo which was paid annually to each 
of the monks, a further pension of ;^ioo in commem- 
oration of his earlier services. Two lay brothers. 
Brother Thomas Pickering, who was martyred after- 
wards through Oates* plot, and Brother Austin Rumley, 
were also chosen to attend on the fathers, and to fulfil 
the ordinary duties of the house. 

It is not difficult to guess at the reasons which led 
to the selection of each of these men. Three at least 
of the number, Stapylton, Touchet, and Hudleston, 



Cathouc Chapels Royal. 237 

were members of ancient and well-known English 
families, and would be in their proper place when con- 
nected with the Court, and would be already knowp, at 
least by name, if not more directly, to the leading men 
of London at the time. Hudleston and Latham were 
already well known to the King, and in favour with 
him. Sheldon and Adelham were both men of ability, 
whose talents might be of use if controversy were re- 

The fathers selected set out for England almost at 
once, although their house and chapel at St. James's 
Palace were not got ready to receive them. For a 
time therefore, and until permanent arrangements 
could be made, they were lodged at the Savoy, then 
actually attached to Somerset House, and subject to 
the control of the Queen Dowager, although not 
forming part of the Palace itself. The Savoy Chapel 
was appropriated to the Protestant servants of the 
Queen, just as the Chapel in Somerset House provided 
for the needs of the much larger body of Catholics 
attached to her suite. The proximity of the Catholic 
Chapel — the only place then existing in London, except 
the private chapels of two or three Ambassadors, at 
which they could have said Mass without putting them- 
selves in grave danger from the law, — was no doubt 
the reason why this place was selected, and it was 
probably due to the hospitality of Henrietta Maria 
that it was thus available. At a later time, when 
Somerset House had been the property of Queen 
Catherine, now in her turn Queen Dowager, the same 
building which now sheltered the Benedictines was 
handed over to the Jesuits, through the influence of 
James H., to serve as a college for boys. 

If reference be made to the plan of the old Palace 
of the Savoy, which is one of the illustrations of this 



258 Cathouc Chapels Royal. 

article, it will be seen that one of the quadrangles was 
in 1750 known by the name of the Friary Court. It 
is an interesting question, and one which has not, so far 
as I am aware, hitherto been raised, how this Court 
came to be known by such a name. There is no record 
of the Palace ever having been occupied by any 
religious order, except indeed by the Jesuits in 1685. 
Originally the Palace of John of Gaunt, and always 
the property of the Duchy of Lancaster, it had been 
throughout in secular hands, and devoted exclusively to 
secular uses. Is it possible — I throw it out merely as 
a suggestion — that it was here, and not actually in 
Somerset House itself, that the French Capuchins were 
lodged who served the chapel of Henrietta Maria, alike 
in the reign of Charles I. and in that of Charles II. 
The two palaces were adjoining one another, and the 
Queen had authority, apparently, in both of them. If 
that were so, the Benedictines were probably the guests 
of these Capuchin fathers on their first arrival in 
London, and the Jesuits in 1688 succeeded to a building 
which had long been in use as a religious house, though 
now it was no longer thus occupied, and which was 
therefore well adapted to their needs. They had no 
less than 400 boys under their instruction, so they pro- 
bably had one or more of the great halls of the Palace 
also handed over to them. The new Queen arrived at 
Portsmouth from Portugal on May 13th, 1662. 
Contrary to the usual custom in such cases, the 
marriage had not been performed by proxy before she 
started. The reason given for this was that Portuguese 
scrupulousness would not admit of a marriage being 
gone through with a proxy who was a Protestant — 
rather an odd scruple, considering that the bridegroom 
himself was in the same condition. A more probable 
reason, though one A\hich could not be publicly put 



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Cathouc Chapels Royal. 239 

forward, was that the Pope had not as yet recognised 
the right of the bride's father as King of Portugal, and 
that, in the necessary dispensations for a mixed marriage, 
she would have been described as daughter only of the 
Duke of Braganza. Be that as it may, the fact re- 
mains that no marriage had taken place in Portugal, 
and it therefore became necessary to solemnize the 
ceremony at once on her arrival in England. Pressure 
was brought to bear on Catherine to rest content with 
a Protestant ceremony, but on that point she was in- 
flexible, and the marriage was therefore performed with 
the utmost secrecy in her own bedroom by Lord 
d'Aubigny, her Almoner, no one being present except 
Fr, Philip Howard, the Portuguese Ambassador, and 
two or three Portuguese nobles and ladies. The 
Protestant ceremony took place in public at a later 
hour, and was confined to little more than a declaration 
made by Dr. Sheldon, who was then Bishop of London, 
that the marriage had already been properly performed, / 
but without saying in what way the ceremony had be^ 
carried out. 

A curious question was raised at a later date with 
regard to the validity of the Catholic marriage. 
D'Aubigny, who performed it, had no authority except 
from a self-constituted body, the so-called ** Chapter" 
of London. When, in 1669, the Abb6 Agretti was sent 
from Brussels to investigate the status of this body, 
one of the arguments used in their favour was that the 
invalidation of their authority involved the nullity of 
the royal marriage, which Parliament, although in 
ignorance of this flaw, was already urging Charles to 
put aside on account of the infecundity of the Queen. 
Agretti, however, put the objection aside, on the ground 
that the rules of the Council of Trent were not pub- 
lished in England ; and that even if they had been, the 

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240 Cathouc Chapels Royal. 

presence of Father Howard, who had the ordinary facul- 
ties of a missionary, would have sufficed to render the 
marriage perfectly valid' 

Unlike Henrietta Maria, the new Queen had not 
brought with her any large ecclesiastical retinue. Her 
two principal Almoners, d' Aubigny and Philip Howard, 
met her at Portsmouth, and others accompanied her 
from Portugal. These were four; Bishop Richard 
Russell, an Englishman, who was Bishop-elect of Porta* 
legre in Portugal, but who was apparently never con- 
secrated ; Fr. Antonio Fernandez, her confessor and 
a man of exceeding learning and goodness ; Fr. 
Patricio Ghineo, described by Agretti, in spite of his 
name, as **an Irish priest," who was in great favour 
with the King, and a man of exemplary character, 
though not of very great ability; and Dr. Thomas 
Godden, who acted as the Queen's tutor in English, and 
now received the post of Treasurer of her Chapel. 
These six, together with the six Benedictine fathers, 
were, at first, the only ecclesiastics attached to her 
service. They must have been lodged somewhere in 
the Palace, for it then stood alone with no house near 
it. Probably, here also, the name of the ** Friary Court" 
hands down to us the fact that this portion was at one 
time, and that irrespective of the nuns who originally 
built it, long before Henry VHI made it his royal 
Palace, in the occupation of religious. It was, at this 
time, a complete quadrangle, and surrounded by a 
cloister, part of which still remains. 

The new Chapel at St. James* was ready for use by 
the autumn of this same year, and the first mass was 
said there on Sunday, Sept. 21st, 1662. Pepys has 
recorded in his diary how he saw the Queen coming by 

t Brady. Episcopal Succession, ii. p. III. 

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Cathouc Chapels Royal. 241 

in her coach on her way to the service; and how, 
always ready for something new, he ** crowded after her 
and got up to the room where her closet is," that is to 
say, a room over the anti-chapel, with a window opening 
into the Chapel and facing the High Altar. From this 
window he could see the altar straight in front, and 
all ^^the fine altar ornaments, and the fryers in their 
habits, and the priests come in with their fine copes, 
and many other very fine things." He heard the 
music also, which was, no doubt, not as yet so fine as it 
afterwards became. It did not please him at any rate, 
for he disliked "the manner of their singing, nor was 
it good concord to my ears, whatever the matter was." 
" By-and-by, after mass was done, a fryer with his cowl 
did rise up and preach a sermon in Portuguese, which 
I, not understanding, did go away." The preacher 
whose sermon Pepys treated thus unceremoniously was 
probably Fr. Christophoro del Rosario, a Dominican, 
who afterwards became and remained for many years 
the Queen's confessor. He, with a certain Fr. Antonio, 
a Franciscan, had been added to the original staff in 
the express capacity of preachers. The ** fryers in their 
habits," however, whom he noted first, must almost 
certainly have been the Benedictines. Pepys was not 
likely to be very learned in ecclesiastical dress or nomen- 
clature. He was, however, used to " friars " at Somerset 
House, so the mistake was natural enough, and, after 
all, is no worse than that of many nowadays who ought 
to know better, but who talk glibly of Franciscan or 
Dominican monks. 

In January of the following year, 1663, the King 
wrote to Rome in great secrecy, to make request for a 
Cardinal's Hat for d'Aubigny. There are a number of 
reasons given why this should be done, and among 
them is one which is to our present purpose. **The 

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242 Cathouc Chapels Royal. 

King/* so the paper runs, " has allowed two royal 
chapels to be publicly opened for the Queens, mother 
and Consort ; and in that of the Queen, the English 
Benedictines hold their choir in habit, and in that of 
the Queen Mother are the Capuchins — to the incredible 
comfort of the Catholics, who can go there freely." 
Practically, this last statement was at this time true 
enough — technically it was not so, for an order had 
before thi^ been issued by the Council, warning 
Catholics, other than the servants of either of the 
Queens, that they had no right in the Queens' chapels, 
and would be liable to just the same penalties for hear- 
ing Mass there as anywhere else. The proclamation 
was probably never intended to be enforced, and this 
seems to have been very well understood, for Pepys 
never seems to have thought he ran the smallest risk, 
though, as we have seen, he went to the Queen's 
Chapel within a couple of months after the date on 
which the order was given to the world. D'Aubigny 
never got his hat — perhaps the King's promises were 
not taken beyond their true value at Rome, where his 
character was well known, and only a year or two later, 
in 1665, he died, and his place as Lord High Almoner 
to the Queen was taken by F. Philip Howard, brother 
of the then Duke of Norfolk. 

Pepys continues to be our only authority for the 
history of the Chapel at this period, and we learn 
from his pages that the accession of Fr. Howard to 
power was marked at once by a greater dignity in the 
services. He seems to have got on friendly terms with 
Fr. Howard, and on the 22nd January, 1666-7, he paid 
him a visit at St James', to see the organ there, but was 
not so much impressed as he had expected to be, *^ it 
being but a bauble, with a virginal joining to it : so I 
shall not meddle with it." 

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Cathouc Chapels Royal. 243 

The music at the Queen's Chapel seems to have been 
improving, and on Easter Sunday, 1666, Pepys, who 
went to Mass on that day, as, indeed, was his usual 
custom on Easter Day, so far withdrew his original 
hostile verdict as to concede that ** it was not so con- 
temptible, I think, as our people would make it, it 
pleasing me very well, and indeed better than the anthem 

I heard afterwards at White Hall." It was, however, 
not wonderful that the music at Whitehall was not at 
its best, for he notes, only a few pages before, how he 
had heard from the King's organist that '^ Many of the 
musicians there were ready to starve — they being five 
years behind hand for their wages : nay Evans, the 
famous man upon the harp, having not his equal in the 
world, did the other day die for mere want, and was 
fain to be buried at the alms of the parish." Charles 

II had no love for the Anglican service, in which he had 
long since ceased to believe, and he was not a man to 
be troubled with scruples of conscience on the mere 
question of honesty. 

A more important change at St. James' than the 
provision of the organ was the determination arrived 
at by the Queen, apparently also about the time of 
d* Aubigny's death, that she would have a Convent built 
there at her own expense, and bring over some 
Franciscan fathers from Portugal to occupy it. The 
buildings were ready by the beginning of 1667, and the 
priests were already in residence when Pepys came to 
pay his visit to F. Howard. The Friary, as the new 
Convent was called, stretched away to the eastward of the 
Chapel, with cloisters built round a grass plot. Prac- 
tically it occupied the ground where now stand the 
Guards' Club and the entrance to Marlborough House, 
and the Friary garden ran towards the park, where the 
gardens of Marlborough House now are. The courtyard 

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244 Cathouc Chapels royal. 

facing the Chapel, in which various military cere- 
monies now take place, is still known, as we have already 
noted, as *' the Friary Court." The Convent itself was 
pulled down in the reigti of Queen Anne, when that por- 
tion of St. James' Palace which stretched to the eastward 
of the road which now runs from St. James' Street and 
Pall Mall into the Park was destroyed, to make an 
approach to the new house building for the great Duke 
of Marlborough in 1709. The supplement to the 
Gasette of April i8th, 1709, thus announces the fact : — 
** Her Majesty, having been pleased to grant to His 
Grace the Duke of Marlborough the Friary next St. 
James' Palace • . . the same is pulling down in 
order to rebuild the house for His Grace." The Chapel 
alone remained standing, and hence at present seems 
to have been originally erected in the grounds of 
Marlborough House. 

A question was raised in a recent number of the 
Downside RevieWy as to the exact branch of the 
Franciscan order to which the fathers belonged for 
whom this Friary was originally built. There can be 
no possible doubt on the subject ; for while it is true 
that not only Pepys, but also Airoldi, an authority who 
ought to have been more accurate, speaks of them as 
Capuchins, Agretti is obviously more likely to be 
exact when he says that they were of the obedience of 
St. Peter of Alcantara. The point is, however, put 
beyond all doubt by the title given to them in 
Chamberlayne's Angliae Notitia for the year 1692, 
where they are spoken of as ** Portugal Franciscan 
Friers called Arrabidoes," that being the special name 
of that branch who followed the reformed rule instituted 
by St. Peter of Alcantara. At first, this rule was 
the severest of any branch of the Franciscan order. It 
originated in Portugal, not far from Lisbon, on a 



cathouc Chapels royal. 245 

mountain called Arabida. Here, a holy father called 
Fn Martino di Sta. Maria was already leading a hermit's 
life, when, in 1541, he was joined by St. Peter of 
Alcantara, and together they instituted the new rule 
for others who placed themselves under their direction. 
They lived in caves excavated in the mountain side ; 
slept on the bare ground or on bundles of vine stalks ; 
kept perpetual abstinence from meat and from wine, and 
from fish also, except upon the greater feasts ; recited 
matins at midnight, and then remained in prayer till the 
hour of prime, when one said mass, at which all the rest 
assisted ; after which they returned each to his own cell, 
and remained there engaged in manual labour through- 
out the day, except when the bell summoned them to 
the Chapel for each of the hours at its own proper time. 
The cells were very small and confined, and the doors 
so low and narrow that they could only be passed side- 
ways and by lowering the head. St. Peter s own cell 
was so small that he could never lie down, but main- 
tained perpetually either an erect or sitting posture. 

Such had been the life, a century earlier, of the friars 
whom Catharine now determined to call over to London 
to live at her Palace of St. James. How far their rule 
had been mitigated in Portugal we have no knowledge, 
but in London, at any rate, if we may judge from the 
account that Pepys has left us, considerable dispensa- 
tions must have been granted. In this they were 
unlike the French Capuchins at Somerset House, who, 
as will be remembered, asked for permission to increase, 
not to diminish, the austerity of their lives, in the hopes 
that by so doing they might bring home to the 
Protestants, among whom they lived, the virtues of a 
life of Catholic penance and austerity. Pepys went 
over the Friary on the occasion of the visit, of which 
we have already spoken, to Lord Philip Howard at his 


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246 Cathouc Chapels royal. 

lodgings at St. James'. ^^Away, and my Lord 
Brouncker and I walking into the park, I did observe 
the new buildings, and my Lord, seeing I had a desire 
to see them, they being the place for the priests and 
fryers, he took me back to my Lord Almoner, ami he 
took us quite through the whole house and chapel, and 
the new monastery, showing me most excellent pieces in 
wax work, a crucifix given by a Pope to Mary Queen 
of Scots, where a piece of the cross is, two bits set in 
the manner of a cross in the foot of the crucifix ; several 
fine pictures, but especially very good prints of holy 
pictures. I saw the dortoire, and the cells of the 
priests, and we went into one, a very pretty little room, 
very clean, hung with pictures, set with books. The 
priest was in his cell, with his hair clothes to his skin, 
bare legged, with a sandal only on, and his litttle bed 
without sheets, and no feather bed, but yet, I thought, 
soft enough. His cord about his middle, but in so 
good company, living with ease, I thought it a very 
good life. A pretty library they have, and it was in 
the refectoire, where every man his napkin, knife, cup 
of earth and basin of the same, and a place for one to 
sit and read, while the rest are at meals. And into the 
kitchen I went, where a good neck of mutton at the 
fire, and other victuals boiling. I do not think they 
fared very hard. Their windows all looking into a fine 
garden and the park, and mighty pretty rooms all. I 
wished myself one of the Capuchins." 

The number of these Portuguese friars was fixed by 
Queen Catharine at thirteen — a father Guardian and 
twelve friars, presumably in honour of our Lord and the 
twelve apostles. Her choice of the order was probably 
determined by the reputation for sanctity they enjoyed 
in Portugal, but otherwise it scarcely strikes us as having 
been a wise one. The friars were quite destitute of any 



CATHOUC chapels royal. 247 

pretence of culture or of learning. They can hardly 
have been very congenial companions for Fr. Philip 
Howard, or for the English Benedictine fathers with 
whom they were so closely connected. The reports 
about them made both by Agretti and by Airoldi to 
the Holy See are anything but complimentary. * * They 
live in a convent," says Airoldi, *' close to the chapel, 
and while in cloister wear the habit of their order. But 
when they go out they dress as Seculars and wear wigs 
(perucca), and do not walk alone, but each has his com- 
panion. These good fathers are poor in knowledge. 
Some of them, not to say all, are unable to speak Latin." 
Agretti is even more emphatic. He found them '^ privi 
di eruditione e quasi di letteratura." However, they 
seem on the whole to have been edifying in their lives, 
and no other fault is found in them. 

Midnight Mass at Christmas was the rule at St. 
James' Palace. Pepys was present at it in 1667 — but 
was disappointed at the service. ^^ I got in almost up 
to the rail, and with a great deal of patience stayed 
from nine at night to two of the morning in a very 
great crowd, and there expected but found nothing 
extraordinary, there being nothing but a high Masse. 
The Queene was there and some ladies. But Lord ! 
what an odd thing for me to be in a crowd of people, 
here a footman, there a beggar, here a fine lady, 
there a zealous poor Papist, and here a Protestant, 
two or three together, come to see the show. I 
was afeard of my pocket being picked very much. 
Their musique very good indeed, but their service I 
confess too frivolous, that there can no zeal go along 
with it, and I do find by them themselves that they do 
run over their beads with one hand, and point and 
play and talk and make signs with the other in the 
midst of their masse. But all things very rich and 

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248 Cathouc Chapels royal. 

beautiful; and I see the papists have the wit most of 
them to bring cushions to kneel on, which I wanted 
and was mighty troubled to kneel. All being 
done I was sorry for my coming, missing of what I 
expected which was to have had a child bom and dressed 
there, and a great deal of do; but we broke up and 
nothing like it done, and there I left people receiving 
the sacrament; and the Queen gone and her ladies; 
only my Lady Castlemaine, who looked prettily in her 
night clothes. • • . So I to bed.*' The music which 
Pepys here commends had been considerably improved 
since the chapel was first opened, by the introduction 
of singers from Italy. Pepys went to hear them on 
several occasions, and always with increasing pleasure. 
At first he did not at all like the high-pitched voices of 
the Italians, and much preferred the female voices to 
which he was accustomed ; but by degrees he seems to 
have got used even to these, and on Easter Sunday, 
1668, he becomes quite enthusiastic. ^^ Indeed their 
musique did appear most admirable to me, beyond 
anything of ours. I was never so well satisfied in my 
life." Indeed Pepys by this time had advanced far 
beyond his earlier Protestant days, when in 1663 he went 
out of church rather than kneel down at mass, and 
there is no saying to what frequent attendance at mass 
he might have been drawn by his admiration for the 
music, had not a thing occurred which made him more 
cautious. On October 26th, 1668, he had gone 
upstairs to have his head combed by Deb, his wife's 
maid, ** which occasioned the greatest sorrow to me 
that ever I knew, for my wife coming up suddenly did 
find me embracing the girl." Mrs. Pepys' indignation 
knew no bounds, and she ** grew quite out of order." 
However she soon hit on an ingenious scheme of 
revenge, and, about two in the morning, waked her 

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Cathouc Chapbls Royal. 249 

lord to tell him, among many tears and as a great 
secret, that ^^she was a Roman Catholique and had 
received the holy sacrament." The plan worked admir- 
ably. Pepys was thoroughly disturbed and frightened 
— though much relieved a few weeks afterwards to fmd 
that after all ** she is not so strictly a Catholique as 
not to go to church with me, which pleased him 
mightily." As a matter of fact she does not appear 
even to have been a Catholic in any sense at all, but 
she so succeeded in alarming her husband, that for 
some time we get no further information from him 
about the Queen's Chapel. 

A. S. Barnes. 

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H FRIEND writes that^ in a collection of old English 
ballads, he has come across a copy of a song 
which he thinks our readers may be interested to have. 
Here it is : — 

One night came on a hurricanet the sea was mountains rolling, 
When Baraey Bunting turned his quid and said to Tommy Bowling; 
" A strong nor'wester's blowing, Bill ; hark ! don't you hear it roar 

Lord help 'em ! how I pities all unhappy folks on shore now ! 

Foolhardy chaps as lives in towns, what danger they are all in I 
And now lie quaking in their beds, for fear the roof may £all in I 
Poor creatures, how they envies us ! and wishes, Tve a notion. 
For our good luck, in such a storm, to be upon the ocean ! 

But as for them who're out all day on business from their houses. 
And, late at night, are coming home to cheer their babes and 

spouses ; 
While you and I, Bill, on the deck are comfortably Ijring, 
My eyes ! what tiles and chimney-pots about their heads are fljring! 

And, very often, we have heard how men are killed and undone. 
By overturns of carriages, by thieves and fires, in London ; 
We know what risk all landsmen run, from noblemen to tailors ; 
Then, Bill, let us thank Providence that you and I are sailors ! " 

Obviously it is not for its literary attractions that 
we print it, though there is ingenuity in the rhymes, 
and a humour which must have been well appreciated 
in the days when Dibdin and his imitators held the 
public ear. No — its value lies in the associations it 
carries to Gregorians of more than a quarter of the last 
century. Associations? emotions would be a better 

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Songs and TtiBiJt singmms. 2Sl 

wordy and no one who has passed the unthinking years 
and reached the years of reminiscence, will be ashamed 
to admit it. So, improving on the prevailing fashion 
of giving the purchaser of goods, beyond his purchase, 
some article which he does not expect and possibly has 
no use for, we present with this song a sentiment and a 
flavour which are as completely of the past as its singer; 
for the song belongs to the gala days of old, to such 
obsolete functions as King's or Officers' banquets, 
which are now remote enough to convey absolutely no 
meaning to three-quarters of living Gregorians. For 
better or for worse, college tucks have changed their 
character, and we wear our conviviality ^^with a dif- 
ference*" Without any wish to institute odious com- 
parisons, and indeed with a certain awe and bewilder- 
ment, we state the fsict that coffee is the beverage 
of modem revel, and that by choice of the revellers 
themselves. Now, we call upon old boys to confess, 
that when they were familiar with the various brands 
of negus that steamed in the famous big punch jugs, 
they were not over respectful in their comments on the 
same ; they had opprobious names for it, they professed 
abhorrence of it, and they showed their contempt of it 
by drinking their full allowance and as much more as 
they could surreptitiously obtain. This much, how- 
ever, may be dispassionately conceded as to the brew : 
that it was not calculated in itself to foster tastes which 
might afterwards develop into talents for intemperance. 
Nevertheless, there is no true Gregorian of that date 
who would not at times exchange the most fascinating 
vintage for a mug of James's tuck-night brew. It is 
long since we have looked upon the negus that is black ; 
but has anyone still the secret of compounding it so 
that one shall not know where the taste of the cinnamon 
begins and that of claret corks ends ? or is there now 

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grown a vintage so generous that it will leave rich 
mauve colouring on the mug that is discovered, say 
in one of the playroom boxes, on the morning after 
a feast ? 

With the change in the baser elements of the revel, 
has come a corresponding development in the decorum 
of the proceedings. To take only the detail under con- 
sideration: there is no one now who owns a song. 
The proprietorship of a song was attained by a right 
of prescription, which itself sprang from the popular 
verdict assigning the essential fitness of the song to 
the singer and the singer to the song. It would be hard 
to say where this fitness lay. Not in what we call a 
poetical distribution or aesthetic adaptation of ,the one 
to the other. Take, for instance, the lay of the ** Old 
Carrion Crow " long associated with Father Oswald 
Davis, of venerated memory — no association could be 
less congruous. For the benefit of modern ignorance, 
we will narrate the motif of the ballad. A tailor 
engaged in repairing a cloak perceived a carrion 
crow settled on an adjacent oak-tree. The remote 
date of the occurrence may be surmised from the 
fact that he asked for bow and quiver, to slay it. To 
be sure, a cloth-yard arrow has sartorial suggestions ; 
but there is no evidence that the author of the verse 
had this consideration in his mind. The tailor calls to 
his wife to bring him the weapons — which in itself is 
suggestive of the feudal times, when the lady buckled 
her lord's sword to his knightly waist. In the subse- 
quent event, as we might anticipate, **the tailor he 
shot and he missed his mark ; " for the little leisure his 
occupation could leave him for venatorial exploits would 
make such an outcome probable. The result was ca* 
lamitous, for *'he shot the old sow right through the 
heart." How near the unfortunate victim was to the 




intended prey is not mentioned. It could not have 
been in the oak-tree, for climbing pigs are a modern 
development, and are, as far as we know, confined to 
the antipodes ; and besides, the age of the sow puts 
the very supposition out of question. The taste of the 
porcine species for acorns would sufficiently account 
for its presence in the vicinity. One thing that sur- 
prises us is the power with wiiich the tailor sped his 
bolt, which not merely reached the victim's cardial 
organ, but pierced it through. This gives greater pro- 
bability to the supposition that the sow was near the 
oak, and not in the adjacent parish. What follows, 
throws an interesting light on the ideas of that period 
upon first help to the wounded. Again with a medi- 
aeval authoritativeness, he bids his spouse *' bring some 
brandy in a spoon." We are thrown at once into the 
economic conditions of the age, by the sparingness of 
the remedy to be applied. The use of such a stimu- 
lant as brandy is not confined to past ages only, and 
calls for no further comment than that there would be 
a reluctance in many, at the present day, to ^^ waste 
good liquor " on such a subject. The choice of brandy 
for a temporary heart failure, such as the phrase 
** gone off (or ** fallen " is it ?) in a swoon " insinuates, 
is otherwise quite commendable. But here we own 
to a partial misgiving. A swoon is not, to our limited 
knowledge in such matters, of frequent occurrence in 
farm-yard patients. True, the author of the **Ancren 
Riwle" gives us the remarkable information that the 
sparrow is liable to the falling-sickness ; but if we may 
judge firom the astounding vitality of the modern spar- 
row, that can only have been a temporary phase in the 
history of the bird. Could the frustrated sportsman 
have been in some fear of his wife's reception of the 
calamitous result of his want of skill, and have 




resorted to an equivocation, if not to deliberate decep- 
tion ? In absence of definite proof we must give him 
the benefit of the doubt. Quite possibly swooningf 
was extended to the lower animals in those days, since 
it was of very frequent practice even with the highest 
models of chivalrous prowess. The remedy must have 
proved unavailing ; for the song proceeds to tell briefly 
of the demise of the sow, adding the circumstance that 
the bells tolled the parting knelK It would be un&ir, 
without further corroborative evidence, to conclude 
that the latter was of common practice. It is quite 
within the bounds of possibility that the tailor may 
have combined the office of sexton with his ordinary 
vocation, and may have tolled the bell to relieve his 
feelings, or to drown the comments of the good-wife 
when she came to learn the truth of the case, as she 
must eventually have done. A pretty £aincy brings the 
poem to a pious conclusion by making the young 
farrow *^ squeak for the old sow's soul." This touch 
is quite in keeping with the spirit which produced the 
^^ fabliaux" narrating the gests and discourses of the 
animal race. We leave to others who have the leisure 
and inclination for such research, to pursue the obvious 
correlation of this last incident with the ^^ learned pig'* 
of more recent times. Thus, in brief, the old song. 

Now, what link of reasonableness attached this song 
to dear Father Oswald ? The tailor b, by the bfest 
authenticated tradition, a poor starveling of a man, and 
Father Oswald was the very embodiment of vitality. 
The short, thick-set body, the bright observant eye, 
the intent onwardness of his walk, which always gave 
the conviction that he was bent on some definite pur- 
pose, all produced the impression of one who possessed 
a fixed object in life, and who, in modem phrase, 
would ** arrive." No trace was found in his voice of 




the pathos and melancholy which the subject matter of 
the song demanded. How the full sonorous notes 
still ring in memory's ear, and the resolute unswerving 
countenance still fills the eye ! He had the indispens- 
able gift of remaining obdurately impervious to the 
effects of his singing ; and the high-curved eyebrows 
added a look of surprise to his expression, which was 
mightily in keeping with the occasion. The modern 
song is dependent upon piano accompaniment, and the 
modem comic singer seems to be dependent on facial 
contortions and exaggerations of delivery, which place 
him and his song on a much lower level than the old- 
time artist. 

John Board, the singer of the printed song, was 
equally out of harmony with its theme. There was 
indeed a touch of the Viking in his blue eye, in his 
weather-wrinkled face and out-thrusting beard ; but 
we can safely say that the latter was not wagged by the 
tempest as an habitual practice. A shrewd, honest, 
kindly face, and one which we ruefully miss from our 
celebrations and festivities. At one time he was coy 
and could not be persuaded to sing his song. But that 
was a mere passing disposition. As a rule he sang it 
willingly, and with that stern air of application to duty 
which we have noticed above in Father Oswald. He 
gave the impression, however, that he thought worthier 
things of his vocalisation than '*Bill Bowling." On 
more than one occasion he tried to get someone to play 
an accompaniment to a patriotic song called '^The 
Englishman," a florid tuneful piece, which those who 
remember it will date back to the sixties. But the 
public, like the spoilt child that it is, would have none 
of his seriousness, but insisted on the song, with 
** Morrison's Vegetable Pills," or *' I married a wife," 
as encores. As we read over the verses of **Bill 




Bowling** the voice and features vividly come back to 
us ; chin thrust forward, eyes half-closed, and the 
funny wagging of the beard resultant therefrom, and 
again an abstraction from the surrounding company 
only achieved by visible efFort. And the voice! the 
full mouthing of the syllables, the crisp snapping off 
of the final consonant, the sonorous prolongation of 
certain words ; it was all undeniably clever ; it was 
inimitably funny ; in short it was John Board and Bill 
Bowling, a combination unique in the annals of 
Downside song. 

Two photographs of John Board are in existence in 
Downside circles. One is to be found in a group 
of Exhibition visitors, published in the Downside 
Review of July, 1887 ; the other in the photograph 
taken at the Centenary of St. Gr^ory in August, 
1890. Mr. Board is with the group gathered on the 
Petre Cloister. To secure his being seen he stood 
on the low parapet at the back of the cloister, with 
the effect that he towers like a finial over the whole 
group, and being somewhat out of focus, shews 
a dreamy, ghostlike presentment. His face turned 
to one side has that appearance of abstraction above 
noted as one of the characteristics of his singing. 
Those who have it will value the photograph as a 
remembrance of a true son of St. Gregory's. Those 
who have it not may find the song we print an 
efficient substitute to recall a scene which lives now only 
in memory, but which grows more vivid, and is prized 
the more, as new scenes and new customs grow up 
around us. 

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TIjjQI ALSiNGHAM coiijures Up, to onc and all, so many 
memories as a place of pilgrimage in the pre- 
reformation days, that it would be superfluous to recount 
here the spiritual wonders and artistic treasures which 
made it famous previous to its suppression. And we 
cannot but recall, too, how even that monarch, Henry 
VIII, to whom, in his rapacity, its downfall was due, 
in his youth cherished, like his pious father, a lively 
devotion to our Lady under the invocation of Walsing- 
ham. In token of that devotion, he journeyed thither, 
early in his reign, walking barefoot from Barsham ; 
and on that occasion he presented a valuable necklace 
for the adornment of its famous and venerated image. 
The gift was doubtless resumed into the royal ex- 
chequer on the suppression of the shrine, together 
with much other treasure ; but the fact remains that 
Henry was only the last of a long list of monarchs 
who had there paid their devotions and homage to 
the incomparable mother of our Redeemer. In thus 
acting, he and they had merely followed an impulse 
common to countless multitudes of his own and his 
predecessors' subjects, not to mention devotees from 
all parts of the Christian world, who had journeyed 
to this remote corner of Norfolk, drawn thither by the 
peculiar sanctity of the spot that disputed with Can- 
terbury, and even Loretto itself, the veneration of the 
whole Catholic world. Erasmus bears eloquent wit- 
ness to this homage and its outward manifestation on 
the very eve of the dissolution of the monasteries and 
pious shrines. 

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Very little information illustrative of the special form 
which the devotion of the people assumed has, how- 
ever, survived to our times. But just as it is on 
record that Henry walked barefoot from Barsham, 
so did all who made the pilgrimage follow his illus- 
trious example ; or to state it more correctly, both he 
and they observed a usage that had come down to 
them from their forefathers through time immemorial. 
But what special devotions occupied their time and 
filled their thoughts as they traced their penitential 
way? The legend of the miraculous foundation of 
Walsingham, here offered to the readers of the Down- 
side Review^ was probably as has been suggested, a 
rude poem used as a sort of processional hymn, 
chanted by the bands of pilgrims as they walked, 
something after the manner of the hymn so well 
known and in such constant use at Lourdes. Such 
a hymn so used could certainly not fail in arousing 
the devotion of the clients of Mary to a high pitch of 
enthusiasm as they neared the English Loretto, the 
goal of their pilgrimage, after having divested them- 
selves of their shoes at the Slipper Chapel (now so 
happily restored). 

Many of the allusions in the following legend would 
seem to point to the probability that it was the work of 
a local poet, and was intended mainly for local use. It 
is, therefore, to be criticised, not according to strictly 
literary standards, but the reader must bear in mind that 
Though it halte in meter and eloquence, 
It is here wrytten to do hyr reverence 

only, and the sole purpose of its reproduction in these 
pages is to afford our readers an opportunity of making 
themselves acquainted with a very rare and interesting 
specimen of the aids to devotion employed by our 
Catholic forefathers. 

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A Legend of Walsingham. 259 

This little poem appeared in print more than a 
quarter of a century ago, in a collection of ** Fugitive 
Poetical Tracts.'' As, however, that series of reprints 
was intended for private circulation only, and the 
number of impressions was purposely very limited, but 
few persons are probably aware of its existence.' 

The Editor, in his introduction, states that the tract 
was first mentioned by Hartshorne in his Book Rarities 
of the University of Cambridge, 8vo^ i82g. It is also 
entered in Hazlitt's Handbook^ 1867, p. 422. It was, 
however, unknown to our earlier bibliographers and 
typographical antiquaries. Mr. Huth made his reprint 
from an original impression, dating back to 1493, and 
which is, so far as experts and bibliographers are aware, 
the only copy known to be in existence. This unique 
tract is now preserved in the Library of Magdalen 
College, Cambridge. It is a product of the press of 
Richard Pynson, printer to Henry VII., and consists 
of four leaves without any regular title, Richard Pynson 's 
'* Mark " occupying the first and last pages. 

Special attention is directed to the following lines 
contained in it : — 

O Bnglonde, great cause thou hast glad for to be 

To be called in every realme and regyon 

The holy land our ladyes dowre 

Thus art thou named of old antyquyte. 

They afford additional confirmation, if, indeed, that 
confirmation were needed, of England's glorious title. 
The late Fr. Bridgett, C.SS.R., does not seem to have 
been aware of the existence of this ancient tract when 
he published his book on Our Lady's Dowry. A new 
edition of that work might suitably include this legend 

■ FugiHvt Poetical Tracts. Edited by Henry Huth. Ist Series : printed for 
private ctrcnUtion (1875). 50 copies only. 

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within its pages. Mr. Orby Shipley, too, might be 
glad to find a place for it in any further additions he 
may one day make to his compilation, entitled Carmina 

With these few words of introduction, the little poem, 
being without a name, is here presented under the tide 

A LegentL 

OF this chapell se here the fiindacyon, 
Bylded the yere of Crystes incamacyon 
A thousand complete S3ncty and one. 
The tyme of Sent Edward Viyng of this regyon. 

Beholde and se, ye goostly folkes all, 
Which to this place have devocyon, 
When ye to our lady askynge socoure call, 
Desyrynge here hir helpe in your trybulacyon. 
Of this hir chapell ye may se the fundacyon. 
If ye wyll this table o verse and rede, 
How by myracle it was founded in dede. 

A noble wydowe, sometyme lady of this towne, 
Called Eychold, in lyvynge full vertuous, 
Desyred of oure lady a petycyoune, 
Hir to honoure with some werke bountyous. 
This blyssid virgyu and lady most gracyous 
Graunted hir petycyon, as I shall after tell, 
Unto her worschyp to edifye this chapell. 

In spyryte our lady to Nazareth hir led, 

And shewed hir the place where Gabryel hir grette, 

*' Lo, doughter, consyder," to hir our lady sayde, 

'* Of thys place take thou suerly the mette ; [measure] 

Another lyke thys at Walsingham thou sette, 

Unto my laud and synguler honoure. 

All that me seche there shall fynde socoure." 

•' Where shall be hadde in a memoryall 
The great joy of my salutacyon ; 
First of my joyes, grounde and orygynall. 
Rote of mankynde's gracyous redempcyon ; 

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Whan Gabryell gave to me relacyon 
To be a moder, through hymylyte, 
And Goddys son conceyve in virgynyte/' 

This visyon shewed thryse to this devout woman, 
In mynde well she marked both length and brede. 
She was full gladde and thanked oure lady than, 
Of hir great grace, never destytute in nede. 
This forsayd hour in haste she thought to spede ; 
Called to hir artyfycers full wyse 
This chapell to forge, as our lady dyd devyse. 

All this a medewe [meadow], wete with dropes celestyall 

And with sylver dewe sent from hye adowne, 

Bxcepte tho tweyne places chosen above all. 

Where neyther moyste ne dewe might be fowne. 

This was the fyrste pronostycacyowne 

Howe this our newe Nazareth here shulde stande, 

Bylded lyke the fyrste in the holy lande. 

When it was al fourmed, then had she great doute 
Where it shold be sette, and in what maner place ; 
Inasmoche as tweyne places were founde out. 
Tokened with myracle of our ladyes grace : 
That is to say, tweyne quadrates of egall space, 
As the flees of Gedeon, in the wete beynge drye, 
Assygned by myracle of holy mayde Marye. 

The wydowe thought it most lykly of congruence 

This house on the fyrste soyle to bylde and arere. 

Of this who lyste to have experyence, 

A chapell of Saynt Laurence standeth nowe there 

Paste by twe3me wellys, experyence doth this lere [teach]. 

There she thought to have set this chapell. 

Which was begonne by our ladyes counsell. 

The carpenters began to set the fundamente, 

This hevenly house to arere up on hye ; 

But sone their werkes shewed inconvenyente ; 

For no pece with other wolde agre with geometrye. 

Than were they all sory and full of agonye. 

That they coud not ken, neyther mesure ne marke. 

To joyne togedyr their owne proper werke. 

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They went to reste and layde all thyng^ on sf^ 

As they on their maystresse had a comaundement. 

She thought our lady, that fyrste was hir gyde. 

Wold convey this worke aftir hir owne entent. 

Hir meny [work-people] to reste as for that nyght she sente, 

And prayed our lady, with devoute exclamacyon. 

As she had begonne, to perfourme [finish] that hab3rtacyon. 

All nyghte the wydowe permanynge [persisting] in this prayer, 

Oure blyssed lady, with hevenly mynystris, 

Hir sylfe beynge here chyef artyfycer, 

Areryd this sayd house with aungellys handys ; 

And not only reryd it, but set it there it is ; 

That is, two hundred fote and more in dystaunce 

From the fyrste place bokes make remembraunce« 

Erly whan the artyfycers cam to their travayle. 
Of this sayd chapell to have made an ende. 
They found eche parte conjoyned, sauns fayle. 
Better than they coude conceyve it in mynde. 
Thus eche man home agayne dyd wynde, 
And this holy matrone thanked our lady 
Of hir great grace, shewyd here specyally. 

And syth, here our lady hath shewed many myrade 

Innumerable nowe here, for to expresse 

To suche as visyte thys hir habytacle. 

Ever lyke newe to them that call hir in dystresse ; 

Foure hundred yere and more, the cronacle to witnes, 

Hath endured this notable pylgrymage. 

Where grace is dayly shewyd to men of every age. 

Many seke ben here cured by our ladyes myghte, 
Dede agayne rev3rved, of this is no dought. 
Lame made hole and blynde restored to syght, 
Maryners vexed with tempest safe to port brought, 
Defe, wounde and lunatyke, that hyder have sought 
And also lepers here recovered have be. 
By our ladyes grace of their infirmyte. 

Folke that of fendys have had acombraunce, 
And of wycked spyrytes also moche vexacyon, 
Have here be delyvered from every such chaunce. 
And soules greatly vexed with gostely temptacion 
Lo, here the chyef solace agaynst all tribulacyon, 

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To all that be seke, bodely or goostly» 
Callynge to our lady devoutly. 

Therefore, every pylgryme, gyve your attendaunce 
Our Lady here to serve with humble afFecyon ; 
Your sylfe ye applye to do hir plesaunce, 
Remeinbr3mge the greate joye of hir Annunciacion ; 
Therwyth concevynge this bryef compylacyon, 
Though it halte in meter and eloquence, 
It is here wryten to do hyr reverence. 

All lettred that wyll have more intellygence 

Of the fimdacyon of this chapell here. 

If ye wyll aske, kokes [bokes ?] shall you encence 

More clerely to understande this forsayd matere. 

To you shall delare the cronyclere 

All cyrcumstaunce, by a noble processe, 

Howe olde cronyclers of thys here wytnesse. 

O Englonde, great cause thou hast glad for to be 

Compared to the londe of promyssyon ; 

Thou atteynest by grace to stande in that degre 

Through this gloryous ladyes supportacyon : 

To be called, in every realme and regyon. 

The holy lande, our ladyes dowre ; 

Thus arte thou named of old antyqu(y)te. 

And this is the cause, as it apereth by lyklynesse. 
In the is belded newe Nazareth, a mancyon 
To the honoure of the hevenly empresse. 
And of hir most gloryous salutacyon, 
Chyef pryncypall and grounde of oure salvacyon ; 
Whan Gabryell said, at olde Nazareth, Ave ; 
This joy here dayly remembred for to be. 

O gracyous lady, glory of Jerusalem, 
C3rpresse of Syon and joye of Israel ; 
Rose of Jeryco and sterre of Bethleem ; 
O gloryous lady, our askynge not repell. 
In mercy all wymen ever thou dost excell ; 
Therfore, blyssid lady, graunt thou thy great grace 
To all that the devoutly vis3rte in this place. 


H. N. BiRT. 

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'^f^HE counties of Dorset, Devon and Cornwall, which 
VU form the modem diocese of Plymouth, have 
from time to time since the overthrow of religion in 
the sixteenth century been the scene of Benedictine 
missionary work, though in a less degree than many 
other parts of England. The monastic glories of this 
district belong to an earlier date. The county of 
Dorset in particular comprised within its bounds in 
olden times as noble a group of abbeys as was to be 
met with in so limited an area in any part of Christen- 
dom, abbeys whose foundations were laid in the early 
days of English Christianity, and whose erection 
marked the advance of the conquering race into the 
western lands still held by the remnants of the ancient 
British people. There was Cerne, linked in legend 
with the preaching of our apostle St. Augustine ; 
Abbotsbury, near Weymouth ; Middleton or Milton, 
near Blandford ; and Sherborne Abbey, once a bishop's 
see sanctified by the labours of St. Aldhelm and St. 
Wulsin. Of priories, there was first of all Cranborne, 
the original home of the great community at Tewkes- 
bury, where the Severn and the Warwickshire Avon 
mingle their historic floods ; Horton, a cell under 
Sherborne Minster, and Holme, a Cluniac dependency 

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of Montacute in Somerset. Nor must we forget Shaftes- 
bury, in dignity of foundation and vast possessions 
perhaps the most notable nunnery in England ; though 
in saintly interest and in its services in the evangeliza- 
tion of Germany its vanished compeer, Wimbome 
Minster, must be assigned a higher place. Add to 
these the two houses of Cistercian observance, Bindon, a 
place for monks and Tarrant, an abbey of nuns, and the 
tale of St. Benedict's patrimony in Dorset is complete. 

In inverse ratio to this pre-reformation importance and 
dignity was the share of the county in the later annals 
of the order. Few of its sons found their way to the 
English cloisters on the continent ; in fact but four of 
the members of the English Benedictine Congregation 
are to be identified as natives of Dorset. All of them 
were professed at St. Gregory's at Douay. Of the 
first of these, D. Anselm Touchet, second son of 
the Earl of Castlehaven, a native of Stalbridge, pro- 
fessed in 1643, we have already had^occasion to speak.' 
Fifty-five years later another Dorset man made his 
profession. Brother Richard Lanning, who died before 
ordination in 1706 (June 21st). D. Edward Hussey, 
who follows him, was a member of the family of that 
name, long seated at Nash Court in Marnhull ; he 
took his vows in 1731, and after mission work in 
divers places moved from Marlborough in Wilts to his 
native place in 1785, and died therein 1786 (Feb. 25).* 

' Downside Eruirw, voL xv. (1896), p. 261 ; see vol. xvi., p. 80, for a correc- 
tion and additional information. I am sorry to be unable to contribute the 
date of his death, as there requested. It was probably before 1768 — see 
Oliver's " Western Collection," p. 422. 

* A place must certainly some day be found in this Review for an illustrated 
article on a distinguished artist, a member of this family and an ornament of 
St. Gregory's, Giles Hussey, who died in 1788. Dame Cecilia Hussey, of this 
fiBunily, who was bom in 1652, became a nun in our convent at Cambray, and 
after ruling her house as Abbess (1694-97 and 1705-1710), died April 9, 1721. 




Our last name is that of D. John Laurence Barnes, 
born in 17489 and enrolled among the professed mem- 
bers of St. Gregory's in 1768. After seven years' work 
at St. Peter's, Seel St., Liverpool (1790-97), he returned 
to his native county and died at Shaftesbury, May 31, 
1803, aged 55 years. 

To such slight service as Fr. Edward Hussey was 
able to render at Marnhull in the last few months of 
his life, and Fr. Laurence Barnes at Shaftesbury, there 
was little added in the way of Benedictine work in the 
Dorsetshire mission till near the middle of the last 
century, when the veteran Father Richard Adrian 
Towers in 1841 took up his abode at Poole, where a 
new church had been opened about two years pre- 
viously.3 He served the mission till his death on the 
5th of March, 1844. 

For some years there was no Benedictine to succeed 
him in the county, as it was not till 1853 that D. Basil 
Thomas, a monk of Ampleforth, was placed in charge 
of the mission at Chideock. He was carried off by a 
premature death in his fortieth year before twelve 
months were past (Sept. 7, 1853). D. Wilfrid Price, 
a monk of SS. Adrian and Denis, the old Lambspring 
foundation revived at Broadway in Worcestershire and 
now merged in St. Benedict's at Fort Augustus, who 
had been sent to attend him on his death-bed, succeeded 
him at his post ; but being transferred to Coventry 
fifteen months later, his place was taken (Nov. 8, 1854) 
by D. Placid Sinnot, whose memory is still green. In 
1859 Father Price was back again at Chideock, and 
there remained till his removal in 1864 to Bridgend in 

3 Oliver, p. 42. 

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Thr Engush Benedictine missions. 267 

Spetisbury near Blandford, for many years the home 
of the community of Canonesses now settled at Abbots- 
leigh in Devonshire and now in the hands of the Lateran 
Canons, was served occasionally by the Benedictines. 
D. Augustine Harrison, who died at Downside in 1846, 
was chaplain here for some time before his death, and 
D. Stephen Barber, another Gregorian, was assistant 
here for a couple of years (1845-47).* 

To this meagre record of the modern connection be- 
tween this county and the Benedictine order there is 
but little to add. Bishop Baines, O.S.B., took up his 
abode at No. 4, Belvidere, Weymouth, soon after his 
consecration in May, 1823, and attended at the same 
time to the needs of the scanty catholic congregation 
of that town. Mamhull was for some years ( 1 795- 1 807 ) 
the home of the English Benedictine Nuns of Paris, 
and now of St. Benedict's Priory, Colwich, Stafford- 
shire ; and at Stapehill near Wimbome a community of 
Trappistine nuns, which was established in 1802, still 
perpetuates the austere virtues of its saintly founders. 
St. Susan's Abbey at Lul worth, the home of the Trap- 
pist monks exiled during the French Revolution, may 
be regarded as the mother-house of almost all the 
modern Trappist foundations. 

Passing westwards into Devonshire, we come, as in 
so many other parts of England, on the traces of the 
old religious. The cathedral city of Exeter is full of 
memorials of their widespread influence and activity : 
the cathedral itself was in its early days a church 
of monks till St. Edward the Confessor removed the 
community to people the great abbey of St. Peter at 
Westminster, which his piety had refounded. The city 

4 Dr. Oliver gives a short account of a Camaldolese Benedictine who 
served Spetisbury for some tinne before 1838 ; D. Gregory (John Aloysius), 
Swarbrick. Western Collections, p. 417. 

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possessed, too, the priory of St. Nicholas ; and about 
half-a-mile from the walls stood the some-dme alien 
house of St. Andrew at Cowick, originally a cell of 
Bee, which by becoming ** denizen " saved itself from 
the fate which overtook so many similar institutions.^ 
Near the Cornish boundary rose lordly Tavistock^ 
westernmost of the great English abbeys, famed for its 
church and schools and printing press ; on the banks 
of the Dart stood the priory of Totnes ; the monks 
of Malmesbury had a cell at Pilton ; Barnstaple and 
Carswell were houses of Cluniac origin, the latter a 
dependency of Montacute in Somerset. The nuns of 
Polslo conclude the list of the house of the Black 

Their white-robed brethren of Cistercian origin were 
no less strongly represented in the county; their abbeys 
of Ford, Dunkeswell, Newenham, Buckfast and 
Buckland forming as remarkable a group and as 
proud a memorial of later Norman piety as the 
galaxy of Benedictine houses in the neighbouring 
county of Dorset formed of early English faith and 

From this fair land, sanctified of old by these twelve 
houses of religion, there came in the dark days which 
followed their downfall just so many, no more, no 
fewer, men of Devonshire birth, to don the Benedictine 
habit and keep alive the belief and traditions of past 
ages. The way was led by Dom Robert Amandus 
Fermor, a student of the English College, Douay, who 
was priested in 1609, and joined the community of St 
Laurence in Lorraine in 16 13, or thereabouts, when in 
exile for his faith. On his return to England his 

^ It possessed the shrine of <* Saint Walter of Cowick/* a Norwich man bf 
birth who became a monk here ; Dr. Oliver in his Monasticon ExonUntt thinks 
he may have been the first prior on record, circa A.D. 1190. There was a rdic 
of the holy man in the Glastoobury treasury. 

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The Engush Benedictine missions, 269 

missionary life seems to have been passed chiefly in 
prison.^ He died in London, November 20th, 1628. 
Another of the same family name, Br. Maurus Fermor, 
died in 1689 (March 9) in his monastery of St. Laurence, 
three years after his profession. To St. Laurence's 
belonged also Father Francis Hull, who made his 
profession in 1615. His religious life was passed 
entirely on the Continent ; he died in the English 
priory of St. Benedict in the city of St. Malo on the 
the last day of the year 1645. Two members of a 
good Devonshire family, and one devoted to the main- 
tenance of the ancient faith, soon followed the example 
of the above. The Fursdons of Thorverton gave to 
the order Dom Cuthbert and Dom Thomas; the former 
was professed at St. Gregory's in 1620, and died in 
London, February 2, 1638 ; the latter joined St. 
Laurence's, taking his vows there in the same year 
as his brother at Douay, and dying at Dieulouard, 
December 23, 1677. Father Cuthbert Fursdon, known 
on the mission as Mr. Breton, figures largely in the 
biography of Lady Falkland, wife of Viscount Falkland, 
and mother of ^'the great Lord Falkland," so celebrated 
in the struggle between Royalist and Roundhead under 
Charles L This worthy monk it was who brought 
Lady Falkland's daughters into the church ; a man he 
was *^by all the Catholics and Protestants that knew 

7 I do not know whether he was ever in prison at Exeter. If that were the 
case, and if things had not changed from what they were a few years earlier, 
his sufferings most have been terrible. When Father Lewthwaite, S.J., was 
confined in Exeter Castle, in 1604, for refusing the oath of supremacy, "eighty 
men and women were huddled together in one filthy dungeon, where they 
were all chained by the feet to an iron ring in such a manner that they could 
only just change their position by sitting, standing or lying down. They 
were eaten up by vermin and surrounded by filth, which they had no means 
of removing, and the Jesuit's hands and face were so much swollen that he 
could not sleep for pain, whilst the stench made food loathsome.'* — Waters' 
Pariih Rtgisitr^ p. 63. 

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him and were capable of judging, esteemed to have an 
excellent wit and judgment^ and to be an exceeding 
good scholar, her eldest son using to affirm of him 
that if he had not had an admirable memory and an 
extraordinary gift of making use of what he had read, 
he could not possibly have benefited himself so much 
in the time he could have studied, being no elder ; for 
when he died four or five years after, he was but about 
thirty-three. He had been a monk from about sixteen 
or seventeen, and a very exemplary one ; about five and 
twenty was sent into England for his health, and had 
been twice or thrice recalled from thence before this 
(which he ever much desired, using to affirm himself, 
like St. Anselm, to be an owl out of his monastery), but 
by God's merciful providence was stayed. He then led 
a life of so much edification, that it drew esteem and 
praise from the earnestest Protestants ; and some such 
friends of theirs who knew him would often say it was 
the sanctity of his life that had deceived them (but not 
that they esteemed it not real, for they believed him to 
be most sincere), and that had they met with any other 
than him they had never been Papists ; that they were 
sure there were no more such priests among them. 
And no question it did give authority to his words, 
when there was occasion to rely on the truth of his 
saying in anything; and was the cause of their choosing 
him to speak to (to whom three of them had never 
spoke before at all) when they had by accident, or 
rather by God's especial providence, occasion to make 
question of religion : when his humble sanctity did 
allay the apprehension they had to manifest their 
simplicities, which they could not have had the power 
to have done to any whom they had thought never so 
holy, had he not appeared to them, like him, not to be of 
the world ; besides the assistance his prayer gave to 



Thr Engush Benedictine missions. 271 

his work. Yet he did no extraordinary outward thing 
(being ever sickly, and careful to recover his health, 
out of his desire to return to his monastery ; yet so as 
when the remedies he sought had a contrary effect, he 
seemed as fully content as if it had been that he had 
pretended), only he did observe much abstraction and 
recollection ; and those ordinary things he did seemed 
to receive a grace from within, appearing to proceed 
from, and be directed and ordered by, no ordinary in- 
terior. His passing from a holy fear to that height of 
holy charity which expels fear, seemed to show itself, 
apparently, in that about three years before he died, 
having a great and dangerous sickness, he showed in 
it (though with resignation and hope) much sense of 
fear, often encouraging himself by the memory and 
example of St. Hilarion in the same occasion : fre- 
quently with fear repeating that saying of St. Paul : 
Nihil conscitis sum, sed in hoc non justificaitis sum ; 
and ever desiring those that came to see him to pray 
he might die in the state of grace. But after, coming 
to die of a consumption, at the beginning of which 
having given over hope of recovery, and not judging 
his life to be long, or further serviceable to his Con- 
gregation, he desired at least to die in the service of 
God and it, and to that end besought his superior to 
impose on him the charge of assisting those sick of the 
plague (which was then in London) ; which being 
denied him, he from that time gave over all study but 
that of the Bible, the works of Blosius, and his Rule 
(the spirit of which he daily more and more highly 
admired), spending from thence the rest of his life 
entirely in order to his spirit which he had ever much 
regarded but did now wholly and only attend to it ; and 
coming to die, he did earnestly desire death, but most 
resignedly : and whereas before he had much feared 

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sudden death, he did now covet that by which he migfht 
most speedily pass to God ; which with a great but 
humble confidence he hoped to do, cheerfully promising* 
his prayers and help in the next world to those that 
asked him. And in the continual exercise of love and 
resignation, having most devoutly received all the 
Sacraments, and with great love to holy poverty 
desired that not the least of those little things he 
had might be disposed of but by the will of his 
superior, after a strong agony of three hours, his 
senses and devotion continuing to the last, he died 
happily by the grace of God." • 

Among D. Cuthbert Fursdon's fellow religious at 
Douay were two others from Devonshire, the fruits, 
perhaps, like himself, of Father Augustine Baker's 
labours in the west country. These were D. Robert 
Amandus Southcot and D. John Byfleet or Worsley, 
both professed in 1624 ; the former died at Bidwell, 
near Exeter, June 8, 1653 ; ^ the latter, at Stourton, 
Wilts, August 29th, 1 70 1. The next four Devonians 
to join the English Benedictines found their way to 
the abbey of Lamspring ; D. Edward Salisbury, born 
in 1685 and professed in 1703, died at Farmcote, in 
Gloucestershire, in 1725 ; D. Augustine Dunscombe, 
who was professed in 1722, and died in his monastery 
(December 6, 1736), and two brothers of the name 
of Ballyman, converts both of them ; the elder, D. 
John Gregory, born in 1734 and professed in 1754, 

" Lifi of Lady Falkland^ edited by Richard Simpson, pp. 59, 61. 

' Dr. Oliver gives (CoUtcHimt^ p. 8) a letter of Richard Reyneli, of Creedy 
Wiger, near Crediton, a persecuting lawyer and justice of the peace, to the 
Mayor and Aldermen of Exeter, stating that he had issued warrants *' for the 
arrest of Southcot^ Hill &c/' The letter is undated, but is probably too early 
to refer to D. Amandus Southcot, who at the probable date of the letter, aboot 
1621, had not then brought himself within peril of the law. 

Digitized by 


THE Engush Benedictine Missions. 273 

lived and died at Lamspring (July 23, 181 1); the 
second, D, Thomas, who was three years younger 
than his brother, came into the mission and died at 
Bath, August 6, 1795. The last of the twelve was 
Father Augustine Clifford (Edward Charles, fifth son 
of the sixth Lord Clifford, Baron of Chudleigh). Four 
years after his profession at Ampleforth in 1823, he 
was ordained priest, and after some missionary service 
at Bungay and Netherton, passed to the Mauritius in 
1832. His work in that distant dependency was chiefly 
in Port Louis and at Mahebourg. He died at the 
latter place on October 22nd, 1843.'** 

Modern Benedictine mission work in Devonshire 
seems to have begun in the spring of 1620, in Cadbury 
parish in North Devon, at Fursdon, the seat of Mr. 
Philip Fursdon ; and the first missioner was that 
remarkable ascetic and master of the spiritual life — 
Father Augustine Baker. His biographers have some- 
thing to say of the influence of this saintly teacher in 
Devonshire, short though his stay there was ; of his 
fidelity to his work and calling when violently tempted 
to abandon both ; of his success in winning souls to 
God, not by controversy but by inducing them to pray 
— it was thus he converted the Protestant mother-in- 
law of his host — and of the love of the religious state 
and interior perfection which he implanted in many 
hearts ; in Mr. Fursdon's eldest son, for example, the 
Father Cuthbert of whom we have spoken above ; who 

^ Dr. Oliver {ColUciums, p. 434) gives an additional name» but I can not 
identify it as belonging to any member of the English Benedictine body. 
" Martin Westcombe, O.S.B., of Devonshire. He had been Bachelor of Arts 
in the University of Toulouse, as we learn from Wood's Atheiue Oxon,^ in the 
reign of King Charles I., and for a time abandoned his religious profession : 
but soon after went beyond the seas, and returned to his former religion, as 
some of the ancients of Exeter College (into which he had been incorporated) 
have told me." Vol. I., p. 544. 

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in turn passed on to F. Serenus Cressy, as that dis» 
tinguished writer invariably acknowledged, the monastic 
traditions of prayer and work which Father Baker was 
so instrumental in encouraging among the members of 
the restored English Benedictine Congregation." 

Before his departure for London, Fr. Baker intro- 
duced to the harassed catholic families of Devonshire 
his most illustrious disciple, Father Philip Fowel, 
O.S.B., the future martyr. Father Powel's chief 
abode was with the Risdons, at Bableigh, in the parish 
of Parkham, in North Devon ; from thence as a centre 
he evangelised, at peril of his life, all that country- 
side, and converted so many in the parishes of 
Parkham St. James (a place six miles from Bideford) 
and Yeamscombe (six miles from Great Torrington), 
^* that he had to send for five more of his own order to 
assist him, the charge was so great."" About 1625 
or 1626, on the marriage of a daughter of Mr. Fursdon 
to Mr. Poyntz of Leighland, near Old Cleeve in 
Somerset, Fr. Powel removed to that place, though 
circumstances often obliged him to go into Devonshire, 
where he had made so many fast friends. On the 
outbreak of the civil war he was the honoured guest 
for a time of Mr. John Trevelyan of Yeamscombe and 
of Mr. John Coffin of Parkham, staying among them 
for three or four months, and then for six months 
following Goring's army, which a great part of his 
flock had joined, till, on the disbanding of that force, he 
was seized at sea as he was sailing from Cornwall to 
Wales, and charged with having ^^ seduced the greater 
part" of the parishes of Parkham and Yeamscombe 
from their allegiance to the state church. 

" See D. Sweeney's Ufi 9/ FoAtr Baker, pp. 35, 41. 

*• MS. Life of Father Philip Powel, in Weldon's CoUectioos. 

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The bngush benrdictinm missions. 27S 

Bidwell, three miles from Exeter, in the parish of 
Newton St. Cyre, the seat of Mr. Thomas Kirkham, the 
only catholic gentleman of the county who came to pay 
his respects, at the New Inn, Exeter, when Cosmo III., 
Duke of Tuscany, visited Exeter in April, 1669, was for 
a long time the home of one or other of the missionary 
fathers of the Benedictine order. Dom Amandus 
Southcot, who often passed under the name of Capt. 
Southcot,'^ was stationed there some time before his 
death, which occurred at Bidwell on June 8th, 1653. 
Dom Maurus Scroggs, a monk of St. Gregory's, was 
apparently the next resident chaplain ; he died here 
July 9th, 1672. In the next centuiy other names 
occur. D. John Placid Rigby, a monk of Dieulouard, 
was at Bidwell in or about 1755 ; and D. Bernard 
WarmoU (G) either preceded or followed him. 

The catholic flock at Exeter seems to have been not 
infrequently indebted to the chaplain resident at Bidwell 
for mass and other spiritual assistance, though occasion- 
ally they had a priest resident among them. Fr. Edward 
Hussey, O.S.B., of whom we spoke in an earlier part 
of this chapter, came to Devonshire after leaving 
Flixton in Suffolk in 1752, and seems to have spent 
two years in assisting the catholics of Exeter and the 
South Hams. The chapel at that time was an upper 
room in Mr. Flashman's house, commonly called King 
John's Entry, in South Street"* ; later on Father Rigby 
O.S.B. came into the city from Bidwell to say mass 
occasionally, and keep things going till a permanent 
mission was established in 1762 or 1763. 

With the exception of Dom James Bernard Price, 
who had been prior of St. Edmund's, at Paris (1757 — 

^ See Folejr's Records S.J. XII, p. 970 ; also Dr. Oliver's ColUcHons, pp. 

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1765), and who died at Ugbrooke, Lord Clifford's seat 
near Chudleigh, I find no further mention of Benedic- 
tine work in Devonshire for over a century, till in 1864 
Fr. Bernard Short (G) was appointed to the chap- 
laincy of the nuns at Abbotsleigh, passing thence to 
a similar post at the Benedictine convent at Teign- 
mouth (1865— 66). •« The late Fr. Ambrose Brindle 
(L) took up his duties as chaplain at Abbotsleigh, near 
Newton Abbot, in 1874, and continued there till his 
death (August 26, 1891). 

To conclude our notice of Benedictine work in die 
western diocese of Plymouth, a word or two must be 
added with regard to Cornwall. The county of old 
possessed no great religious house of the Benedictine 
rule ; the priories of Tywardreth, St. Cyr, St. Anthony, 
and in the Scilly Isles, St. Mary's, a cell of Tavistock, 
were none of them of any remarkable importance. 
Nor was it for any long time within the sphere of 
Benedictine mission work, Lanherne being the only 
spot which need be spoken of in this connection. This 
venerable place, long a seat of the Arundels, came 
into the possession of the family by the marriage of 
Henry, the 7th Baron, with Mary, the younger 
daughter of Richard Arundel Rolling, of Lanherne. 
Her ladyship survived her husband many years, and 
was served by a Benedictine chaplain at least from 
1762. After her death in 1769, the monks continued 
their work there till Henry, the 8th Baron, oflfered 
the mansion to the English Theresian Nuns of Ant- 
werp. They gladly accepted this offer, and reached 
Lanherne in August 1794. 

■s There is some difficulty about Fr. Bernard Price's dates. Ab. Soow in his 
Necrolos^r states that he was stationed at Ugrbrook in 1765, and died there 
January 4th, 1767. Dr. Oliver, however, says that he reached Us^brook about 
Michaelmas, 1757, in a confirmed dropsy, and died three months later, Deceoi- 
ber 31st, 1757, and was buried, according^ to the parish register, in the chancel 
of Chudleigh church, on January 4th, 1758. ( ^^^ i r> 

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THE engush Benedictine Missions. 277 

The first of the Benedictines to take up his abode at 
Lanherne was D. John Wilfrid Strutt, a native of 
Middlesex, who was known also by the aliases of 
Bridgeman and Tufton. After his ordination as a 
secular priest he made his profession at Lamspring 
in 1743, he came to Lanherne from Leighland in 
Somerset in 17621 and continued here till his retire- 
ment in 1 77 1 to Lamspring, where he died (Dec. 5, 
1782). His successor came originally from the same 
monastery, D. Roger Boniface Hall, who moved to 
Cornwall from Cossey Hall near Norwich in 177 1, 
and left ten years later for Plymouth, where he stayed 
awhile before returning to die at Lamspring, October 
16, 1803. He was the first person interred in the 
abbey church after the suppression of the monastery by 
the Prussian authorities. Father John Placid Bennet, 
of S. Laurence's, came next, and spent but two years 
at Lanherne (i 781-1783). When Dr. Oliver wrote his 
** Collection'' in 1857, his zeal and piety were still 
remembered at Lanherne by the older members of the 
congregation. In 1783, D. John Basil Brindle, a 
monk of St. Gregory's, took up the post of chaplain, 
and soon won the respect and esteem of all parties. 
In 1794, just before the arrival of the Carmelite nuns, 
he was directed to proceed to Bonham, where he 
stayed till 1801, and died the following year at Clay- 
ton Green near Chorley (Dec. 8, 1802). 

J. G. D. 

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I^N order that the little narrative^ for which the editor 
^^ of the Downside Review has done me the honour 
to ask, may be intelligible (thirty-one years next 
Easter-day after the facts), I must request its reader 
to make a mental picture of what was the situation, at 
the beginning of April, 1871, that had been created by 
the insurrection in Paris on the i8th of March, and the 
triumph of the Commune. 

The humiliation of France was then complete. Not 
only had the German conqueror reviewed 100,000 of 
his own troops on the classic ground of Longchamps, 
passed under the arch of the immortal sleeper beneath 
the golden dome of the Invalides, and ridden through 
the famous avenues of her capital, while he held her 
territory from the Manche to the Seine, and his soldiers 
garrisoned the shrine of her patron Saint and the tombs 
of her kings at St. Denis, but in the hour of her 
agony the Red Spectre had risen once more, and frat- 
ricidal strife, with the murder of two Generals for its 
inaugural word, was raging between Paris and Ver- 
sailles. The position to be realized as existing between 
the 1 8th of March and the 9th of April was briefly 
this : The Commune was in possession of Paris ; the 
Government, the Representatives of Foreign Powers, 
the Members of the Assembly, and the **Army of 
Versailles,*' were congregated in the central home of 




the old French monarchy, recently, by fell irony of 
fate, the scene of the resurrection of the German 
Empire. It was on the 29th of March that Le Soir 
published, in a form which Julius Caesar and Sir Charles 
Napier only have surpassed in brevity, the following 
facts: ** Paris has no longer liberty of the press, of 
public meeting, of conscience, or of person.*' 

From that day we dated **The Reign of Terror." 
Every hour was crowded with events for word of 
which all the world waited ; but for my purpose I shall 
only summarize those most salient from the 4th of 
April, when Fort Issy and Fort Vanvres, in the pos- 
session of the insurgents, were exchanging shots with 
Meudon, and the ^^ executive committee*' appointed 
Cluseret ** delegate of war,'* and Bergeret ** comman- 
dant of the Paris forces." On that day military service 
was made compulsory for all citizens under 40, a 
proceeding sufficiently terrifying to the peaceable 
among the people so recently released from the suffer- 
ings of the siege, and meaning a harvest of death any- 
how — by Communist fiat if its victims did not obey, 
or at the hands of the Versaillais on their inevitable 
entry into the city if they did. And there was further 
news : the Archbishop of Paris, Monseigneur Darboy, 
had been arrested. Such a repetition of history some 
had anticipated, others had doubted its possibility ; not 
I, for the moving spirit was Rochefort. On the 6th 
there occurred an incident strongly illustrative of the 
rule of all the virtues supposed to be secured by the 
renunciation of God, and the restitution of that formula 
** Libert^, Fraternity, Egalit6," which never had and 
never can have any meaning without Him. Dombrow- 
ski, one of the mysteries of iniquity of the time, had 
ousted Bergeret, and made himself commandant of the 
Paris forces. [Here I may mention, only incidentally. 

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because I have not got to the 9th, that Bergeret's little 
brief authority expired on the 6thy when he was 
arrested by the Commune.] On that same day, 
the beloved and venerated Abb6 Degu^ry, Cur^ ci 
the Madeleine, a personage of importance as high as 
his character, was arrested, and also the other ''hos- 
tages." Here I may mention that I had the honour 
of knowing the Abb6 Degu^ry, and the news of his 
arrest was a personal shock to me. But, unless my 
memory betrays me at this distance from the events, 
I think we Catholics in England were not so much 
alarmed as we might have been. I remember general 
indignation and intensified desire that the Versaillais 
should ''do for these wild beasts'' as quickly as pos- 
sible ; but not apprehension for the lives of the hostages. 
Indeed I recollect a conversation, kpropos of and two 
days after the very experiences my readers shall hear 
of presently, in which one of the speakers — an eminent 
journalist and politician, and another, an Anglican 
divine of much literary distinction — agreed to consider 
the hostages, just because they were God's priests, 
"safer in than out of prison, considering the temper 
of the mob ; more likely to be murdered by fanatics 
in desperation than by a responsible body of men, 
however wicked, who are not too mad to calculate the 
consequences." Long years before, I had talked with 
a great French author who was also a rampant repub- 
lican. He had fought in the Rue Basse du Rempart in 
'48, and he saw Monseigneur Affre shot on the barricade 
where he was tending the dying, while holding aloft a 

silver crucifix. M. X extolled the Archbishop as 

a hero and a saint, "s'il y en a." I had also heard 
Monseigneur Sibour say his last Mass but one before 
he was stabbed by the mad priest Verger, on the 3rd 
of January, 1857 ; so I was disposed to think my friends 




were right in regarding prison as the least perilous 
place for the Paris priests under the circumstances. 

On the 7th we learned that the guillotine had been 
burned in the Place Voltaire. I regarded that as a good 
sign ; it made me entertain the weak notion that the holo- 
caust of a death-machine probably presaged the abolition 
of any kind of killings save only in fair fight, by public 
authority — even self-constituted. On the 8th, the vigil 
of Easter, the aspect of affairs, terrible to me because 
I love France with grateful and undying tenderness, 
became a personal matter of instant importance. The 
streets in the vicinity of the Arc de Triomphe were in 
danger from the forts. It was reported that certain 
houses were to be demolished. In one of those houses 
(her own) a dear friend of mine, who was at that 
moment dangerously ill, had left some papers of great 
value when she quitted Paris for England after the fatal 
council at St. Cloud, on the 15th of July, 1870, and the 
declaration of war by France, never doubting but that 
she should be able to return in a short time. 

It was clear that the d^molisseurs (mythical, as the 
event proved) must be forestalled, and as no grass 
grew under the feet of the Commune, it was desirable 
that I should go and fetch the papers literally ** at once." 
I was staying at my invalid friend's country house in a 
south-eastern county, and London had to be reached 
for the Paris mail of that evening. This brief explana- 
tion is necessary to make it understood that it was not 
out of foolhardy curiosity that I started for Paris 
on Easter-Eve, after I had confidently assured my 
friend that she should see me on Easter Monday 
morning. The sole remarkable feature of my journey 
so far as Calais was its solitariness. The mail agent 
and myself were the only passengers by train and boat, 
and apparently none but we two were going on from 

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Calais; for no porters or officials were about, yet 
the dim, gaunt waiting-room, where I should have to 
remain for some time« was not quite empty. Two persons 
were visible ; a grey-headed elderly man huddled de- 
jectedly upon a bench near the door, and a lady, seated 
at some distance, who looked up at my approach, 
showing a face all blurred with tears, and glanced 
with surprise at my strapped travelling-rug and small 
hand-bag. I have forgotten how we accosted each 
other, but remember well the lady's astonishment 
that I should be voluntarily going to Paris, and her 
eagerly asking me whether I had heard what had 
happened to the priests ? I said I had, and expressed 
my grief at the outrage, adding that I had met the 
Cnri of the Madeleine several times. She grasped my 
hand, and told me he was her best friend in the world, 
and that she had come in from the country on the 
previous evening (the 7th) and had heard of his arrest 
on the day before. Her grief was painful to witness, 
and her fears outstripped mine. ^^ I know they will take 
his life,*' she repeated, ^^and I cannot say a word to him. 
If Madame could but know all that I owe to him. " The 
lady told me of her ruined home in Paris, her removal 
with her children to a seaside place near Calais when the 
war broke out — I do not remember now whether she 
was a widow — her hope of returning when ** the affairs 
should have arranged themselves/' and the despair 
that had now struck her, but the great woe was that 
she could not get **a word" to or from the Abb^ 
Degu^ry. The rumour was, that no communication 
with the outside world would be permitted to the Abb6, 
but others said a certain vicaire at St. Roch would be 
allowed to visit him. I asked the name of the vicaire 
— I forget it now — and wrote it in my prayer-book, also 
her name and address, and then I gave her pencil and 

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paper out of my bag-fittings and told her to write a 
note which the prisoner might understand, without 
names and unaddressed, and to give it to me. ^^ If the 
thing is possible/' I said, ^^M. le Vicaire shall have 
that note, and I do not doubt that he will do his best 
for you.'* Without a word more she began to write, 
kneeling on the floor, her paper on the bench, and I 
moved a little away. The grey-haired man had risen 
from the bench behind the door and drawn near us ; he 
looked at me, curiously but not rudely, and presently 
said : ** Madame is going to Paris?" I assented, and 
he spoke again : ** I wish I could go there I " I did 
not understand the difficulty, but naturally could not 
question him ; however, he was telling me in a minute 
a tale of woe. I cannot recall the details, but the 
^^ situation" was that he and his wife had been apart 
since the siege, and that he knew nothing of her or she 
of him; no letters could be got through. I did not 
then, and I do not now, know why this was so (at 
least up to the outbreak of the Commune), but there 
could not be a doubt that the grey-haired man was 
telling me the truth. ** Where does your wife live?" I 
asked him. ** Rue La Fayette, num^ro — au trois- 
si^me ! " I considered ; the house was on my way. 
In another minute he too was writing — luckily he had 
a pencil — and I had made a second promise, easy to 
fulfil, that his wife should have his letter in the morning, 
and that if he would meet me in that same place on 
my return by the mail train — the only train running 
each way then — on Easter Sunday night, he should 
have the reply. There was but little time for leave- 
taking after I had secured the two documents inside 
my dress (they would have been equally safe and less 
crumpled in my bag), and I was soon speeding along 
the familiar track, the solitary occupant of the only 

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lighted compartment. The two forlorn beings whom 
I had met so strangely and left in that dismal place — 
why they had come there, or what they were respectively 
waiting for, I had no idea — dwelt much in my thoughts. 
My journey had no discomforts, and I sustained only 
one shock. It occurred at the first stopping-place — 
Amiens, I suppose, — and was caused by the opening 
of the carriage door and the protrusion of a ^* picket- 
haube '* with a German head under it, and a civil 
demand for a sight of my ticket ; this I had just 
enough German to understand. It was a small in- 
cident, but it made all that had occurred so real in a 
moment, and it cruelly reminded me that the city I 
was approaching was no longer the Paris of my love 
and pride. At Creil, in the lovely but chill spring 
morning, the first tokens of war met my eyes. The 
bridge had been blown up by the French themselves, 
and the river could only be crossed on foot on a 
temporary plank-way. As I trod this path, looking 
down into the water I saw the blanched skeleton of a 
horse with its harness lying below. A train awaited 
the mails and passengers on the other side, and soon 
the lovely woods of Chantilly beguiled my sad 
thoughts for a while. 

My narrative ceases at this point to be written from 
the vague recollections of so long ago, and hence^ 
forth borrows from a record of my Easter Day in 1871, 
written on the morrow for publication in the Spectator 
of the 15th of April. A good deal of water (and blood) 
had run under the beautiful bridges of the Seine within 
the intervening days, and the testimony of an eye- 
witness to the actual state of the capital of France 
attracted ^ good deal of attention. The record had 
gained interest even before it appeared in print ; one 
week had already made havoc past measure ; another 




gave my eye-witness testimony the consecration of 
ancient history. 

I arrived at the Gare du Nord at eight o'clock a.m., 
on Easter Sunday, and began instantly to look for the 
Red Revolution. A profound stillness, the exit of four 
passengers — taken up at Amiens, I presume — from the 
train, and the presence of two carriages in the east 
courtyard, were the only remarkable circumstances. I 
contemplated the competitive cochers and chose my 
man, a brisk pleasant fellow, with merry black eyes, 
fine white teeth, the traditional red waistcoat which 
survives empires and revolutions, a shiny hat, and an 
innocuous whip. His strong grey horse had probably 
been imported since the siege, for evidently it had 
always had plenty to eat. ** Citizen," said I, adhering 
to a promise extorted by a nervous friend, '* I have 
very little time, a great deal to do, and a strong desire 
to see as much of Paris and the citizen patriots as pos- 
sible. May I engage you by the hour, and is it 
dangerous for me to drive about the city ? " Nothing 
could be more agreeable than the proposed arrangement 
to the citizen cocher, or less dangerous to Madame (I 
was so much disappointed that he did not call me 
citoyenne), and she should see everything of interest in 
Paris, especially the barracks and the ambulances. I 
got into the most comfortable coup6 within my experi- 
ence, and we rolled leisurely oflF towards the Rue 
Lafayette. The great thoroughfare was singularly 
empty. Its long lines of tall, closed-up house-fronts 
were broken by dingy red flags, displayed, not in great 
profusion, but yet with decorative effect. I soon came 
to the house whereat I was to deliver the grey-haired 
man's letter, and readily mounted au troisieme, having 
seen nobody so far. The outer door was opened by 
an invisible concierge. After some delay the tall door 




which faced the winding stair was partly unclosed at my 
sharp ringing of the bell, by a kind-faced grey-haired 
woman wearing a black cap, who seemed startled at 
sight of a stranger, as well she might be. I lost no 
time in explaining my visit and displaying my creden- 
tials^ and presently found myself in a small but com- 
fortable salle ^ manger of the respectable petit bour- 
geois order, and trying, in vain for a few minutes, to 
soothe the agitation of the trembling woman. I had 
to read her husband*s little letter for her, and to answer 
her hurried questions as best I could. And I remem- 
ber I administered eau sucr^ to her with good effect. 
She told me how she and her husband came to be 
parted before the siege, but I don't remember now 
anything more than that he was a commis-voyageur 
and le meilleur des maris. I think she was quite alone 
in the little apartment, there was no sign of a bonne. 
She did not seem alarmed for herself at all. I imagine 
she knew very little of the state of things outside, for 
when I asked her a cautious question as to her safety, 
she said she never went out, and the concierge was a 
tr^s brave homme. I had to leave her with a promise 
that I would return on my way to the Gare du Nord in 
the evening, for the reply to her husband's letter ; he 
would be waiting for it at the Gare de Calais, at I for- 
get what unearthly hour. Then I had a short parley 
with the citizen cocher concerning the best disposition 
of my time, and a consideration of routes to be adopted 
or avoided. 

The latter elicited the unwelcome intelligence, im- 
parted quite unconcernedly, that firing had been brisk 
in the direction of the Porte Maillot, and the vicinity of 
the Arc de Triomphe was not desirable. This was un- 
fortunate, for part of my business for a later hour lay 
in the Rue de Monceau and the Rue de Lisbonne. 



Thr Easter-Day of 1871 in Paris. 2gl 

The citizen cocher thought it likely we could reach both 
without difficulty, if I did not mind not going quite up 
to the Arch. On we went towards the centre of the 
city, through empty silent streets for the most part — 
meeting an occasional coup^, a few omnibuses, occupied 
by blouses and National Guards ; some hfeavy waggons, 
probably containing ammunition, under sinister and 
disorderly escort of men in motley costumes, with guns 
and bayonets ; past small groups of patriots seated on 
the kerbstone, their guns against the wall behind them, 
with, in many instances, a loaf stuck on the bayonet. 
The sky was grey, the wind was piercing, there was 
next to no movement, and absolutely no sound. What 
had become of the swarming life of Paris? Every 
shop was shut, many were boarded up, from a few 
windows hung shabby red flags, but the very buildings 
looked dead. It bewildered me. I could find no 
traces of the siege, and all my previous ideas of a 
revolution were dispersed. Not a bell was ringing, 
though this was Easter Sunday, but the churches were 
open. I passed several that day, and first, the 
Madeleine; into this one I went. It had been asserted, 
two or three days previously, that the great church had 
been pillaged ; but it had not been injured in any way. 
I met a priest at one of the doors, and we exchanged 
salutations. I ventured to tell him what dismay this 
rumour had caused ; he assured me it was wholly un- 
founded. The precious vessels and ornaments removed 
from the altar were removed by the priests themselves. 
Now children are sitting on the steps, and women 
praying in the church. Only the legend ** Libert^, 
Fraternity, Egalit6," denotes change. From the 
** Place" the March6 aux Fleurs has disappeared — what 
a blank I The priest's manner is gravely polite, but 
reserved, and I do not venture to put any question but 



288 THB BASTER'DAY of 187 i IN PARIS. 

one — **And the Archbishop, Father? The Abbi 
Degu^ry, the others? Is it true that they are in 
prison ? not an invention, like the sacrilege ?" ** Un- 
happily/' his reverence replied, slightly raising his 
biretta, ** that is too true." He moved away, and I 
returned to my coup^ and gave the order "L'Eglise 
de Saint Roch ! *' It was time now to make the 
attempt I had so much at heart. In the Rue St. 
Honors there is more life. National Guards are cir- 
culating freely, and groups of people are talking in 
doorways. My impressions are necessarily transient, 
but it seems to me the faces are more gloomy here. 
I come to the great historic edifice and find its front 
portal open, but I go by preference to a side-door, 
nearer to the sacristy. A squad of soldiers passes — 
the men are carrying rations. I hear the tramp as I 
ascend the steps and enter the church, and in that 
moment there mingles with the prayer of my heart for 
success in my task, a vision of the Man and the guns 
that once, when Paris was in a far worse strait — for 
there are no tumbrils rumbling to-day — ** cleared the 
desecrated street of St. Honorius of its ambulatory 
shambles.'' Mass is over at one of the chapels, the 
people are coming out, there is no great crowd. I pass 
through easily enough, and am close to the door of the 
sacristy when a priest appears, wearing his cassock. 
My courage requires the two hands I take it in as I 
approach him, and say in a whisper: ** Father, is M. 
le Vicaire — here ? " *' Yes, Madame ! " ** Can I see 
him, speak with him for a moment ; it is of great ur- 
gency ? " ** For confession ! " ** No, it is the affair of 
another. Permit that I see him, I beg of you ! " ** I 
will ask whether it is possible," said the priest, and he 
left me. I withdrew into a still less conspicuous posi- 
tion — people were collecting anew in the aisle — and 



THE EASTER'DAY of 187 i IN PARIS. 289 

waited, I don't know how long; and then a tall, soldierly- 
looking, dark-eyed, dark-haired priest came out of the 
sacristy, glanced around him and towards me. I lost 
not one moment. ** Father," said I, **I passed through 

Calais last night, and I saw Madame ; she gave 

me a message for you. She has a hope that you may 
be able to see the prisoners, and she entreats you to 
convey this note to the one who is her best friend ! " 
For an instant he turned a questioning glance on me, 
but then said in a kindly whisper, as I put the letter 

into his hand : ** I think I can ; if so, Madame 

may assure herself I will. You are foreign — her 
friend ? " I could not explain ; I thought I might 
fairly say ** Yes," and settle with my conscience later 

The citizen cocher was asleep when I came out, and a 
polite National Guard woke him up to learn — with the 
cheerful smile that was of great use to me all that day, 
but I daresay also with the private conviction that I was 
mad — that I wanted to hear a mass said at Notre Dame 
des Victoires. Parfaitement ! there is time for a tour, 
and accordingly I make a tour, noting that the Revolu- 
tion has effaced all traces of the effigies of the Empire, 
as promptly as the Empire suppressed those of the 
second Republic. On the walls, on the hoardings, on 
the pillars of the Rue de Rivoli, are countless affiches, 
decrees of the Commune, avis of the Committee, ordres 
of General Cluseret, appeals to the nation, to the citizen 
patriots, announcements of La Solidarity, innumerable 
advertisements of pamphlets, newspapers and educa- 
tion cours, for the Commune is going to have everybody 
taught everything immediately. The Palais Royal 
bears an inscription, which is as good as a Proclama- 
tion : ** Republique Fran9aise, Democratique, Une et 
Indivisible. Libert^, Fraternity, Egalit6, Propri6t6 

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Nationale;'* and its precincts are entirely empty. A 
ragged individual, feebly manipulating a staggering 
hose with dribbly results, by way of watering the street, 
represents the great nation, in that very core of the 
heart of its civilization. But I remembered, when it was 
time to make for Notre Dame des Victoires, that some- 
one had said the place and its vicinity formed ** a bad 
part,*' and I enquire of the citizen cocher. He smiles 
with pitying affability as he assures me that there is no 
bad part in Paris, except out Neuilly way ; the city is 
**as quiet as a bird's nest'* ; and indeed when we get 
to the Place, with the bewigged Grand Monarque on 
his caracoling charger in its midst, and centuries of 
everything that was unfree, unfratemal and unequal 
commemorated in its very stones, the cocher — who 
presently deposits me at the well-known entrance of 
the headquarters of Prayer, and goes off to break- 
fast — is amply justified in vouching for its character. 
A woman selling flowers sits at one comer, some 
noiseless children are coming round another, two are 
empty and also the central space encircling the statue. 
The church doors stand open, the popular legend 
is graven upon the left wall ; and the steps are occupied, 
just as usual, by beggars and cripples. No soldiers, 
no police, no visible authority of any kind, and certainly 
no call for it. I went into the church, and found it 
densely crowded, chiefly with women, but a great many 
men also were present. A solemn, devout crowd, every 
woman in plain black dress, every face grave, anxious, 
grieved ; but not one frightened^ no^ not one. I studied 
them all, in the interval before Mass began, at the altar 
of Our Lady of Victories. Presently an old priest 
appeared on the altar step, in the centre of the per- 
petual blaze of golden light, and began the Mass. He 
was reading the Gospel, and had just uttered the words 

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which, being interpreted, are, " Be not aiTrighted ; 
ye seek Jesus of Nazareth who was crucified/* when 
there came a sullen roar of cannon. I hope I may 
be pardoned if I confess that I looked up and started. 
I had never heard anything more warlike than the firing 
at a review in the Phoenix Park ; but no one else moved; 
not the smallest sign of surprise or uneasiness showed 
itself on any face. Then I knew what the siege had 
taught all those women and girls. The Mass went on, 
and the guns went on ; the reverberation set the heavy 
leather doors of the church flapping, and echoed in the 
great painted windows ; but I got used to it in a few 
minutes, and afterwards heard it at intervals all day 
without heeding it in the least. I went out before the 
crowd, and found that my intelligent cocher had profited 
by the interval to purchase for me Le Cri du Peuple, Le 
Mot d* Ordre, and Le Rappel. I should profit by my time 
better, he observed, if I knew exactly how things stood. 
It appeared that ** Val6rien ** was shelling the Avenue 
des Temes to-day. I do not learn much from these 
journals, beyond M. Rochefort's ardent desire that the 
"old assassin" Thiers should be disposed of, and that 
"as all men of heart (hommes de coeur) are demanding 
more blood, more blood must be had, but it is for the 
gentlemen Assassins of Versailles to begin.** A second 
indignant editor denounces the infamous conduct of Lord 
Lyons in offering the shelter of the British Embassy to the 
Carmelite nuns, — persons under the displeasure of the 
nation (one of them being Lord Lyons* own niece), — 
and a third publishes a voluminous decree of the Com- 
mune, of which Article 9 is left blank. I wonder what 
that significant hiatus means ? 

I am on my way to see a barricade now, and 
again I take the Rue St. Honor6 en route, for I 
have to make a call within a short distance of the 

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former residence of the "sea-green incorruptible," 
to whom the Commune is going to erect a statue in 
bronze, when it has leisure, and a few of the kings 
have been melted down. I find, however, the lady I 
want to see (who is very young and pretty), walking up 
the street, leisurely and unconcernedly, with a beautifid 
bouquet in one hand, and a flower-pot containing a 
gorgeous crimson blossom, with a long green stalk, 
under the corresponding arm. "No one need be 
afraid, then, in Paris?** I ask, "No woman,*' she 
replies; "men are afraid, I believe, and in danger; 
they are suspected of wanting to get away, and they 
will be made to stay and fight, but women are quite 
safe from everything but shells.** We do our little 
talk in the street, and part pleasantly. 

There is now a little more liveliness in the Rue 
St. Honor6, but still no open shops and " no row.** 
The groups of National Guards are more numerous, 
and I remark that the proportion of uniform to 
mufti is small, and the uniforms are shabby. Profound 
gravity sits upon every countenance, and every man 
seems to be looking to every other man for orders, 
or news, or consolation. As a body, I consider 
the patriots look hungry, cold, tired and bored, to 
say nothing of dirty, which they are to a man. 
Turning down a small street, apparently closed in by a 
neatly- built wall with holes in it, there I discover the 
mouths of cannon. About this wall men are swarming, 
in and out of uniform ; they are all armed, and two or 
three wear red or white sashes with pistols stuck in 
them, after an Adelphi fashion, which instantly causes 
me to think of Mr. Webster and " The Dead Heart** 
My cocher pulls up at the comer of the little street, and 
exchanges friendly grins with the citizen-patriots who 
are swarming inside and outside the wall, while I peer 

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out of the carriage window longing to see more. Pre- 
sently the cocher suggests that I should get out and look 
about me ; he cannot drive any farther, but from quite 
the comer I may see the whole of the Place Venddme, 
the General's head-quarters, and the parade of yester- 
day's lev6e, then tcdcing place. 

A cheerful young woman^ with a pretty, wan infant 
in her arms, encourages me to descend, and a young 
man to whom she is talking, a clean, trim, fair 
young fellow, with a military look and step, salutes 
me with much politeness, and asks me if I have 
ever seen a barricade. **No, citizen patriot,'* I 
reply; "they do not make them in England, and 
I had no idea they were so symmetrical. I thought 
a barricade was a heap of rubbish piled up anyhow, 
but these are strong stone walls, built at leisure." 
He seemed much pleased with my admiration, and having 
handed a tin can to the young woman, he invited me 
to come inside the wall, which I did. There was 
the Place Vendome, and filled with what realities 
and what phantoms I I saw it last on the 15th of 
August, 1869, decorated for the Emperor's fSte, and 
filled with the glittering Imperial troops. I see it now, 
a wide, empty waste, bounded by the symmetrical barri- 
cades, dotted with slouching ungainly figures, whose 
clothes and arms encumber them, and with busy, silent 
groups, strengthening the walls with steady industry. 
My friend points out the cannon, shows me how they 
are pointed against all avenues of approach, shows me 
where the ground has been tunnelled, and guns placed, 
as it seems to me, with a view to blowing the enemy's 
feet off satisfactorily at once, indicates the Greneral's 
headquarters, and puts me into a convenient position 
(apparently envied by several women collected outside 
tibe barricade) for witnessing a distribution of arms. 

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294 THB Easter-Day of mBji in Paejs. 

A number of men, in ordinary working clothes, pass in 
disorderly fashion before a group in uniform, and some- 
thing, which I cannot plainly make out, happois. When 
the men return, each has a gun with a bayonet, and a 
belt, to which a coarse white bag is suspended: and 
for the first time I hear a feeble shout. I thank my 
military friend for his politeness, and return to the 
carriage; the young woman is still there, and she 
smiles at me as much as to ask, '^ Is he not a fine 
fellow ? '* I think he is, and that there are many fine 
fellows there very much out of place in the ruflianly 
mass. We torn into the Rue de Rivoli, and are 
stopped by a regiment marching out, " to meet the 
enemy," says my cocher, and I cannot in the least tell 
whether he is laughing at them or believes in them. 
The grey horse stands still» and the citizen patriots, 
among whom are some very villainous-looking subjects, 
march past his blunt nose, with a good deal of shufffle 
to very little tramp. I am the solitary spectator, and 
I begin to feel as though I were reviewing Sir John 
FalstafTs troops. These poor creatures are shabby, 
wretched, silent. I did not hear a laugh, or an oath. 
I did not see one violent gesture ; I hardly saw a smile 
all that day. The roystering, roaring, terrible " Reds,** 
as I saw them, are tired, dull men, doing ill-directed 
work with plodding indifference 

The regiment passes on, and something comes up 
with a rattle at last. It is a victoria, with a flaunting 
flag, bearing the red cross on a white ground, and 
it contains two young men smoking and laughing, 
who wear white scarfs with red crosses on their 
arms. *• Young doctors going to the ambulance," 
says the cocher, and we go on, — past the Tuileries 
gardens, a bare, desolate space, filled with wooden 
sheds; all the beautiful chestnut trees have been cut 




down; past the side of the great empty palace, 
through the Carrousel, where the only living creatures 
are the grey horse, and the cocher, and myself, but 
which swarms so thick with phantoms, three of them 
royal women fljring from a mob, that I can hardly 
breathe, and gasp with relief when I am on the other 
side, and looking back at the Pavilion of the Prince 
Imperial, which is not yet finished, I believe. 

We cross the noble bridge, and I look, like one in a 
dream, up and down the beautiful river, still as an Arctic 
stream might be in the winter. Very far up there is a 
little puff of steam, and a few people lean over the wall 
eager to behold the marvel of a moving boat. On into 
the Faubourg, which is even more silent, and where 
fewer people are moving about. There I visit a famous 
lady, Madame Arnould-Plessy, of the Com^die Fran9aise, 
who has remained through all the troubles, undismayed. 
She gives me the history of the past of Paris as she has 
known it all through the Second Empire, and gives me, 
too, her anticipation of its future in such brilliant style, 
her epigrams bristling like bayonets along the line of 
her narrative, that, though horrified, I am amused, and 
carry away impressions at once terrible and droll. But 
her manner changes when I ask what I shall tell her 
many friends in London ? And she says, ** Tell them to 
fear everything, and to hope very little. We are a 
degraded people ; we deserve what we have got, and are 
going to get.'* 

I leave her, and go on to the house of another friend, 
M. Charles Audley, an eminent writer on the side of 
Religion, Law and Order, in French and English. 
He is absent, at Warsaw, but his concierge invites 
me to inspect the premises, which have been neatly 
cut in two by a shell, and one half is a heap of 
ruins. While we are talking about it, and she is 

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showing me how a second shell destroyed the tasteful 
little garden » Mont Val^rien's guns keep up their terrible 
booming. She does not mind it, of course, and even to 
me it has become indifferent. When I go out, I find a 
woman sitting on the carriage-step, her lap full of daffo- 
dils, which she is tying up into nosegays at a sou each ; 
and she is saying something to the citizen cocher. As I 
take my place, I ask her to sell me some of the flowers, 
and as she leans towards me to put them into my band 
I see horror in her face. I suppose she sees a question 
in mine, for she whispers, "On dit qu*ils ont fiisill^ 
Monseigneur!'* I don*t believe it; a living hostage 
is worth much more to the Commune than a dead arch- 
bishop ; but I see in the faces of all the women I pass 
that they have heard the rumour, and that they fear it 
may be true. We go on and on, up to the Glaci&re, 
past long lines of desolate boulevards, and grand, 
ghastly, sad houses, which have never been inhabited, 
the dust of whose construction was hardly laid when 
their roofs were battered in b/ the Prussian shells. 
These present an extraordinary combination of brand- 
newness and devastation. There is hardly a living 
soul to be seen, and every sign of industry has 
disappeared. The place is like a chapter of the prophet 
Isaiah in carved stone and decorative metals. I have a 
visit to make in this quarter, and approach the well- 
remembered Convent in the Rue des Anglaises with 
trepidation and misgiving, felt for the first time. 

Silence and desolation are around, but on the other 
side of the strong oak door and the high greystone 
wall overhung by branches of big trees in the green 
leaf, where an old-fashioned, long-roofed house, with a 
small annex at the far end, easily to be recognized as a 
chapel, stands amid surroundings of greensward and 
garden, there is an air of peaceful cheerfulness. At the 




little convent in the Rue des Anglaises, though near 
the Tanneries, in a quarter where the siege had inflicted 
frightful devastation, I find all things precisely as they 
were at my last visit before the war. Mistigris, the 
t>igr gr^y cat, who is the general pet, but selects his 
own favourites with a nice discernment and abhors 
noise — I hear that he was provided with an excellent 
bed in a remote cellar during the intrusive sounds of 
the siege — is extended as usual in the porch, and 
blinks lazy recognition at me. 

The sisters, who kept their rule, tended their poor 
old women and remained entirely unmolested during 
all the disasters of the country, are very glad to 
see me, but surprised at my surprise to find them 
there. "I thought I should find the house shut 
up, if standing, and in the possession of somebody, 
de par la loi.'* *'We were not molested, we were 
not turned out, and we did not go,'* was the simple 
answer of the Reverend Mother. **Were you not 
afraid in the siege, and how did you live and keep 
your people ? '* She smiled : •* We did not know much 
about it; we had not will or time to think of other 
things, for all our children (old women) were sick, and 
one died, and it was very embarrasing to feed them ; but 
we got help — there are good people outside in the worst 
of times — you see the good God remembered us and the 
wicked people overlooked usj we are so little,*^ " And now, 
you know what is going on, what sort the men are who 
have possession of Paris?** **We know, but it is all 
the same. We shall not be turned out without the will 
of God, and bye and bye we shall know what that is ! ** I 
find that the nuns, who get their daily meed of information 
from their purveyor of bread — a woman; her men-kind 
are under arms — have not learned that the Archbishop 
and the other priests have been arrested. I tell them. 

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adding that I do not believe, nor does anyone with ^om 
I have spoken believe, that the lives of the prisoners will 
be taken. But the Reverend Mother, evidently more 
shocked and shaken by this event than by all that she 
had experienced, clasps her hands and looking upwards 
at the crucifix upon the white wall, sa3rs, " I believe th^ 
will ; this is the terrible day of the Lord for France. It 
wanted a great martyrdom. No, no, my daught^, they 
will have their crowns.*' 

Back again to the Quai, across the bridge, and 
through the Place de la Concorde. The sun shines 
now, and people are walking about past the statues 
with their absurd black masks in the midst of the heap 
of tawdry crowns and flimsy rotting flags. Strasburg, 
with its black bandage, looks like a colossal figure 
of the child's game of forfeits. I come soon to the 
Palace of Industry, now a vast hospital. Alighting 
here, I find two white-clad gentlemen, whom I recog- 
nise as surgeons, waiting at the entrance ; a group of 
fimctionaries is at a little distance. They are expect- 
ing the wounded from the Avenue des Ternes. I address 
myself to one of these gentlemen, and he makes no diffi- 
culty about giving me a took in. I had visited many times 
the Military Hospital at Brussels where the Sedan men 
(and boys) were received, and could take in the scene 
rapidly. I come soon into the huge central compartment 
Mine is not a long look, and there is nothing to be 
seen with which I am not familiar. That brief 
scrutiny suffices to convince me that the number 
of the wounded in the late engagements is greatly 
exaggerated. I saw afterwards, of course in the most 
superficial way, the ambulances in the Champs £l3rs6es, 
and I don't believe there are half seven thousand 
men in them all put together.* 

' This was the number reported in the newspapers at the time. 

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Considering that we in England had been informed 
on Saturday morning that shells were falling in the 
Champs Elysefe, and that ** harmless spectators '* had 
been killed, it struck me, as my coup6 passed up the grand 
avenue in which I have witnessed many magnificent 
pageants, that a good many harmless spectators there 
were taking things very easily. The whole place was a 
vast bivouac for the National Guards; so indeed 
are all the great thoroughfares ; but nurses and 
children are strolling about, very much as usual, and 
the bourgeoisie is taking its walks abroad. The boom- 
ing of cannon goes on, and some carts bringing down 
the wounded to the ambulance meet us half-way up to 
the arch. I wanted to go to the Rue Billaut, and had 
arrived within a hundred yards of it when the carriage 
was stopped by a citizen patriot, who came up to the 
window and told me politely that it would be dangerous 
for me to go in that direction, as a shell might be 
expected to fall there at any moment. While he was 
speaking, there came a sort of bursting whirr, and I 
saw something for an instant in the air, above and 
behind the Arch. It was a shell, the citizen -patriot 
said, and, as I heard afterwards, it had fallen in the ex- 
avenue of the ex-Empress. 

This was the only shell I saw, though immediately 
afterwards, from the top of a house in the Rue de 
Lisbonne, I had a fine view of Mont Val^rien and 
the cannon. Up to the Arch, on either side, and 
in the adjacent streets, the National Guards were 
swarming, some eating, some idly lying about in 
the sunshine, some talking, many asleep. The people 
came and went, children and dogs ran about. Occasion- 
ally a queer-looking fellow, representing the official who 
is called an orderly in enslaved, unfraternal and unequal 
armies, mounted upon a horse unacquainted with the 

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curry-comb, goes lumbering by, bumping and lurching 
in a ludicrous fashion, but no one laughs. An air <tf 
waiting prevails, weary waiting, not impatient but con- 
tagious ; so that I find myself lingering and looking 
into the blue distance under the Arch, as if a quarter- 
past seven were an indefinite period and the departure 
of the mail train a moveable feast. In the Rue de 
Monceau and the Rue de Lisbonne the people are out 
on the pavement. There are not many, and they are 
chiefly concierges; proprietors and locataires being 
unanimous in their alienee. From a lower window of a 
house in the latter street I exchanged observations with 
a placid person seated on a camp-stool in the cour, 
respecting the pungency of the smell of powder per- 
vading the atmosphere. She had looked up at me with 
an agreeable smile as I sneezed violently, "C'est la 
poudre,** she said, " 9a fait ^temuer.*' . . • . 

Having accomplished the object of my journey, I set 
off to have a look, at a safe distance, at the Hotel de 
Ville, Notre Dame (where the red flag was drooping in 
an appropriately mean fashion), and the Palais de 
Justice, which is en cong6. Pray observe that the strong 
grey horse had had long intervals of rest and sev^al 
feeds; this was his last journey on my account The 
citizen cocher, too, had dined. In these regions, the 
centre of the authority of the Revolution, a great many 
more people were abroad, and they were worse-looking, 
but there was very little more noise, and a total absence 
of excitement. I could get only a glimpse of the Hotel 
de Ville ; it seemed to me to be a perfect ant-hill of 
guns and soldiers, and they all wavered and danced 
before my eyes, as I remembered a day on which Horace 
Vemet showed me his portrait of Napoleon III., just 
placed there, and a night on which the City of Paris 
gave a ball to the proud and beautiful mother of the 

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"Child of France.*' The Place de Grfeve swanned with 
soMiers on that night too. I remember how the corslets 
and the helmets of the Cent Gardes glittered, and shiny 
bits of their horses* accoutrements came out under the 
play of the innumerable flickering, dazzling lights, as 
I looked down upon them from the purple and gold- 
draped balcony. The Republic was proclaimed from 
that same balcony last September. The few and brief 
speeches of the Commime are spoken from it now. 

Early in the afternoon an order had been issued for the 
closing of the churches ; no evening services were per- 
mitted on Easter Day. From the bridge I gazed on the 
Conciergerie, a grand building now, a fine and strong 
place, no longer the dingy vault in which the Queen of 
France and others who had incurred the displeasure of 
the Nation waited for the emancipation of death. What 
of the prisoners of the Republic who are there now ? 
I thought with a shudder of the orderly ranges of tick- 
eted skulls, and the miscellaneous heap of bones in the 
crypt of the ** Missions Etrang^res;** of the blood- 
stains on the walls, and the hacked benches, where the 
murderers worked like butchers on ** killing-day'* in the 
great slaughter-house of the Cannes.* But all is so 
quiet ! There is literally no noise now, for we do not 
hear the guns in this quarter. I notice that all the 
clocks are stopped. I suppose it is nobody's business 
to wind them up, but the effect is strange. As I go 
past the quay opposite the Louvre I see the first and 
only ** bonnet rouge" which meets my inquiring gaze in 
Paris, where I expected to find it universal. Indeed my 
nervous friend had suggested that I would do well to 
have a red cockade in my pocket in case of accidents or a 
demand for fraternization. The wearer of the symbolical 
head-dress was an ilMooking ruffian, who sat with his 

* No longer to be seen. 

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back to the quay-wall, his legs straddled across the foot- 
path, his drunken head fallen forward on his naked 
hairy breast, a broken pipe between his knees, his 
doubled fists upon the stones at either side of him, and 
the "bonnet rouge** hanging over his ear, like Mr. 
Punch's cocked hat when he is getting the worst of it at 
the hands of the beadle. I looked attentively at the 
** Phrygian head-tire,** with a whimsical remembrance 
of Chauvel*s benediction of the "old cap of the peasant** 
in La Vie d*un Paysan, and my belief is that the specimen 
in question was made out of an old waistcoat discarded 
by a cocher, by a person imperfectly acquainted with 
the form of the original. 

I completed my business, and was driven to the 
railway station, through streets as quiet and orderly 
in the twilight as they were in the morning. The 
station was guarded by three patriots, and administered 
by remarkably civil officials. I never experienced so 
little difficulty, or greater politeness, on any occasion of 
ticket -taking and luggage-weighing. I paid the exact 
fare of my carriage, the exact price of my ticket and 
luggage registration ; no one even looked a demand 
for a fee, on any pretext whatever, and I passed into 
the usual waiting-room and out of it into the usual 
carriage for Dames Seules with perfect ease and com- 
fort In the carriage there was a bewildered old French 
lady bound for Brighton (her son was detained for 
service) and two young ladies, whose destination was 
Chantilly. We four were the only women in the train, 
and I was informed that no other exit from Paris was 
available in any direction. After a very comfortable 
journey, we two reached Victoria Station in perfectly 
good time. I temporarily enlisted a casual gallant 
Volunteer bound for the Brighton Review in the service 
of my travelling companion (who wrote that he 



The EasteR'Day of iSji in Paris. 303 

proved the kindest of escorts), and I then proceeded 
to buy a newspaper, in order to see what the corres- 
pondents had to say about " Red ** Paris on Easter 
Sunday. The newspaper was the Daily Telegraphy and 
among its sensational telegrams was the following, 
dated Monday morning, April lo : — ** Ladies endeavour^ 
ing to escape /ram Paris last night were forced to pay lOO 
francs before being allowed to take tickets. ^^ If my invalid 
friend, to whom I was returning, had been in the habit of 
reading the Daily Telegraphy what would she have felt 
on seeing this statement, to which I am compelled to 
give a positive contradiction in common justice to the 
Postscript, December 1901. 

In the light of events which followed immediately, the 
foregoing sketch of what I actuallysaw andpassed through 
on the *'Red*' Easter Day of 1871 seems futile and 
almost flippant. Its sole merit is its exact rendering of 
the impressions of, so far as I could observe, the only 
stranger who was out and about simply in order to view 
the centres of life and movement in the dolorous city 
on that day. Those impressions return to me in all 
their freshness as I re-read my long-forgotten *• Letter 
to the Editor ** (Spectator). I and my citizen-cocher and 
his grey horse are again amicably abroad in the beau- 
tiful ** Place' ' — (Place de la Concorde, Place de la Revolu- 
tion, Place Louis Quinze), and in the many-named 
Avenues du Bois, de L'lmp^ratrice, de la Grande 
Arm^. I recall that I had not a moment's thought 
of the possibility that harm might come to any of the 
historic monuments. Here I may refer to the mention 
in my narrative of my passing by the Courdu Carrousel 
— where always for me the pageantry of the First Empire 
made the splendour, and Fersen and the Queen struck the 
ironic note of fate— and may observe that the precautions 

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which had been taken for the preservation of the treasures 
of the Louvre from damage in the Siege would have re- 
assured me if I had thought of harm to those monuments 
from the Commune, for pride in the **city of light** is 
common to all Frenchmen. It struck me, when I re-read 
my own words, that I must have been, if not the very 
last foreigner, among the last who saw intact in its 
grandeur and beauty that palace, built by Catherine 
de M^dicis, which witnessed the extinction of the 
Valois, and all the glory of the Boiu-bons, was the 
scene of the destruction of the French Monarchy, and 
survived the rise, the shining and the setting of two 

Nobody was there, except a sort of sentry at the 
small door from which, many years before, I had on 
three occasions seen Napoleon III. come out and 
descend by a light iron staircase with a gilded rail into 
the private garden, and walk about as little disturbed as 
any gentleman in his own shrubberies. 

The public road lies through that same space now. 
Formerly, until Louis Phillippe's time, it was used for 
that thoroughfare abhorred of Josephine, which had 
so much to do with her deeply-resented preference of 
the Pompadour Palace of the Elys6e. Nobody there — 
I walked close up to the stair and scanned leisurely the 
beautiful figures and the lines of the building ; as I was 
returning to my coup6, a company of National Guards 
crossed an angle of the vast space. I can recall that 
there was no firing just then, and that great peacefulness 
was upon the scene. I suppose I wondered how the 
palace, from whose gates, the last time I was in Paris, 
I had seen the fair Spanish Empress come out in her 
elegant low carriage with her escort in green and gold, 
would look if a next time were destined to be mine ; 
but I am sure no thought of injury to the palace itself, 
whosoever might reign there, occurred to me. 

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THE Easter-Day of 1871 in Paris. 305 

And the column of the Place Venddme, with that 
imperial figure on its summit which dominated the City 
of Light as he whom it symbolised and commemorated 
had dominated France and filled men's minds ? I am 
sure also that, looking at it that day, while my friendly 
soldier of the Commune and the comely woman of 
the people who was so proud of him, were explaining 
the defences, and that the General — Dombrowski, I 
afterwards learned it must have been whom I had dimly 
discerned —was busy with the distribution of arms, the 
Column was, of all things made with hands, the most 
stable in my imagination. The sight of the ruins which 
told me the story of the Siege, terrible and pathetic, 
produced their due effect, but after all this was fortune 
of war; in the scene of well-known and well-beloved 
grandeur, with the forces of war before my eyes, and 
its dread sounds in my ears, I know now that I had not 
any fear for Paris. Will the readers of my little tale of 
a memorable Easter Day bear in mind that it deals with 
that one day only, if they think it was written, after a 
few hours' interval, with too much light-heartedness ? 

F. Cashel Hoey. 

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^A^BiNO asked to write the Retrospect, which was 
^^^ once a regular feature of the Downside Review^ 
one naturally turns to the past numbers to see 
how the subject is treated. In a retrospective mood 
one would naturally hope for aid from those who have 
gone before, but on this occasion the past, which is 
supposed to help us so much fails, for the previous 
retrospects have won a glory from being far, so much 
so that none is to be found in the last five numbers. 
This adds the further difficulty that it becomes hard to 
decide how far to look back in beginning a new series 
of these articles. It would be undesirable to hunt up 
the old numbers to find out exactly when the last was 
written, and we must vaguely look back only over the 
recent past. 

The first thing which strikes us is the large increase 
in the number of boys. 

With regard to the studies of the year, the reader 
will find elsewhere the results as published officially ; 
one interesting innovation may be noticed, the institu- 
tion of a Navy Class, from which we may expect 
important developments. The choir music has been 
a prominent feature of the year. The criticisms of 
well-known authorities have put the merits and doings 
of the Choir before the world, and their testimony and 
high praise save us from the necessity of any remarks 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Retrospect. 307 

which might be under suspicion of parriality or exag- 
geration. The regretted departure of Mr. Terry makes 
it pleasanter to look back than to look forward in this 

Turning to the games of the year, we find the 
most notable advance in the construction of the new 
cricket field. The prefect at once seized the oppor- 
tunity afforded by this to give a new interest to 
cricket for those not in the eleven by organising second 
eleven matches. These proved a great success, and 
the fact that the pitches were prepared with such care 
that they always played well, in spite of all the diffi- 
culties in dealing with newly-laid ground, speaks highly 
for the energy which was only lying dormant for want 
of scope. The matches themselves were successful, as 
teams were found not too strong for the boys, and the 
keen and enthusiastic fielding brought success even 
when it was least expected. The first eleven was 
marked by the worst fielding we have ever seen on 
the ground, and several matches were lost by this 
alone. In this instance a move in the right direction 
turned out a failure. The engagement of Emmett 
was expected to add life and interest to the practice, 
but as in an unguarded moment he pronounced against 
the utility of practising fielding, his influence was 
disastrous. One is led to wonder whether the old 
heroes of the eighties learned the most difficult part 
of the game without practising it, or whether the 
remark of a more recent professional is true, that 
those old fellows did not know how to field them- 

Hockey had a good season, and more care was taken 
to observe the rules strictly. The football of the present 
season has been played with spirit, but the eleven has 
lost all its strongest members and is too light a team to 

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contend successfully with the local talent. The matches 
with Ladycross continue to form an incentive to vigour 
among the younger boys, and this year the matches 
have been well contested, the teams on both sides being 
above the average. A match, under an age limit, was 
played with Prior Park, and was of great service in 
causing vigorous practice. The Prior Park boys won 
easily in the first match, but the purpose of such 
matches can be attained without victory. The return 
match was won by Downside. 

The usual tennis tournament was played at the 
beginning of the term, but did not reveal any great 
talent. The time for tennis at school is so short that 
good play will always be the exception. Among 
amusements of an educational character, we may mention 
that the Debating Club has met regularly, and has had 
some good debates. 

A fitful revival of the Month Day exhibitions was 
made, but the old charm had gone. When in old days 
those who were not among the victims could assemble 
in the palace with the thought of the nextday*s holiday 
to cheer them, even the quality of mercy was cheerfully 
admitted not to be strained; all could listen with resig- 
nation to the woes of him '^ who never smiled again,'' 
and were ready to applaud generously when invited as 
**dear friends ** to go **once more into the breach." But 
when it was even doubtful in some cases whether 
preparation would not be required by exacting masters, 
and no holiday was in view, the sorrows of the Last 
Minstrel fell on unsympathetic ears, sonatas seemed 
uninspiriting, while the very name of a glee seemed a 
satire. On the other hand, the Palace was put to a 
good use in two excellent performances of ** Our 
Boys" and ** Pinafore," which were well rendered 
and thoroughly appreciated. 

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If we look back on the material Downside, consisting 
of the buildings, we see many striking improvements, 
but as this retrospect is concerned only with the school, 
such improvements do not fall within its scope. 

/\.« JL* i^» 

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The Scale {or Ladder) of Perfection ; written by 
Walter Hilton, with an Essay on the Spiritual Life 
of Medieval England by the Rev. J. B. Dalgairns, 
Priest of the Oratory. Art and Book Company. 

This new edition of Hilton's ** Scale of Perfection" 
is very welcome, as copies of the previous editions are 
not easily obtainable. Father Dalgairns' introduction 
is a valuable sketch of the spiritual life of medieval 
England, and must excite interest, if not enthusiasm, 
in the book and kindred works. We miss Father 
Guy's interesting bibliographical sketch, which would 
have added to the merit of this edition if it could have 
been included. 

The value of the book is twofold — devotional and 
historical. The earlier chapters of the book, which 
treat of the beginnings of spiritual life and the ob- 
stacles thereto, will necessarily not be found so full of 
fervour as the later chapters, which treat of the love 
of God. As an example of the grace and suggestive- 
ness of the author's teaching, we refer the reader to 
p. 189, where he shows how humility may be acquired 
through ^^the sight and beholding of the endless being 
and the wonderful goodness of Jesus." 

The historical interest of the book lies in the glimpse 
it gives us of the frame of mind of devout persons of 
that time. The practical common-sense of the author's 
suggestions strikes us with the feeling that our national 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


character was influencing, as well as being influenced 
by, the prevailing ascetical method. An example of 
this is the advice concerning the changing of the 
manner of our devotions when novelty would be pro- 
fitable, p. 192 : or, on p. 229, the exposition of the 
three ways of the love of God, and what love is abso- 
lutely necessary for salvation. It is interesting to note 
that scrupulosity took the form of doubt as to the 
validity of past confessions (p. 193), in which matter 
mediaeval England is not different from our own time. 
We venture to suggest that the book still wants 
editing ; by which we would understand a more accu- 
rate treatment of verbal peculiarities, an explanation 
of certain theological points which must puzzle an 
ordinary reader, and finally — a serious undertaking — 
the comparison of the author's theological tenets with 
the prevalent systems of that period. A formidable 
task ; but the book is worthy of it. 

Communion Day ; Fervorinos Before and After. 
By the Rev. Matthew Russell, S.J. Art and Book 
Company. 2/- 

This little compilation of pious reflections achieves 
its pious purpose with originality and earnestness. 
The author is at his best in the exposition and appli- 
cation of Scripture texts, as in the opening chapters. 
The book is sure to arouse interest, and cannot fail to 
increase devotion towards its object. The price seems 
to us excessive. 

Novem Testamentum graece et latine. Textutn graecutn 
recensuit, latinutn ex Vulgata versione Clementina adiunxit, breves 
capitulorum inscriptiones et locos parallelos uberiores addidit 
Fridericus Brandscheid. Editio critica altera, emendatior. 
\ol, II. (Herder, Freiburg, 1901.) 

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The first volume of this work was noticed in the July 
number of the Downside Review. The strictures there 
passed upon the first volume may be applied to the 
second also. In the first place, the edition is called 
*^ critical," although, as was shown, it has no real claim 
to the title in any received sense of the word ; since 
the nature of the Greek text is settled on purely a priori 
grounds. Again, the conspectus of authorities is too 
scanty to enable the student to form an independent 
judgment on the quality of the Greek text adopted, for 
it is confined ** chiefly to those passages in which the 
Greek reading seems still to differ somewhat from the 

Blessed Sebastian NewdigcUe^ Courtier^ Monk and 
Martyr. By Dom Bede Camm, O.S.B. London : 
Art and Book Company, 1901. 

As so little is known of Bl. Sebastian Newdigate 
apart from the rest of the Carthusian martyrs, the 
materials for his life may be found in a small space. 
The author has brought together all there is to be 
said, and has surrounded the story with details of 
persons and places that help to a definition of the 
martyr. The ** reservoirs " (p. 10) should be des- 
cribed as fishponds — an adjunct to most mansions of 
any size in catholic times and long after. The sketch 
has required more work than its hundred pages would 
at first suggest, but it has evidently been a labour of 
love to the author. The book is thoroughly well 
printed and brought out. 

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To THE Editor of the Downside Review. 

Sir, — In the **Odds and Ends'* of the last number 
of the Downside /Review {paige 184), you put two 
queries about *'the massive brass lamp'' that used 
to hang before the Blessed Sacrament in the former 
College Chapel, at the intersection of the (quasi) 
transepts and the body of the chapel. Your queries 
were: ** Where is it?" and ** In what condition ?" In 
reply to the first question, I am happy to say that it 
is in existence, and is in the first storey of the tower of 
our present church ; and I hope that it will some day 
be again suspended before the Blessed Sacrament, or 
in some suitable chapel of the new church before our 
great relic of the Holy Cross. 

As to the condition of this grand lamp, I am sorry 
to say that it seems to have met with some accident 
(for I cannot bring myself to think that it was the 
work of an iconoclast), which has destroyed what 
added greatly to the beauty of the lamp, and im- 
parted a grace and lightness which its massiveness 
in size and material required, although the substance, 
or material, of which this decoration was made was 
unworthy of the lamp itself. 

Your contributor, **T. B. S.,'* in his interesting 
article ** At the Dawn," in your last issue, informs us 




that the lamp cost no less than ;^83 lis., a sum that 
was certainly equal to ;^90, or more likely to ;^ioo of 
the present coinage. Without wishing to speak dis- 
paragingly of the seven lamps that are at present 
hanging before the Blessed Sacrament, I think it is 
most probable that all seven did not cost more than 

As few of your readers have seen the lamp, they 
will, perhaps, be interested in the following details. 
It is octagonal in shape, having a bold and correct 
cresting, corresponding with the cresting on the taber- 
nacle which is now in the Chapel of St. Peter, or the 
Crypt under the Lady Chapel ; it is eight inches from 
angle to angle, having at each angle a bold and splen- 
didly-modelled head, alternately, of a lion and a wolf, 
and is twenty inches across the centre of the lamp. 
The body of the lamp is formed of correct and bold 
mouldings in burnished brass, decreasing in size to 
the bottom, except for the space of some six inches, 
where there was an open-work wreath, or corona, of 
conventional oak leaves, which gave great opportunity 
for the play of light and shade. 

But when the lamp was made (a.d. 1823), the art of 
carving in wood had not revived ; and to have had this 
corona cast in brass would have added greatly to the 
weight of the lamp, which was already very great, and 
also to its cost, so that it was made of hard cement 
or plaster, and was gilded. The capitals and all the 
head-work of the arcading, or colonnade, that went 
round the sanctuary of the College Chapel, and is still 
in situ in the present museum, is made of plaster or 
strong cement. 

If, as is to be sincerely hoped, this truly grand, 
massive and artistic lamp will before long be restored 
to its original destination of adding to the beauty of 



Correspondence. 315 

God's House, it should be restored to its original 
shape and proportion, but gilded carved oak should 
be substituted instead of cement or plaster for the open 
worked wreath or corona. Doubtless the two Old 
Gregorians who so deftly carved the oak frame for 
the portrait of our martyr, Archbishop Plunket, would 
do this carving if the proposal was made to them. At 
page 125 of the ninth volume of the Downside Review^ 
there is what is termed an ink photo of the interior of 
the old College Chapel, and although the lamp is 
included, it is too small and too indistinct to give us 
an idea of its real appearance. 

In your last number you referred also to the change 
in the fine brass candlesticks that was made in the 
Priorship of Dom Gasquet, by substituting the painted 
brass shields for the solid brass circles of rays in the 
centre of which was a small raised cross. From their 
mouldings and from their bases, it is evident that they 
were the work of the same artist who designed the 
magnificent Tabernacle that cost ;^I30, and which has 
certainly not been surpassed, either in design or exe- 
cution by the Messrs. Hardman, or by any artist 
or designer in brass work of the present day. Yet, 
in spite of their massiveness and of the correctness 
of their mouldings, they are the least satisfactory por- 
tion of the fine altar requisites of the old College 
Chapel, as they offend against one of the leading 
principles of true art. Each candlestick is made in 
the shape of a cross, and the apparent candle was 
merely a prolongation of the upper member, and con- 
sisted of a tin tube painted to resemble a tall and thick 
candle, with a movable cap at the top, and contained a 
small wax candle that was kept up by a twisted wire 
spring beneath it Occasionally during the course of 
some service, through some negligence in not properly 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


securing it, the top would fly off, and the candle be 
shot up into the air. The arrangement was certainty 
an economical one, as the small bits of candles could 
be used up, and, in appearance, the candles seemed to 
always preserve their relative proper height. 

In 1 84 1, our present Gregorian patriarch, the Very 
Rev. Dom Benet Tidmarsh, Titular Cathedra] Prior 
of Coventry, and who quite recently celebrated his 
83rd birthday, but was then a sprightly and active 
Junior, as was well known on the football ground, 
returned from the Monastery of St. Stephen at 
Augsburg, whither he had gone two years pre- 
viously to teach English. On his return he became 
Sacristan and Master of Ceremonies, and soon effected 
an improvement in everything connected with the ser- 
vices and ceremonies of the Church. It is to him that 
St. Gregory's is indebted for the fine brass elevation 
candlesticks with their coronas of lights for Benedic- 
tion, and for the great Paschal candlestick (which cost 
;^ioo) with its fine enamelled work on the central knob, 
which is quite a specialty, as the enamel is on brass, and 
not on either of the precious metals, and was, I believe, 
more or less an experiment. In the great Abbey 
Church at Augsburg there were no sham candles, and 
Brother Benet was resolved that there should not be 
any at Downside. Before long the sham candles on 
the high altar were supplanted by genuine wax ones 
of equal length to them, and of greater diameter. 

But these genuine candles brought with them one 
serious drawback. As the altar stood close under 
the north window, as is unfortunately the case in our 
present church, the down current of cold air from the 
window immediately above them caused them to gutter 
considerably, and thus added greatly to the work of 
the Sacristan, besides injuring the lacquering oi the 




candlesticks* To remedy this in some degree, the 
successor of Br. Benet in the office of Sacristan caused 
the large octagonal brass sconces still in use to be 
made, but quite plain, and without any mouldings. 

When the candlesticks stood beside the tabernacle 
for which they were designed, their height was in due 
proportion, but when placed on our present high altar, 
by the side of the new tabernacle with its rich and 
graceful carved stone spire rising to the height of 
nearly twenty feet, they necessarily appeared small 
and dwarfed. Therefore, when the present painted 
shields were substituted for the circle of rays and small 
cross at the intersection of the arms of the cross with 
the upright stem, some little additional height was 
gained by placing four brass balls under the octagonal 
base of each candlestick, and by raising the sconces at 
the top about a couple of inches above the topmost 
original moulding of the candlestick. 

It is to be hoped that when the permanent high 
altar with its own special furniture, — ^and for which, 
if we mistake not, liberal funds have already and for 
many years past been provided by that generous son 
of St. Gregory's who did so much for the beauty of 
the old College Chapel, — is erected in the new church, 
the present candlesticks will be placed by the taber- 
nacle for which they were designed, in St. Peter's 
Chapel, in the undercroft, or crypt of the Lady Chapel. 
It will then be regretted that on account of the low- 
ness of the groining of that chapel, the fine lamp of 
the period, and which we have partly described, will 
not be able to be placed there. But if, as we hope, 
the octagonal chapel that was designed by the late 
Edward Hansom, Esq., for our grand relic of the 
Holy Cross should be built, it will be sufficiently lofty, 
and will be a most appropriate place in which to hang 




this truly grand and most artistic lamp, by the side of 
which the lamps at present hanging before the Blessed 
Sacrament, although they are pretty, would look poor 

and flimsy. 

I remain. Sir, 

Yours truly, 
J. A. M. 


Sir, — In the current number of the Downside Review 
allusion is made by Abbot Snow to Dr. Taunton's 
reminiscences of early<«days at Downside, which ap- 
peared in VoL XL, under the title ^^ A Past Decade 
of St. Gregory's, 1822.'* On re-perusing this article, 
I find (p. 104) the statement : ^' I think the number 
of boys at that period did not much exceed fifty. And 
now, if the roll were called, how many of them would 
answer ? Perhaps not half-a-dozen. Of course, on 
leaving college, boys get scattered, and of many nothing 
is ever heard. Until recently — ^July 1892 — when the 
lamented death of Sir John Lambert was announced, 
whose career was such an honour to St Gregory's, I 
thought he, my brother and myself were perhaps at 
present the only few survivors.** 

This article was written nine years ago, and it will 
doubtless interest all Old Gregorians to know that 
Henry Villesboisnet, therein mentioned, is still alive. 
He came to Downside on September 28, 1821 (see 
**The Old Students of St. Gregory's," Vol. IV., 
p. 242). Le G6n6ral de Division Comte Henri 
Espivent de la Villesboisnet, Grand Croix de la 
Legion d*Honneur, is now eighty -eight years of 
age, and resides in Paris. Three years ago, when 
in Paris, I had the pleasure of meeting this old 



Correspondence. 319 

school - fellow of my late father — James Vincent 
Halting. The General was then eighty -five, but 
full of life and vigour ; laughing heartily at his recol- 
lection of his life at Downside, and the rough and 
ready customs of those days, some of which he 
described. It may be of interest to add that the 
ividow of his eldest son is now M^re Marie Henriette, 
Sup^rieure des Dames Auxiliatrices at Nantes. These 
g-ood nuns are known in England as the ^^ Helpers of 
the Holy Souls." 

The family of Espivent de la Villesboisnet have 
property in Morbihan and the Loire Inf^rieure, but 
of the five brothers who went to Downside between 
the years 1820-26 the General is the only survivor. 
The eldest brother, Arthur, died at his Chateau de 
Treulan, Morbihan, on the 13th November, 1897, in 
his 89th year. 

Knowing the interest that all readers of the Downside 
Review take in news of former students, especially 
those connected with the early days at Downside, I 
send you the above particulars of one who must now 
be the oldest living student of St. Gregory's. 

J. E. Harting. 
Burlington House, Piccadilly, 
August, 1901. 

Digitized by 



List of boys who passed pubuc Examinations in the 

YEAH igoi. 

ExoMunmtum J6r Higher Certificatn. 

1. F. H. Staples passed in five subjects. 

2. C. F. Blount passed in five subjects. 

3. R. J. Paraell passed in five subjects. 

University of Oxford. 

Senior Local ExaminatiaH. 

1. F. C. MacDermot, 2nd class Honours; ** Excused Res- 

2. R. Walker, 2nd class Honours; ''Excused Responsions ; '* 
obtained distinction in Latin and Greek. 

3. H. W. Schrdder obtained distinction in French. 

4. B. J. Cafferata, 1st Division. 

5. L. Daly, 1st Division. 

6. E. J. Fottrell, 1st Division. 

Junior Local Examination. 

1. C. F. Cafferata, 3rd class Honours. 

2. C. J. Taylor, 1st Division. 

3. F. J. Home, 1st Division. 

4. B. J. Fottrell, 1st Division. 

5. C. R. Ferrers, 1st Division. 

6. C. L. Duchemin, 1st Division. 

7. A. L. McKay, 1st Division. 

8. H. G. de la Pasture, 1st Division. 

9. C. J. Baker, 2nd Division. 

10. J. R. Yourell, 2nd Division. 

11. T. Ryan, 2nd Division. 

12. G. B. Segar, 2nd Division. 

13. C. F. Worswick, 2nd Division. 

Digitized by 


Result of the School Year. 321 

Preliminary Local ExaminaHon, 

1. T. d'Oilliamson, 1st Division, obtained distinction in French. 

2. A. Ardeshir, 1st Division. 

3. L. A. Graham, 1st Division. 

4. A. Letellier, 1st Division. 

5. R. L. Petre, 1st Division. 

6. A. T. Agius, 2nd Division. 

7. C. O. Clifford, 2nd Division. 

8. W. Lane-Joynt, 2nd Division. 

9. C* Mackenzie-Kennedy, 2nd Division. 

10. L. Ordoftez, 2nd Division. 

11. W. I. Topham, 2nd Division. 

12. P. J. Worswick, 2nd Division. 

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riNCE has attracted the attention of the Catholic world fre- 
quently of late years, but her recent treatment of the religious 
congregations has surpassed her previous efforts in audacity and 
success. Our first anxiety is for our brethren at Douai. At present 
their application for authorisation has been cordially granted by 
the municipal authorities. A mistaken impression exists that this 
ends the case. But the sanction both of the Chamber and the 
Senate is still wanting, and no one can be sure that it will be given. 
We must share in their anxiety till that is known. 

The French Benedictine nuns temporarily sta3ring at Stanbrook 
Abbey, we hear, express great pleasure at their reception in England. 
Officials and fellow travellers shewed them the utmost civility and 
courtesy, in complete contrast with their experience on their journey 
through their own country. They were surprised to find England 
so beautiful. The community settled in the Isle of Wight 
received an early visit from Princess Beatrice of Battenbui^, who 
took tea with them and conversed for a long time with them with 
the greatest friendliness and sympathy. 

This last phase of religious persecution is but the work of the 
spirit which was let loose in the turbulent days of 1870. We have 
reason to congratulate ourselves on the vivid picture of that time 
which Mrs. Cashel Hoey gives our readers, and of which it would 
be presumption on our part to speak the praise we think. Although 
she is perhaps the doyenne of English lady writers, she has 
hitherto resisted the most urgent solicitations to publish anjrthing 
in the shape of memoirs. Our indebtedness is increased by her 
promise of a further contribution. 

Digitized by 


Odds and Ends. 323 

In other countries the Benedictine Order has received attentions 
of a different nature. Kaiser Wilhelm had before shown particular 
favour to the Abbot of Maria Laach. After pa3ring a visit to the 
Abbey, his Imperial Majesty gave a magnificent altar to the church. 
His remarks concerning the Benedictine Order were so flat- 
tering that it would be almost indiscreet to publish them. The 
appointment of the Abbot to the See of Metz is understood to be 
by the desire of the Emperor. Gibraltar has also received a Bene- 
dictine bishop in the person of the Abbot of Perugia. We have 
been informed, moreover, that the Abbot of Beuron has received 
the Order of the Black Eagle by command of the German Emperor. 

We give the interesting account of the investiture of the Bishop 
of Metz which appeared in the Times of October 26th. 

" BERLIN, Oct 25. 

The Emperor yesterday received in state the Bishop-designate of Metz at 
the New Palace at Potsdam, when Dr. Benzler did homage and took the oath 
of fidelity to iiis Majesty. Dr. Bender was till lately the abbot of the Bene- 
dictine Monastery of Maria Laach, in the Rhineland. The Emperor had been 
impressed with his qualifications for the difficult post of a German Bishop of 
the provincial capital of Lorraine when his Majesty visited the monastery on 
the occasion of his various recent sojourns in Bonn. There is always some 
difficulty in making arrangements with the Vatican for appointments to vacant 
Bishoprics in Germany, and this applies in particular to the See of Metz« 
which has now been without an occupant for nearly two years. The Bishop 
of Metz is always confronted with the problem of reconciling his pastoral 
sympathies with the disaffected section of the French population of his diocese 
and his duty towards the German Empire. The personal loyalty and devotion 
which Dr. Benzler exhibited when his Majesty visited Maria Laach must have 
made an impression in the highest quarter, and has doubtless contributed to 
recommend the excellent abbot for the See of Metz. 

The Emperor invested yesterday's ceremony at Potsdam with considerable 
solemnity. He himself sat on the throne in the brilliant white uniform of the 
Gardes du Corps with the orange ribbon of the Black Eagle. The Bishop, 
by Imperial permission, wore the habit of the Benedictines, as he has not yet 
been consecrated for his new office, but he had also put on a chain and pec- 
toral cross with precious stones, which had been presented to him by the 
Catholics of Metz, and over the violet-coloured glove on his right hand he 
wore the episcopal ring. On arriving at the New Palace, Bishop Benzler was 
saluted by the guard, and on entering the throne-room he made an obeisance 
towards the throne. He then addressed the Emperor, expressing his homage 
and taking the oath of loyalty, and at the same time thanking his Majesty for 
the many proofs of Imperial confidence that had been vouchsafed to him. He 
added: — 

* It is a difficult field of labour that has been assigned me, and only in the 
thought that I am conforming to the most sacred will of God, declared to me 
by the representative of His authority, can I find courage to enter upon this 




field and to cultivate it. With my whole heart I will fiuthfolly fulfil the promise 
which I am permitted to make to your Majesty at this solemn moment, the 
promise to promote as a Catholic Bishop the welfetre of those who have been 
entrusted to me by cherishing and fostering in them the faith and the fear of 
God, which constitute the firm foundations of the whole order of the State 
and the surest pledge of loyal devotion to the illustrious Sovereign of the 
country. My prayer will be, as it ever was — God preserve and protect yoor 
Majesty, her Majesty the Empress, and the whole Ro3ral House.' 

The Emperor replied : — 

' This b the first time since the German dominion over Alsace-Lorraine was 
established that a high dignitary of the Catholic Church in those lands has 
personally taken the oath of loyalty to the German Emperor. That you, 
right reverend Sir, should be called upon to perform this duty, affords me 
special satisfaction, and it is a source of gratification to me that the important 
question of the appointment to the See of Metz has now been so happily 
settled. I gladly, therefore, invested you with all the dignities and privileges 
appertaining to this position. It was assuredly no light thing for you to for- 
sake the peacefiilness of the beautiful monastery on the Laacher See, where I 
have so often been your guest and the witness of jrour tranquil but beneficent 
labours, and to enter upon a new office, the burden of which is heavy and its 
duties manifold. But the wisdom and faithfulness which have illumined your 
whole life will enable you in your new position to continue to find the right 
path in order that, in this extended and more important field of labour^ a 
blessing may rest upon your work. It will be a matter of conscience for yoo 
to promote concord, to strengthen in the diocesan clergy committed to yoor 
guidance as their chief pastor the spirit of reverence for me, and to encouimge 
love for the German fiatherland. That this will be the case I feel virarranted 
in believing, in view of your activity in the past and your constant and 
approved lojralty. . . .'" 

Apropos of matters Benedictine, the chatty paper M.A.P. recently 
had the following interesting paragraph : — 

"THB HBADOBAR OP A LORD RBCTOR.^Lord Bute was for a time much 
exercised as to the proper headgear to be worn by himself, at out-door pro- 
cessions and the like, in his capacity as Lord Rector. His sense of propriety 
revolted against the chimney-pot hat, wherewith mimicipal and academic 
functionaries sometimes crown their official robes ; nor was he altogether 
satisfied with the ordinary college mortar-board — by the way, is it generally 
known that this curious head-dress is an adaptation, or combination, of the 
biretta and zuchetto, or skull-cap, worn by the Catholic clergy ? The inspir- 
ation came upon him to adopt the hood or cowl worn by a young Benedictine 
Father who was at the time acting as his chaplain. The monastic garment 
was sent to the University tailor and faithfully copied, not however in sober 
black, but in purple silk, lined with glowing crimson ; and my lord Rector 
* proceshed ' through the grey grass-grown streets of his university city duly 
enshrouded in this medieval head-covering." 

We hear talk of a pastoral staff to be presented to our Abbot by 
the Fathers of St. Gregory's serving the mission. At the pilgrimage 



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Odds and Ends. 325 

to Glastonbury, six years ago, Bishop Brownlow was seen to have 
some difficulty in descending the Tor, as he was in full pontificals. 
Someone offered to relieve him of his crozier. He replied drily : 
*' No, thank you. It*s the only time it has been of any service to 

On Wednesday, September 4th, the first portion of St. Benet's 
Minster at Beccles was opened. At the appointed hour a stately 
procession was formed of the clergy about to take part in the 
solemn function, and was watched with curious interest by the 
crowd assembled in St. Mary's Road. The Pontifical High Mass 
was sung by Dr. Riddell, the Bishop of Northampton, assisted 
by his vicar-general, Mgr. Scott, as assistant priest, and Canons 
Ducket and Rogers as deacons at the throne. Dom Clement 
Fowler and Dom Osmund Knight were respectively deacon and 
sub-deacon of the mass. Dr. Hedley, Bishop of Newport, and 
the Abbot of Downside were present in the Sanctuary. The 
Plain Chant, according to the Mechlin edition, was sung through- 
out, the whole congregation joining with the clergy in alternate 
verses with the Cantors. Dom Bede Cox, of St. Mary's, 
Liverpool, presided at the organ. His Lordship the Bishop of 
Newport preached an impressive sermon, showing the absolute 
necessity of a moral personality, such as we recognise in the Catholic 
Church, for the preservation and interpretation of the record which 
Christ has left us of his teaching. After the Mass, to the gratifi- 
cation of all present, the Abbot of Downside admitted to the Brother- 
hood of the order of St. Benedict two of the chief Benefactors of the 
Beccles Church, Mr. Fred Smith of Bungay, and Mr. G. J. Kenyon 
of Gillingham Hall. 

After the religious ceremony the company adjourned to the Town 
Hall for lunch. The Abbot of Downside took the chair, and many 
were the congratulations offered to Fr. Meinrad Fulton and his 
congregation upon ''the great things" that had been done in 
Beccles in so short a time. If the company wanted to know the 
secret of this success, the Abbot assured them that it was earnest- 
ness. The clergy and the congregation had shewn themselves in 
earnest, and that was what had drawn to them the esteem of those 
who were in a position to help the mission. All who have seen 
this beautiful church at Beccles, and have witnessed the labour 
and care that have been bestowed upon it, will understand at once 
the words of Bishop Hedley, that there is not a stone in the church 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

326 Odbs and Ends, 

that does not bear the impress of Fr. Meinrad*s zeal. We there- 
fore congratulate Fr. Meinrad that his labour and care and his 
zeal have been so far successful, and trust that he will live to see 
the completion of the work so well b^;tin. 

The following account is from the Eastern Daily Press of Sep- 
tember Sth : — 

" The oave of a bandsome new church at Beccles was opened yesterday 
with elaborate and a p propriate ceremonial. It is not orientated, but stands 
north and south. The material emplojred for the interior is Bath stone, and 
for the outside Ancaster stone with Bath stone dressings. The Minster when 
completed will consist of nave and aisles with west porch, a baptistery to the 
east, central tower, and transepts, sanctuary, and Lady Chapel beyond, the 
aisles being continued round the sanctuary. Up to the present the nave and 
aisles, together with the foundations of the west porch up to the plinth line, is 
aU that is completed. Above the arches of the nave are the triforium and 
clerestory. The north porch is formed from the thickness of the wall, and has 
a depth of 8 ft. 6 ins. The extreme interior length from Lady Chapel to north 
porch will be 182 ft. The dimensions of the nave are 84 ft. in length, consis- 
ting of seven bays, with a height of 40 ft. and width of 21 ft. The aisles, 
which are designed merely for processional purposes, are 7 ft. wide and 16 ft. 
in height. The tower will be 25 ft. square externally, and will rise to a height 
of 81 ft. above St. Mary's Road. The bay over the temporary altar is hand- 
somely decorated in gold, with shields containing sacred emblems. The 
arches of the nave are supported by massive piers. Against these are semi- 
circular shafts which rise to the spring of the clerestory windows, where they 
end in a cap. Here the principab of the roof begin, and to them are morticed 
ribs, which are carried over the nave, forming circular arches to each bay. 
The pulpit — which is presented to the church by the architect's fiither, Mr. F. 
Banham — is of Caen stone, with marble columns with handsomely carved 
caps, and although not quite in keeping with the Norman style of the building, 
is a very effective piece of work. On the right-hand side as you enter by the 
west porch is the chapel of the patfx>n Saint, St. Benedict, in which is a mini- 
ature copy of the statue of St. Peter at Rome. The style of architecture b 
that of the Norman period, shown in the massive piers of the nave, 4 ft. 6 in. 
across, and the outer walls 2 ft. 6 in. Finally the general plan of nave and 
aisles would remind those who have seen it of the beautiful Norman church of 
Blyth on the borders of Yorkshire. The north fa9ade might recall ideas of 
Kirkstall and Lindisfame ; the transepts and south end, Ramsey. Ifiley, 
in Oxfordshire, pays its contribution in the tower, and old, historic, Benedictine 
Glastonbury gives its support to the fabric in the buttresses of the Lady cbapd 
and baptistery. The architect is Mr. F. E. Banham of Beccles, and the contrac- 
tors are Messrs. Allen of the same town, whilst Mr. W. Gibbs (Beccles) has been 
responsible for the glazing, painting and gasfitting. The total cost will be 
something between ;£! 6,000 and ;(;i 7,000. The chief donor is Mr. Fred Smith 
of Bungay, who has given ;f 6,000, and there is a lady who has given more 
than a thousand. A handsome side altar is being designed, together with a 



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Odds and Ends. 327 

tabenuicla, the total cost of which will be about £500^ which sum is the gift 
of an anoajrmous bene£Eu:tor." 

Our hearty congratulations to Fr. Abbot Raynal on the occasion 
of the jubilee of his profession, which was kept with rejoicing at 
St. Anselm's, in Rome, on the feast of the Immaculate Conception. 
On the Eve, our venerable Jubilarian pontificated at the first 
vespers ; on retiring to his room, which was decorated with plants 
and drapery, the lay brothers came to offer their congratulations. 
After supper the whole community assembled in one of the 
parlours off the Cloister, and the Abbot Primate, speaking in 
English, passed a warm-hearted eulogy upon the English Bene- 
dictine Congregation, speaking of it as the Congregation which 
was bedewed with the blood of martyrs, and which was carrying on 
a great work for England. On the feast itself Abbot Raynal ponti- 
ficated at the High Mass and Vespers, which were followed by 
Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament. The day ended with a 
'* Ludus Academicus.'* Dom Anselm Caplet delivered an original 
poem in honour of the jubilee, and Dom Philip Langdon recited a 
short poetical composition of his own. Fr. Abbot Primate again 
addressed the community, in Italian, and Dom Dunstan Sibley, the 
Cellarer, offered his congratulations in the name of the former 
Belmont juniors who were present there. The rest of the hour- 
and-a-half was devoted to music and songs. 

Mr. Terry's appointment to the management of the choir of the 
new Westminster Cathedral is a serious loss to Downside. We 
have no need to dwell upon the importance of the work he did 
here, because it is well known to English Catholics, and it has 
been estimated by musical critics whose authority lies beyond im- 
peachment. We wish Mr. Terry success, and we safely predict it 
for him in his new position. Very fortunately we were able to 
have his services till November, so that he had time to work 
the choir into shape for the new term, and to supply the places of 
those who had left, from the ranks of the newcomers. At the 
last choir practice the captain of the school, T. Ryan, read an 
address and presented Mr. Terry with a handsome ivory bdton 
from the members of the choir. Mr. Terry, in his reply, gave 
the choir all credit for their share in his successes, and especially 
praised the present members for their willingness in the exacting 
work of the past year. 

Digitized by 


328 Odds and ends. 

The Exhibition Concert was a serious and formidable under- 
taking, as may be seen from the following programme : — 

Programme of a Recital of Polyphonic Church Music by Italian 
and English Composers of the 16th and 17th centuries. July 
20th, 1901. 

1. A Lamentatioa /br five voices S. A, 7*. B. B. (MS.) Thomas TaUis 

2. Beoedictusy^nt a/our-part Mass (MS.) Thomas Tallis. 

3. Agnus Dei from a six-part Mass, eniitied " Eugt bone," Dr. Christopher 
Tye (d, about isSo). 

4. Sanctus and Agnus Dei/yost a five-part Mass, Wm. Byrd{tsjS(?ytb^). 

5. UoMtfiirfive voices S S. A. T, B, Laetentur CoelL Wm. Byrd. 

6. Motet for eight voices, double choir. SUbat Mater. Palestrina (75/^?)- 

7. Motet fin" eight voices, double choir. Surge iUuminare. Palestrina. 

8. Motet ^ five voices S. S. A. T. B. Hodie Sanctus Benedictns. PiUr 
Philips (161 j). 

9. Anthem /br six voices S. S. A. A. T. B., with organ. O Thou the central 
Orb. Orlando Gibbons (iS^j-i^). 

JO. Quartet 7*. T. B. B. O Sacrum Convivium. Ludovico Viadana, bom c 

11. Motet (MS.) for five voices with organ. Salvator Mundi. Dr. Blow 

12. Motet (MS.) fiir fitur voices with organ. O vos omnes. Duron {i^lh 

13. Motet /or five voices S. S. A. T. B., with otgan. Jehova quam multi. 
Henry Purcell (idgS-idqs)' 

14. Chorus fi>ffimr voices. Adoremus. Gregorio Allegri (is8o-t6g2). 

15. Domine salvum fac Stadler. 

Truly a heavy task for any choir ; still more for a college choir 
which has just been harassed by examinations, whose physique 
has been tried by the exactions of the cricket and bathing seasons, 
and who have been practised in season and out of season till they 
are on the verge of collapse. The concert was given in the church ; 
the choir was arranged under the sanctuary lamp, aild the audience 
sat in the boys' places. The inter\'al between each piece was very 
short, as the audience reserved comment till afterwards, and the 
programme was gone through in an hour and a half. 

After some hesitation we have decided to give here the 
account and criticism of the Concert which appeared in the 
Saturday Review and Outlook of Saturday, July 27th. Our hesi- 
tation sprang from the thought that we might be accused of 
including the blowing our own trumpets among our other musical 
accomplishments. But we think that future generations have a 
right to know what has been said of us ; and also that those of 



Odds and Ends. 329 

our readers who have not already seen the notices will thank us 
for doing so. 

Frmn the •* Saturday Review^** 2ythjuly^ i^i. 


HIGH amongst the Mendip Hills Downside Abbey stands, as far away from 
the whirl of London as ever the churlish stupidity of two rival railway 
companies can make it, and probably on that very account all the more 
peaceful and t>eautiful. Though not a Romanist, nor indeed, technically 
speaking, a religious man, a preliminary trip there some weeks ago, a trip 
referred to in these columns, convinced me that it would be well worth 
while running down there again last Saturday to hear sung the programme of 
music which was given in my article of the week before. So with a number 
of brother musicians and critics I took the 11.30 train from Paddington, a 
train ingeniously timed to draw up in the Great Western station at Bath at 
the very moment when the other train is leaving the Midland station for 
Chilcompton. However, as usual, the South- Western train was late, and in 
spite of the railway companies having done their worst we arrived in time for 
the concert. This, in defiance of my previous announcement, was after all 
gfven in the church, Father Ford and . his colleagues firmly believing music 
written for the church to demand ecclesiastical surroundings to sound welL It 
was a good thing that this decision was taken ; for though the music of Pales- 
trina, his forbears, contemporaries and successors is always splendid, it never 
makes one-tenth of its proper effect when it is given in the concert-room. The 
experiment has been tried scores of times — by the Bach Choir, for instance — 
but it has never to my knowledge been successful. The music demands stone 
pillars and stained glass windows as much as a Wagner opera needs all the 
devices of modern stage scenery and stage management. It would have 
been a pity had so excellent a programme been spoilt by being got through 
amidst surroundings reminiscent of comic operas and the customary con- 
comitants of a school breaking up. The notion of giving such a concert on 
this occasion was an excellent one. Music in the Anglican Church is in a 
hopeless condition : there seems not the slightest reason to hope that, at least 
for many years, it will rise from the depths to which it has fallen. Music in 
the Roman Church is also in a very bad plight ; but the Roman Church has, 
at any rate, a magnificent store to draw upon ; and if only Downside con- 
tinues with the work it has taken in hand, within a few years it is probable 
that one will dare to venture into, say, the average London (Roman) church on 
a Sunday morning without fear of having one's ears assaulted by the stuff which 
I have described in these columns from time to time during the past two years. 
In fact, Downside may t>ecome to present-day organists and choir-directors of 
the Roman Church what Bayreuth was for a few years to the opera conductors 
and managers of Germany. That is Downside's importance and significance ; 
that is why I deal with it at such length. But if it is to have this far-reaching 
influence, it is necessary that Catholics should hear the work it does, the music 
it sings and the manner of singing it ; and since— as I have remarked — it is 
anything rather than an accessible spot, it was a capital idea to afford the 
people who came to see their sons gather up prizes an opportunity of listening 
to the great masters of Roman Church music. 

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330 Odds and ends. 

So fiu- as one could jodgv, these people AppreciAted the pM^MVMiice r^^ 
at leaat they did not get up and walk out as they certainly would have done 
had the concert consisted of the music which one too finequently hears in 
London churches. Most of the items had been given for the first time at 
Downside ; few of them can be heard anywhere save at Downside. The first 
was a Lamentation of old Tallis. He is not a composer to be vastly admired ; 
he has been for several years preposterously overrated ; he has been called 
the superior of B3rrde, to whom he stands much as Schumann or Mendelssohn 
stands to Beethoven ; yet he is by no means a composer to be lightly dis- 
missed. This setting of *' How doth the city sit solitary '* is charged with 
pathos ; there are touches in it that are almost worthy of Palestrina ; the 
whole thing is fsr superior to any of the music by which Tallis is known in 
the English Church. It was beautifully sung, of course without organ, by the 
Downside choir under the direction of Mr. R. R. Terry. A Benedictus from 
a four-part mass by the same composer did not strike me as neariy so fine, 
though it is workmanlike stuff. After this we had an Agnus Dei from a mass 
by Christopher Tye, a musician of whom I am ashamed to say I know next 
to nothing. This movement is not only expressive and for moments lovely, 
but has so definite a character that after hearing it one could almost swear 
to a fresh Tye piece at a first hearing. Unluckily, it came just before the 
Sanctus and Agnus from Byrde's five-part mass which I discussed here two 
years ago, and this eclipsed neariy ever3rthing that had gone before and a 
good deal of what came after. The more one studies this mass, the nK>re 
glorious an art-achievement it is seen to be. There is nothing in the world 
more tender than the Agnus : it seems paradoxical to say so, but as the parts 
enter and the pile is built up, the tenderness of it becomes colossal ; and then at 
the finish the whole thing melts away in a delicious stream of the most wonder- 
ful rapturous melodies, twining and intertwining, ever conceived. Bjrrde, save 
for the renderings of this mass at Downside and Brompton Oratory, is hardly 
known ; but in the good time to come he will be placed with the immortals. 
I have no space to deal with all the numbers of this programme in detail, but 
three more at least must be mentioned. First, the Stabat Mater of Palestrina 
for double choir, sung from a trustworthy edition made by Mr. Barclay Squire 
for the Worcester Festival of 1899, did not quite come off. Then later a 
motet, *' Salvator mundi," by Dr. Blow, came to me as a huge surprise. I 
know nothing else by Blow nearly so poignant or so masterly in construction 
as this : one might almost imagine that when he wrote it, Purcell sat at his 
elbow and told him what to do. Finally, Purcell's '* Jehova quam multi ** was 
sung well, and quite held its own with the polyphonic music we had just heard. 
Mr. H. J. Davis played the organ accompaniment to this, as well as to the 
other things with organ parts, very finely ; but he was seriously handicapped 
by having to play on an instrument originally built for George IV. and not in 
any respect satisfactory. 

Such a recital as this, so exquisitely rendered, could be heard nowhere else 
in England, nor, for that matter, in Europe. Palestrina is sung in places, and 
the musicians of the mighty Flemish school — to which I believe Palestrina 
properly belongs— are given a turn in a few Continental churches. But 
examples of the art of the great English school can be heard nowhere save at 
Downside ; and, to repeat myself, if the Roman Church in this country means 
to climb up out of the musical mire into which it has &llen, it is to this school 



Odds and Ends. 331 

it must go. In the mere scoring^ of the old Engrlith maaaes and motets there 
is a task which will keep several industrious men busy for many years. Sooner 
or later the work will have to be done. I am curious to know whether the 
Roman Church will do anything to help it forward. It is aU very well for 
Father Ford and the brethren of Downside to put their shoulders to the wheel ; 
but it is scarcely fair that they should face all the hard toil and popularise our 
English music, and then perhaps some catchpenny priest or choir-master come 
along- and by doing the thing in a big London church gain all the credit of 
having brought about a revival. Those who want to gain any credit must 
begin work now and take their share of the drudgery. Will any choirmaster, 
however, be given an opportunity of doing so ? I am wondering what Cardinal 
Vaughan intends to do about the music of the new Westminster Cathedral. Is 
he going to give Frenchified or Italianised services, or is the show to be 
entrusted to a pack of incompetent amateurs who will indulge in sentimental 
German masses : what is he going to do ? Surely this English cathedral ought 
to be the place where one can depend upon hearing English church music ; 
surely all Roman Catholics are not hopelessly denationalised in their musical 
tastes : there must be a few in high places who cannot stand the operatic 
fooleries which make ridiculous and irreverent half the services in London ! 
In our church music, as in all our other music, are we never to shake off the 
accursed yoke of the foreigner? Money is being spent on Westminster 
Cathedral ; ever3rthing, I am told, is to be of the very best. I hope that the 
music alone will not l>e banal 

J. F. R. 

From '* The Outlook,'' July 27th, igoi. 


PILGRIMS to SL Gregory, his abbey, must needs change stations at Bath. 
Of last Saturday's band not a few had sat out a Wagner opera the night 
before, and to some of these, as they threaded the Jane Austen streets, 
the nineteenth century seemed very long, and the epoch of the Beau Nash, 
with Mr. Handel in his glory and Beethoven unborn, very far away. But 
pursuit of the thought discloses facts still harder to be realised ; as that more 
years divided Jane Austen's time from Purcell's than our own from Beethoven's, 
and that Palestrina's heyday was nearly a hundred years before Purcell's 
birth ; and, most wonderful of all, this tracking into the backward and abysm 
of time leads not towards narrowness and gloom but into breadth and light. 
The most of Englishmen believe that, although architecture and painting and 
poetry displayed their fullest bloom in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the 
art of music restrained its flowering until the eighteenth and nineteenth, and 
stammered uncouthly under the vaults of the middle ages and before the 
frescoes of the Renaissance. It is true that Music, through twice striking 
out a new path for herself instead of wearing down the old ways, has shown 
vigorous life, while Architecture has been playing variations on the past for 
her own dance of death ; but this is not to say that when Architecture was 
quick Music was dead. Of course it should be more in sorrow than in anger 
that one should tell Englishmen of their darkness and loss ; for, unhappily, 
the strangeness of the useful old clefs and certain other difficulties have sealed 
the polyphonic music from this age of slight musicianship, and its exposition 



332 Odds and ends. 

has been left to a few bloodless antiquaries who have made a skeleton rattle, 
where a things of flesh and blood should breathe and move. The great merit 
of Mr. Terry, the editor of *' Downside Motets," and of the Eng^lish Benedic- 
tines at St. Gregory's Abbey, is their treatment of the sixteenth and seventeenth 
century compositions as noble and perennially affecting monuments of music, 
rather than as curiosities and quaint survivals. In other words, they will have 
it that Byrd and Purcell stand to the whole body of musical classics as Spencer 
and Milton stand to our literature. What Mr. Dolmetsch has been doing these 
many years for the instrumental works of the same period, the Downside 
choir is doing for the motets and masses ; and the doing is as much bigger in 
style as St. Gregory's abbey-church is bigger than the delightful Charlotte 
Street music-room. Making full allowance for the character of the secular 
instrumental as compared with the sacred choral works, and also for chamber 
as opposed to concert-room ideals, it cannot be denied that Mr. Dolmetsch 
tends to turn all the composers into little masters — his Rembrandts into 
Gerard Dows. Poignant, sweet, pensive they may be/ and at times rhetorical, 
but virile, passionate, big, they are never. All his swans are geese, if not 
turtle-doves ; whereas at Downside they mount on wings as eagles, in all the 
pride of the spacious times that gave them birth. Saturday's recital was not 
flawless — though the comparative fisilure in the latter, organ-accompanied 
pieces at least served to emphasise the choir's mastery of that purely and 
exclusively vocsl music which even Richard Wagner wished to see ousting 
instrumentally-accompanied song from the church — but it was worth half a 
doxen Triennial Festivals, and its repetition, where organists, choirmasters, 
and people of all creeds could easily attend it, would be fruitful in a high 
degree. E. J. O. 

How risky a thing it is to treat of any subject without the 
qualification or assistance of an expert. We have a book recently 
sanctioned by the Cambridge University for use by the students. 
The volume, *' Select Historical Documents of the Middle Ages " by 
Ernest F. Henderson, A.B, (Trin. Coll., Conn.), is an interesting 
and representative collection of documents illustrating the religious 
and civil life of those times. Book the third commences with the 
Rule of St. Benedict and gives a very full synopsis of each chapter. 
The brief introduction conveys an idea of the author's acquaintance 
with existing monastic development in its last sentence : '* The 
French Revolution almost killed the order of Benedict, and it is 
now kept alive only in Austria and Italy. The monks are still 
famous for their classical learning '* (p. 268). On the whole the 
representation of the Rule is fairly accurate, though it contains 
some gross errors. 

We may pass over the rendering oi gyrovagi as ** gyratory," 
though it seems to class that unedifying kind of monks with the 
dancing dervishes. Chapter 4, •* What are the instrumeats of 



Odds and Ends. 333 

good works " is dismissed with the remark '* Here follow seventy- 
two quotations from the Bible." In treating of the Divine Office, 
the writer is quite at sea through not knowing that the VigiluB^ 
which he terms ** Vigils," were what we know as Matins ; and the 
Matutiniy which he calls Matins, are our Lauds. The technical 
terms Prime &c. are rendered as '' the first, third, sixth and ninth 
hours.'* Compline he leaves in its latin form, and once presents as 
'* the completing prayer." The most flagrant mistake occurs in 
the directions for manual labour, chapter 48. We read there of 
*'the meal of the sixth hour" and then '* the nana (the second 
meal) which " shall be gone through with more moderately about 
the middle of the eight hour." Surely the writer ought to have 
suspected something amiss with a meal following on another so 
closely, and if he had referred back to his own rendering of chap- 
ter 20 he could not have set down anything so preposterous. The 
true version is : '* Let None be said seasonably (temperius) at about 
the middle of the eighth hour." Moreover the rendering of ad 
fruges colligendas zs ** picking fruits" is worse than feeble. The 
monastic dress also puzzles him ; the tunica becoming a '* gown " 
and the scapulare ** a working garment." St. Benedict bids his 
monks be indifferent as to the coarseness {grossiiudine) of the 
material, not "the size." The wise regulation (chapter 35) that 
those serving the Refectory shall take bread and drink in addition 
to the regular allowance, an hour before the dinner, is grievously 
mistranslated thus : " the weekly cooks moreover, one hour before 
the hour of refection, shall receive the measure of food previously 
fixed upon ; the different drinking vessels, namely, and the bread." 
It is nothing short of misrepresentation to describe prostration 
(provolvat se ad Abbati pedes) as ** grovelling at the feet of the 
Abbot." In his chapter on the Rule of St. Francis we find him 
again puzzled by the word Laudes^ which he translates as 


An interesting and handsomely illustrated book recently pub- 
lished at the Cambridge University Press, on "The Care of Books," 
by John Willis Clark, M.A., F.S.A., bears the following dedica- 
tion, "Francisco Aidano Gasquet, Monacho Benedictino, D.D., 
Magistro Discipulus." In the preface the author states that it 
was " the admirable paper by Dom Gasquet which he modestly 
calls ' Some Notes on Mediaeval Monastic Libraries,* which opened 
his eyes to the possibilities of his subject. We record the fact 
with greater satisfaction because the paper appeared originally 
in the Downside Rewew. 

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We undersUnd that Dom E. C. Butler's '* Paliadius " is now in 
the press. Dom A. B. Kuypers' '' Book of Ceme " is almost 
ready for publication. 

The office of None lends itself to misconception from its similar- 
ity to the common English word '' none." A lady visitor who was 
studying* the horarium of some church function at Belmont, 
thought it very considerate and proper that there should be none 
(None) after dinner ! 

Fr. Gregory Murphy's labours over the decoration and improve- 
ment of St. Begh's Church, Whitehaven, which we have before 
described in detail, were brought to a fitting conclusion by a well- 
attended mission given by Redemptorist Fathers, followed by a 
Visitation and Confirmation by Dr. Preston, the auxiliary Bishop 
of the diocese. Father Gregory is now engaged upon the much- 
wanted construction of a presbytery. The following account of 
the ceremony appeared in a local paper. It is pleasing to see that 
Father Bruno Kengelbacher's work in the parish has had worthy 
recognition : — 

<* On Saturday, October 29th, Dr. Preston, the auxiliary bishop 
of Hexham and Newcastle, paid his first visit to Whitehaven to 
hold, in the absence of the Bishop of the Diocese, the usual episco- 
pal visitation, and to confer the sacrament of Confirmation. His 
Lordship said the eight o'clock Mass on Sunday, and gave 
Communion to about three hundred communicants. At the eleven 
o'clock Mass he formally opened the visitation, and was recdved 
at the principal entrance to the church by Father Murphy (vested 
in cope) and the surpliced choir. He was then conducted in 
procession to the chancel, a carved oak chair and '* priedieu " 
having been placed for him in the sanctuary. After mass Dr. 
Preston delivered his visitation sermon. Having explained to the 
congregation the nature and objects of episcopal visitation, he 
congratulated them and their clergy upon the beauty of the 
church, which, he assured them, he considered the handsomest 
church in the Diocese. He was, he said, particularly struck by 
its architectural features, and the completeness and the excellence 
of all appointments, noticing specially the baptistery (Father 
Bruno*s memorial), the stained-glass windows in the side chapels 
and the decorations recently executed by Mr. Pippit, and admiring 
the beauty of design and the exquisite taste which pervaded the 
whole of the work. He also expressed his satisfaction at the 

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Odds and ends. 335 

remarkably large attendances at the recent mission conducted by 
the Redemptorist Fathers.^ 

Most visitors to Downside have been able to admire Father 
Dunstan Sweeney's tasteful work in S. John the Evangelist's, 
Bath. During the last few months he has completed the decora- 
tions of the sanctuary by a discreet gilding of the reredos, encaustic 
tiling the chancel-floor, the placing of marble steps to the predella 
and communion-rails, the decoration and tiling of the baptistery. 
He has accomplished an important and beautiful work. 

Dom Gregory Quinlan was ordained priest at Downside by the 
most Rev. Archbishop Scarisbrick on Sunday, Nov. 9th, and sang 
his first Mass on the following day. We wish him many years of 
the graces of the priesthood. To the Rev. B. Cassidy, who was 
ordained priest on November 30th, we offer our sincerest con- 

A note of pathos is attached to Father G. Quinlan's ordination 
in the fact that Bishop Brownlow, who had made arrangements to 
perform the ceremony, died on the day before. An admirable 
portrait of the Bishop appeared in the Downside Reviewy]\jXy 1894. 
In a previous number we recorded his gift of a valuable collection of 
shells to the museum. To him also we owe an interesting souvenir 
of Archbishop Ullathome, the first mitre which he had as Vicar 
Apostolic of the Western District. 

To Monsignore Russell, now Vicar Capitular of the diocese of 
Clifton, we are indebted for a fine cope chest, containing receptacles 
for a dozen copes. We offer him our sympathy in the heavy trial 
he has undergone in the death of the Bishop, and the onerous 
duties which it has entailed. To his energy and taste it is owing 
that the services at the Pro-Cathedral of Clifton are so worthily 
and impressively carried out, while the fabric has been considerably 
beautified during his Administratorship. 

Henry Jump (O.G.) and W. Sinclair- Loutit have entered Trinity 
College, Cambridge. Father Benedict Kuypers has left Cam- 
bridge, and Brother Denis Goolden is studying there in his place. 

J. Kenyon, T. Gallini, B. Worswick, and E. Radcliffe now 
represent Downside at Oxford. 

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336 Odds and Ends. 

Walter Cox (O.G.) has just completed an tmportaot portrait of 
Cardinal Vaughan on commission. We have seen some clever 
portrait work of his, which makes us hope that we may have some 
of his canvasses on our walls. 

Mr. Wilfrid Ward (O.G.) has been appointed to the Royal 
Commission of Enquiry concerning University Education in 

On October 22nd Sir John Day (O.G.) sent in his formal resig- 
nation to the Lord Chancellor as Judge of the King^s Bench 
Division. May he live long to enjoy the honourable repose he 
has so well earned. 

Captain Greig (O.G.), the noted Hampshire cricketer, paid us 
a friendly visit before returning to India. The statement that he 
learnt his cricket at Downside, which has been contravened else- 
where, he informed us, was of his own making to a newspaper 
interviewer who made him his prey. In India Capt. Greig saw 
much of Surgeon Percy Kilkelly, though, oddly enough, he did not 
know he was a Gregorian. Greig was through the Tirah cam- 
paign, and so has seen something in India beside sport and 
regimental routine. 

Sub-Lieutenant J. M. Maxwell Scott (O.G.) has been appointed 
to the Pembroke for the Porcupine, to date from October 12th. 

Vivian Temple Layton (O.G.) has recently got his commission 
in the R.H.A., and has gone to join his regiment in India. 

Brigade Major T. Britten (O.G.) has lately been appointed to 
serve as Acting Assistant Adjutant General in the absence of his 
Colonel. He writes from the Hill Station at Nit-Abu. Though 
a temporary appointment, it is a flattering testimony to his merit, 
in these days when so little goes by favour. 

The Graphic of September 28 had a portrait of Mr. George 
Lambert (O.G.) with the following paragraph : — 

Mr. George Lambert, Director of Greenwich Hospital, is retiring from his 
office after more than forty years of public service. The post of Director of the 
Greenwich Hospital was first instituted in 1855 by Lord Northbrook, and Mr. 
Lambert was chosen to fill it. The Director has control of the Hospital 
Funds, the income from which forms the principal source of the pensions 



Odds and Ends. 


(other than reserved or retired pay) g^nted to officers and men of the Royal 
Navy and Royal Marines. Under Mr. Lambert's able management, the 
income from the fiinds has considerably increased. Not only so, but under 
his administration the cost of management has been reduced to 2} per 
cent, of the income. Nor is this the only good service to the Navy which 
Mr. Lambert has done. In 1890 he was appointed the Admiralty representa- 
tive on the Council of Almoners of Christ's Hospital with the Bluecoat School, 
whereby a large number of sons of naval officers are eligible for entry on the 
foundation. Mr. Lambert is also a member of the Central Council for 
Reorganisation of War Relief Funds established last year, and at the request 
of the Council he has undertaken to act as hon. secretary. Our portrait is 
from a drawing made in '89. (Not in the least like him.] 

Mr. J. E. Halting, a contemporary of G. Lambert's, sends us 
the following interesting "labyrinth" of St. Bernard, which was 
copied from a board hanging on an inside staircase wail of the 
Latin Convent on the summit of Mount Carmel, during a tour in 
the Holy Land. This " labyrinth," it will be seen, consists of five 
maxims, ''quo bene vivit homo," which are to be thus deciphered : 
The word "Noli "in the bottom square to the left is the com- 
mencement of each precept ; " dicere" in the upper square to the 
left is the second word of the first ; ' ' omnia quae " in the next 
square but one to the left on the bottom line is the third ; " scis " 
(in the upper line) is the next, and so on zigzag until " non vult " 
is arrived at. So that the first maxim runs thus — "Noli dicere 
omnia quae scis, quia qui dicit omnia quae scit saepe audit quod 
non vult." The second is elicited by the same process, taking 
" Facere" as the second word, and so on in zigzag order to the 
end. The third, fourth, and fifth are on exactly the same 
principle : — 

LABYRINTHUS a DIVO BERNARDO compositus quo bene vivit homo. 






Non vult 






Non credit 






Non est 






Non habet 






Non debet 







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We have just had a pleasant visit from Father W. Keatinge 
(O.G.), who, we are glMjd to say, seems quite recovered from his 
serious illness. He is now promoted to be Third Class Chaplain. 
He is due to return to South Africa early in January. 

The Hon. and Rev. Basil Fielding (O.G.) will shortly complete 
his service at the front. We have heard very flattering accounts 
of the valuable work he has been able to do. 

Captain M. J. Sweetman (O.G.), 2nd Yorkshire Regiment, was 
gazetted Brevet-Miyor on September 27th. He has since been 
appointed Adjutant to the 3rd Battalion of the R. I. Regiment. 

On October 7th, Comte Boson de Talleyrand-P^rigord was 
married at St. Mary's, Chelsea, to Miss Helen Morton, daughter 
of Mr. Levi Morton, for some time Ambassador of the United 
States at Paris. Our best wishes to bride and bridegroom. 

On Friday, October 25th, the Marquis of Dufferin, as Chancellor 
of the R. University of Ireland, paid the following generous 
tribute to Sir Rowland Blennerhassett when conferring on him the 
degree of LL.D. : — 

** Lastly, I shall have the extreme satisfaction of conferring the degree of 
LL.D,f honoris causa, upon my friend and colleague Sir Rowland Blenner- 
hassett, President of the Queen's College, Cork, and a member of our Senate. 
As you know, Sir Rowland Blennerhassett occupies a foremost position in 
educational work in Ireland. He has been for many years a Commissioner 
of National Education, and prior to his appointment as President of Queen's 
College, Cork, he was inspector of Industrial Schools and Reformatories in 
Ireland. His writings on University matters, especially in reference to the 
German University system, of which Sir Rowland has wide and intimate 
knowledge, have attracted considerable attention, both here and on the 
Continent. It will give me personally peculiar pleasure to be the instrument 
of conferring this well-deserved honour upon our distinguished senator." 

It is a pleasure to us to record the brilliant success of Henry 
Knight, jun. (O.G.), in Branch III of his legal examinations, com- 
prising Criminal Law and Law of Evidence and Procedure. He 
came out head of the list, and secured the ;£50 prize. Out of the 
98 candidates 7 were placed in the 1st class, 20 in the 2nd, 49 in 
the 3rd, and 22 failed. 

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Odds and Ends. 339 

Surgeon-Major local Lieut. -Col. C. R. Kilkelly, M.B.» C.M.B., 
Grenadier Guards, is granted the local rank of Colonel whilst in 
charge of the Imperial Yeomanry Hospital at Pretoria. 

Father Francis Sweetman returned to active service on Septem- 
ber 19th. He is very considerably improved, though not entirely 
restored to health. He is at present stationed at Dundee. 

Father Norbert Birt arrived in England from South Africa early 
in November. He gave a very interesting account of some of his 
experiences to the boys during his stay here. He is now engaged 
with the story of Downside. 

Father Stephen Rawlinson is still at the front; and also Father 
Qifford. The former was recommended in a proclamation of Lord 
Roberts on September 12th. 

A liberal supply of Christmas dainties has gone to our three 
chaplains at the front, towards which the boys made a generous 

Here are the Laws of St. Gregory's Court, which used to hang 
up in *' His Majesty's " palace. We doubt whether any other 
court could subsist on such a slender stock of legal enactment. 


Whosoever shall call his Majesty by any other name than King 
or Majesty shall be fined. 

Whosoever shall disturb his Majesty's reign by any unruly 
conduct shall be fined 6d., and banished during his Majesty's 

Whosoever shall leave the door of the Palace open shall be fined. 

Whosoever shall neglect the duties of his office, or interfere with 
those of any other officer, shall be fined 6d. and banished during 
his Majesty's pleasure. 

Whosoever shall murmur at the decisions of the Lord Chief 
Justice or Earl Marshal, shall be banished during his Majesty's 


One point of court etiquette is not mentioned in the article — 
however, it could have been rarely brought into use. When the 
King of the previous year was present, he was called '* Majesty," 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

340 Odds and ends. 

and sat oa the King's left, and was expected to show his royal 
blood by appearing^ in a dress suit. When did the custom of 
calling the monarch of the little palace " King of the Coal Box ** 

come into use ? 

How did our excursions come to be called * * journeys " ? Possibly 
it is the French *'joum^.** The Shepton journey developed into 
a more luxurious affair than in Abbot Snow's description. Oysters, 
turkey and sausages became the traditional fare. It speaks well 
for the Mendip air that the travellers were able to do justice to the 
banquet in the evening. The royal robes are now consigned to 
the stage wardrobe and still make a brave show. The King's 
throne, which was the gift of the late Lord Petre during his reign, 
is now the Abbot's throne when he pontificates. 

We always supposed that the use of the words " Gauds," to 
designate the larger beads of the rosary, had long passed out of 
use. A zealous person of the neighbourhood, to illustrate papist 
idolatry, adduced the fact that they call certain beads of the rosary 

Gregorians will shortly be made aware of the existence of a lay 
Committee to help on the building fund of the projected chancel. 
Sir Walter Smythe has kindly consented to take the management 
of it. Considerable progress was made with the cloister joining 
the south transept with the chapel of St. Benedict before the cold 
weather set in. Work for the present is confined to the masons' 

Our congratulations to Lieutenant Colonel Bligh Herbert (O.G.)« 
who was married to Mary, eldest daughter of Lord Acton, on 
October 21st. Also to Captain Douglas Capel Miers, of the 
Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders, on his marriage to Miss 
Daisy Christie on October 26th. We also congratulate G. Connolly 
and L. Jinks on their recent marriages. 

We give now full particulars of T. B. Fulton's marriage, which 
we referred to in our last number : — 

Fulton— WHYTE.— On the 16th July, 1901, at St. Mary's, Star 
of the Sea, Newcastle, N.S.W., by the Right Reverend James 
Murray, 'D.'D.^ Bishop of Maitland, assisted by the Rev. E. J. 
Gleeson, the Rev. J. J. Costelloe and the Rev. J. M. O'Fljmn, 
Thomas Benedict, late the King's own Scottish Borderers and 2nd 
West India Regiment, sixth and youngest son of the late Major- 
General John Jefferies Fulton, Madras Staff Corps, to Mary 




Margaret, eldest daughter of the late William Henry Whyte, 
H.M. Customs, Newcastle, N.S.W. (Special Papal Blessing). 

By an oversight Lieutenant-Colonel Herbert's name was omitted 
in the list published last year of Old Gregorians at the front. He 
was with the 17th Lancers, we understand. 

We are greatly indebted to Mr. Arthur Blakiston for his mag- 
nificent gift of books. The collection consists of about 400 
volumes, many exquisitely bound and several copies of sumptuous 
editions ; the most notable being a first edition of '* Paradise 
Lost " and a fine copy of the Amsterdam Virgil. Dom Antony 
Bulbeck has made a valuable addition to our books on ancient 
chronology, besides adding considerably to the library fund. Our 
thanks are due to the Abbot-President for some historical books, 
and to Mr. Douglas Webster for not a few art books, tastefully 

For the admirable drawing of the exterior of St. Benet's Minster, 
Beccles, we are indebted to the clever pen of Mr. Witcombe. The 
photograph of the choir, which forms the frontispiece, is by Father 
Anthony Cox. It was taken in July last. The following is an 
explanation of the group : — 

Beginning at the tap lefi-hand comer: — ^J. C. Taylor, C. Baker, 
T. Ryan, C. TurnbuU, Brother Thomas Herbert, Father Walter 
Mackey, C. Roper, R. English, E. Maccabe, Father Anthony Cox, 
In the secoTtd row from the left: — H. Kynaston, Father Prior 
Almond, Mr. R. R. Terry (choirmaster)^ P. von Schubert and C. 
Blount. The third row : — R. Lescher, P. Telfener, L Tumbull, 
A* Fitzgerald, F. Blount, Viscount Campden, H. Daly, R. Petre 
and F. Home. On the lowest step from the left : — F. Denman, P. 
Brookfield, C. Stonor, Hon. R. Noel, C. Ferrers, M. Healy, C. 
Duchemin, F. Gould and M. Gregory. 

We gratefully acknowledge the receipt of the following ex- 
changes \—The Abbey Student (Achison, U.S.A.), The Ampleforth 
foumal, The Beaumont Review^ Bulletin de S. Martin et de S. 
BemAt (2), The Douai Magazine^ The Edmundian (with a supple- 
ment), The Month (6), The Mount Angel Magazine (6), The 
Oratory School Magazine^ The Oscotian (2), The Revue Binddictine, 
The Stonyhurst Magazine (2), Studien Mittheilungen^ The Ushaw 

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Gilbert Measures (O.G.) asks the prayers of Gregorians for his 
mother, MARY CLARA MEASURES, who died on September Uth, 
1901, strengthened with the Holy Sacraments, aged 52. 

Pray for the soul of CHARLES LE BOULANGER, a former 
student of St. Gregory's, who died at Wath-upon-Deame on 
October 17th, aged 28, after a long illness, having received the 
Sacraments of Holy Church. He came to school at Downside 
in June, 1S85. 

All Saints, O.S.B. (Nov. 13th), there passed away, suddenly, oae 
of the oldest members of St. Gregory's, the Rev. H. Bernard 
Bulbeck. The echoes of the solemn dirge at Downside could 
scarcely have died away when good Father Bernard passed through 
the gates of death, at the Benedictine Convent of Princethorpe. 

Father Bernard was the third and youngest son of Mr. Bulbeck, 
of Havant, Hampshire^ who brought his second and third sons, 
William and Henry, to Downside, August 6th, 1835 ; so that it is 
more than sixty-six years since Father Bernard was first connected 
with Downside ; and he always attributed his vocation to a slight 
incident that occurred on the first or second day of his arrival. 
He then remained at Downside for four years, till July, 1839, 
when his father wished to prepare him for some profession in the 
world. He therefore removed him from Downside, and tried to 
divert his attention to other channels. For ten long years Dom 
Bernard, in obedience to his father's wishes, conscientiously fought 
against his own inclinations. But having come to man's estate, 
he left home to visit some friends in London, and then returned 
to Downside, December 20th, 1849, and offered himself as a 



Obituary. 343 

postulant for the Habit. He became a novice October 14th| 
1850; was professed April 2nd, 1852; and was ordained priest 
April 9th, 1859, ''in our own chapel/' by Dr. Clifford, bishop of 
Clifton. At his last visit to Downside, a short time agfo, being 
quite an invalid, he visited the old college chapel (now and for 
some time past used as a museum) ; and kneeling down in the 
old sanctuary where he had made his first communion, had con« 
secrated himself to the love and service of God by the vows of 
religion, and had received the priesthood, he recalled the graces 
which he had there received, and renewed the offering of himself 
to God. 

The interruption of Father Bernard's college course, and his 
training in the world, had rendered him most suitable for the 
domestic offices, and he was employed as Depositarian or Ac- 
countant, and Cellararius or Procurator under two Priors, in the 
fifties and sixties of last century, and on account of his health, 
which failed on several occasions, he was placed for short periods 
on several of our small missions. For twenty years — from 1871 till 
April 29th, 1891 — he was at Great Malvern, and during that period 
he established the mission at North Malvern, building a small 
church dedicated to St. Joseph, which with sacristy, presbytery and 
small school, was opened in November 1876. He also secured a 
good sum of money towards building a large church in Great 
Malvern. He was at Bonham near Stourton, in Wiltshire, on 
two different occasions, at one time for more than five years, 
and he spent lai^e sums of money on the ancient Chapel and 
Presb3rtery there. 

From an early period of his life. Father Bernard suffered from 
a physical weakness which there is every reason to suppose was 
primarily caused by that mental conflict, which he endured for 
so many years, between obeying his father's wishes and comply- 
ing with what he felt to be the call of God. During the latter 
part of his life, this infirmity became much increased. To add to 
his discomfort, the country round Malvern and Bonham was 
very hilly. 

Father Bernard finally left Bonham in 1892 and returned to Down- 
side, hoping there to end his days. But his quiet and genial disposi- 
tion seemed to render him the most fitting to be the first to take 
possession of the mission which was offered to us at Ealing (1897). 
Both health and spirit failing, he left Ealing and became chaplain 
(Jan. 1900) to a small community of nuns who,with the Bishop's sanc- 
tion, bought a house at Alton, in Hampshire, and wished to start a 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


mission. But as, after the death of the Bishop, the attempt had 
to be abandoned, Father Bernard accepted the offer of a retreat 
during the winter months made to him by the Benedictine nuns 
of Princethorpe, near Rugby, and there he closed his quiet, 
uneventful, but holy and thoroughly religious career on the great 
Feast of his Order, and we trust is now in possession of the reward 
that is promised to those who leave all things in this world for 
God's sake. In addition to the Masses that were offered for him 
by all the members of the English Benedictine Congregation, in 
obedience to their constitutions, at Downside, he had the benefit 
of what is known as the Trental of St Gregory ; that is. Mass was 
offered for him for thirty days in succession, by his brethren there. 

Dom Bernard Bulbeck, monk of St Gregory's Abbey, Downside, 
died in the Benedictine Convent of the Angels, Princethorpe, 
on Nov. 13th, 1901, in the 76th year of his age ; the 52nd of his 
religious profession ; and the 43rd of his priesthood. 

The funeral took place on the following Tuesday, Nov. 19th, 
in the cemetery of the little Catholic church at Wappenbury, a 
small village about two miles from Princethorpe, and was attended 
by the Abbot of Downside, and by Fr, Wilfrid Corney and Fr, 
Vincent Corney, of Ealing, his nephews, and both Downside 
monks. Other members of his family were also present. 

This imperfect notice of good Father Bernard cannot be more 
appropriately closed than by quoting a correct description of his 
mental qualifications given in The Tablet^ by one who we believe 
owes his vocation to the priesthood to Father Bernard, and who now 
fills an important office in the leading ecclesiastical seminary of 
England. He says, writing of the establishment of St Joseph's 
Church at North Malvern : — " The work declares the man ; and 
the little church reveals to us, as few other things would do, what 
Father Bernard really was. He was not a man who could take a 
great task on his shoulders and carry it successfully out : he was 
not distinguished as a thinker or a preacher : he was not great in 
any sense in the eyes of the world. But he did what many of the 
great ones of the world fail to do — he won the love and reverence 
of all with whom he came in contact, by his gentleness, his simple 
sincerity, his overflowing generosity. Kind, gentle, unassuming, 
humble, sincere, — these are not the attributes of the great ones of 
the world ; but they are the marks of the little ones of Christ." 
In proof of the correctness of the above description and estimate 
of the inward character of Father Bernard, it happened to him so 
frequently as to be almost an ordinary occurrence, to be addressed 



Obituary. 345 

by absolute strangers, and asked for his advice in family or other 

Pax et lux istefTUB sint Hbiy Fraier carissime. 

J. A. M. 

We ask charitable prayers also for AGNES MARY MARGARET 
FREAME, of Gillingham, Dorset, who died in her 80th year, on 
November 25th, strengthened with the Rites of the Church. 

The following account of the career of the late SIR JOHN 
Talbot Power, Bart., appeared in the Standard of December 
7th. He came to the School on August 31st, 1859. We beg 
prayers for his soul. '' Sir John Talbot Power, of Edermine, 
county Wexford, died on Wednesday, December 4th, at the age 
of fifty-six. He was M.P. for county Wexford from 1868 to 1874, 
and in 1877 succeeded his father as third Baronet The deceased, 
who was a Justice of the Peace and Deputy Lieutenant for Wexford, 
and served the office of High Sheriff in 1880, married, in 1876, 
Frances Emma, daughter of Captain Henry Segrave, of Kiltymon. 
He is succeeded by his son, James Douglas, bom in 1884" (now at 
Downside School). 

One of the oldest sons of St. Gregory's has passed away in the 
person of BERNARD VaUGH AN, of Plymouth, who died on December 
7th, at the age of 80. He came to Downside on August 2nd, 1832. A 
friend writes : " He passed away most peacefully, after a long and 
most edifying life. Not many hours before he breathed his last, 
he expressed his desire that prayers might be offered for him at 
Downside. He always came in to serve Mass when we had the 
happiness of having a priest staying with us who could offer up 
the holy Mass in the little oratory in this house ; and his constant 
efforts to assist at the parochial daily Mass, notwithstanding his 
declining strength, have been an edification to all the Congre- 


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FON llff| ODKRN . I^RINTINO . gnmmm. mi tmy*^ 

AT ^floOKRATK 1 nxCMM. . . ?fSrSSSii?aSi**" 

The Mendip Press^ Limited, 


Priatenof Th* D$miuUt K*vitw, and ThtRmutm (the Dowiuide Sdiool Macmani*^ 

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The Downside Review is published three tinier 
a year : viz., March 25, July 20 and December 18. 

Copies of Numbers of which twenty or less remain in 
stock, will be sold only with the volume to which they 
belong : viz., July, 1880; January, 1883 ; January, 1888; 
January, 1889 ; July, 1889. 

Copies of Numbers of which ten or less remain in 
stock will be sold only with complete sets of the Review: 
viz., July, 1881 ; January, 1882 ; July, 1887. 

The Review may be obtained from the Honorary Sec- 
retary of St. Gregory's Society. 

The Subscription is due on the first of January of 
each year. 

Terms of Subscription and all particulars on applica- 
tion to the Honorary Secretary, 

The Rev. Walter Mackey, 
RBV i Q P Q 6i liAHODALD, O.O.Di , 

Downside Abbey, Bath, 

to whom also notice of change of address 
should be given. 

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Prine Rsh, '* Live Fish," Direct frpM Catdiers to CoaswMn. 

IVifw yo w «o Htr Haicaty's lIUllarT Fofeta. 

If you require Good Pish 

— tiM test the tea produoet — from Our Own Vessels, direct from 
the North Sea, at Lowest Possible Prices, send to 

W. M. Staples & Son. 

If you require a nice variety, prompt attention, and punctuality 
in its delivery, send to 

W. M. Staples & Son, 

who are now supplying Good Wholesome Fresh Fish, dressed 
ready for cooking, carriage paid, and despatched by Express Fish 
Trains, and guarantee to deliver same to your door a few hours 
after receipt of order. You will find our prices fully 30 per cent, 
less, and the quality infinitely better, than that of a retail shop, 
where the Fish is frequently watered, and kept back from day to 
day owing to the unrapid sale &c. The public has long endured 
the deterioration of the quality of the Fish ; whilst we deal Direct 
with the public without the Fish passing through any second 
person's hands. 

Baskets of Assorted Pish as under : 

At «/.; 2/6; S/-; S/6; 
20 Iba. and 2 doa. Oyatars, S/- 
ssais.attitf.psrimi 7sais.attid.psrlb.| isd lis. at M. psrim 

Larger quantities at special rates. 

BMt Smoicad Haddooka, f at lowaat 
Baat KIppara and Bloatora 1 markat priaaa. 

Prime Fish and all kinds of Shell Fish at Merchants' Lowest 
Wholesale Prices. 

Private Families, Schools, Colleges, Convents, &c., supplied 
on best terms. Satisfaction guaranteed, to ensure repeat orders 
and recommendations. Terms : Monthly or Quarterly. 


V4o/em/e fish, Jce an^ Cifsfer jHferciiants, fisii CumrM 4c., 


Tetapam.: " W. SUples, Pontoon. Grimsby.** 
R..b.^ : Uncoln a L4ns«j Banking Co. 

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John Wisden & Qo., 

"•"•**-~" Cricket, Football, 

•fid Exporters ©f — — ^— — — -— — ^ 

Golf, Lawn Tennis, 

ts- — ^^ 

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♦ ♦ 



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17, 18, Great flewport Street, 
21, Cranbourn Street, 



The Scholastic ^^n'nir 
Trading Co., Ltd., ~^ 

Bridge Street and High Street, 


This C<mipany keeps a very large Stock of 

School Mateiialt 

and School Managers and School Masters are requested to compare the 
quality and price with other material in the market 

The following Catalogues will be sent post free on application to "The 
Manager": — 

5cliool Book Catafofae* Drawing Material Catalogue, 

Stationery Catalogue* Kindergarten Catalogue, 

Illustrated Furniture Catalogue. 

•tatienenr Motoiy I ST. mmy-le-poit ONiidiYAaB, MUtreL. 

PurnttMreMotonrt Itfi NPIPOmDUUiD MADi MtttTOL. 

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Episcopal Robe Makers, 
Clerical Tailors^ 
**- Hatters, and Purnishers. 

BL BL ft Co. have the lioaoitr ol bting patfonlacd by a buge 
ttitmbcr ol the Hknichy, and arc oompUmcntcd lor General 
Rwcellence in the pr o ducti on of thcbr Garments* 

Birettas, Cappa Magnas, ^ll the 

Mitres, Caaaooks, Fariolas, correct colours 

RoohaU, Ck>ttaa, Moiattaa, ftc, ftc. ^^^^^ ^ stock. 

PRIESTS* CASSOCKS .... from 21/- 

H n with Cape and Oversleeves - „ 85/- 

H TROUSBRIHOS (Specialities) - ,, 16/8 

H COI^LARS, all sizes, Linen or Celluloid, 5/- per dos. 

tt STOCKS, from 1/- ; BIRBTTA8 - from 2/- 

tt SHIRTS, White Soft Fronts - - „ S/6 

„ SHIRTS, Unshrinkable Tweeds - - 5/11 to 7/6 

n HATS, Hard or Soft Felt - - 5/6 to 7/6 

UMBRBLLIS, 12 months' guarantee - - - 10/- 

Wool and Merino UH DBRWBAR of every description. 

URDER YBST8 and PANTS - from 2/6 to 10/6 each. 


with or without Velvet Collar - - / " ^'^ 

Alba^ Altar Unen, Bannera, ^ biaterial 
Chaanblaa, Ckipea, Oanopiea, for 

Chnreh Silka, Dalmatica, f church work 
Fringea, Humeral Veila. ^ variety. 

RITUAL STOLES irom S/Bt PREACHING dittos 12/a; 

PREACHING dittos Richly Embroidered, ffom 21/- 

27 Basnett Street, Liverpool. 

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156 Strand, LONDON, W.C. 

>(abits, >(ats> Surpliecs, 
J<oods, Stoics, gowns , 
and Cassoeks. .... . . 

Tailors (n^JSLmt) to Downside College, Bath. 

A RESIDENT REPRBSBN. and Eccldastiol E«*b- 

TATIVB FOR CAHCASHIRB Ushnieiit. thfoogbottt Engbnd and 

* YORKSHIRE DISTRICT. '^'^ ^*««' !«'»«*«"▼• 

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Prices for BindiAg ^^^^ aUiUmmmm^ LHtani, HBpmrwmL 

^'QK DMWSidC K(Vi(IP''l limit Mimc^Bmm^B " 3f6 [] 

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(UHMi IV B- B- Tuunr.) 

N,B,^Bmka L //. ^ ///. art md ^fprnU. Ud wOl h§ r»H$am€d ak^rify (gd, mcA.> 


(Priet gd, net,) 

I. Chrktos fiMtut Mt (4 voicm) - Anerio. 

a. Civitas Muicti tui f 5 vokw) • Bjrrd. 

3. AvaVarumU^oicM) * Ca ri— i mi . 

4. VaniCfMtorUvoicM) Tftlfis. 

5. Bom Pastor U^'oicm)- • TsIIm. 

6. SiAiiibiilem(4Tokw)- Tye. 
y. Sahrator If oadi (s voicm) Palettriaa. 


( Price 9d.u€i.) 

I. O sacmiB ooovivtum (5 voieet) • Talfia. 

s. O arnica mea (5 vokaa) - • Morlcy. 

3. Adorenus (4 voicm) - Alleirri. 

4. Lauda Sioa (4 vdiom) • Calanora. 

5. Adoramus te Christe (4 vdiom) di 1 


(Price gd, net,) 
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a. Tu M Patnas (6 toiom) • 

3. SaoerdotM Doamii (4 vofee^ 

4. Bsaudi aoa Doodae (4 vokaa) 

5. Bone Pastor (4 vdiom) • 

Robt. Panona. 
• Bjrrd. 

- Balava. 

Benedlctns and ehiistns Pactns Bst 

(Pm* Holy Weak), Ha 

■laatf oa tiMir (Dowulda) tnUUtional Molodiaa, jd. 

Responses for Mass and Benediction, on Card, 2d. 

Tha wtx Books, with the Benedichu aod Reapomaee^ wiO be sent >af<>«r, for If 

Tha above ars of uniform dze, namely io| by 7I inches, aod may be obtained from die 
Rev. BowARD Grun. O.S.B.. Downside Abbey. Bath. 


flPusic Xitbofltapbers, 

27 Penchurch St., London, e.c. 

(Printers of the Downside Motets,) 





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IMjr BM*. N^mlmtm 7>^ BMmm, wkh Annotatio— . RafarwcM. > Hktorical •. d. 

aad Chffwwlockal lads. Biflit Colourad Mus and Panuhr R«c»ter. Oodi. 4a< 3 5 

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By tha Rbv. Caaatw Cox. O.lf.1.. au&or of '* Ratraat CottfiBrencesT ate is^ 10 

wWMlMalfM'tkaMaaftkaLiitty. Abrklirad 1901 adkion of the Conplote 

IfissaL Contataanff all tha New Msssas and Appendioea for Bagland. Ireland. 

Psnsdictins. Jaauit, Senrita, and other Relyioua Oniers, and a Collection of Prayers. 

iftoMK Siaa, si ^ 3l ancfaes. Cloth, red edfea, sa. 6d.- ^ • a a 

Son moroooOt red or gilt (~ ' ' 

ueeoftha Lail 

edition n mj iUt t, contauuiw aU tha new 

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_ and A p p endi ce s fer E n g l and. 

Ireland. B e n edi ctine. Jesuit, Senrita and other Bah'gioui ocders, and a c ollec t ion of 

MlMfll. adapted to the uee of the Lai^. In Latfai and Engfish. New 1901 
'* ' " "^ oaw tissees j * * ..*».- 

Pi ay a , with aartra suppltmsnt fer weeb< lay t 

Soft If < 

[orocoo,5s. -40 

dRoan,6a.6d. - 5 3 

Calf or Morocco. 8s. 6d. - - « t 

and at 7s. lod., 8s. jL, 9a. 4d.. 13s. 4d.. 14s. 4d., 15s. 4d., and 18s. jd. 

Tka BaMrty •! Clirlatim Pif, by tha Rxv.Jvim Souan, 0.S.B., Cloth, 5s. 4 ■ 
Plato S a i M W of tha P wn da m a nt al Truths of the Catholic Church. NewandBamed 

Edition. By tha Rbv. R. D. Browiib. Cloth, 6e. • - 4 !• 

Bsckartotk CaaJawcas preached in Lent, i8B«. by the Rbv. Pr. MoMSABUt, O.P. 

TransUtad from tha Prsncfa by Cowtesec Bfary Jeniaoii. Cloth, js. 6d. - - 3 • 

It at T. WA5HB0URNE, Paternoster Row, LONDON, E.C. 



Workers In all Metals, 
Bronze Founders, 
Electric LIgrht FIttlngrs, 

PROME, Somerset 

Londoo Address : Bfflnfhaiii Houae, Aroodel 5t.« Strand, W.C 
Telegraphic Address: ** Singers, Prone.** ** Metallllactare, London.** 
Telephone, London, «*No. 1874* Oerrard.'* Prome, «*No. lo.** 

T^MHm^miMi trtm Um Right Rtr. Of Akk^i ml Dowmti^t 
"I shall be very pleased to recommend the Frome Metal Works wherever 
I can. AU the work you have done for us has given universal satisfaction.' 



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